Balochistan-Bolan

Introduction

Bolan district was a part of the Kachhi district (which was bifurcated into two districts: Jhal Magsi and Bolan in 1991) and included areas of the present day Bolan/Kachhi district. It is located between 28° 41Ꞌ to 29° 28Ꞌ north latitudes and 67° 09Ꞌ to 68° 31Ꞌ east longitudes. It is bounded on the north and northwest by Mastung district, on the northeast by Sibi and Kohlu districts, on the east by Dera Bugti district, on the south by Nasirabad and Jhal Magsi districts, and on the west by Khuzdar and Kalat districts. The Bolan district was renamed Kachhi district in 2008.

District at a Glance

Name of District Bolan/Kachhi District
Headquarters Dhadar Town
Population[1] 310,649 persons
Area[2] 5,682 km2
Population Density[3] 54.7 persons/ km2
Growth Rate[4] 0.9%
Male Population[5] 53.3%
Female Population[6] 46.7%
Urban Population[7] 14.5%
Tehsils/ Talukas

04 Tehsils:

  1. Bhag Tehsil
  2. Dhadar Tehsil
  3. Mach Tehsil
  4. Sanni Tehsil
Main Towns Dhadar, Mach, Bhag, Bolan Pass, Pir Ghaib, Mithri, Balpat, Sanni, Bibi Nani, and Kirta
Literacy Rate[8] 43%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 59%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 23%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing 72.2%
Community, Social and Personal Services 13.1%
Construction 9.1%
Whole Sale, Retail Trade & Hotel/Restaurant 2.7%
Transport, Storage & Communication 1.6%
Manufacturing 0.5%
Others 0.8%
Main Crops Wheat, rice, jowar, barley, rapeseed, mustard & canola, rice, moong, moath, cotton, sesanum, and fodder
Major Fruits Mangoes, citrus, guava, dates, watermelon, musk melon, and ber
Major Vegetables Chilies, onions, peas, tomatoes, okra, tinda, radish, spinach, turnip, cabbage, carrots, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, cauliflower, brinjal, and coriander
Forests (Area)[12] 135 HA[13]
Black Topped Roads[14] 960 Km
Shingle Roads[15] 280 Km
Electricity[16] Supplied by Quetta Electricity Supply Company (QESCO)
Telephone Exchanges[17] 02 Telephone exchanges with 391 landline, 761 wireless phone and 290 broadband connections.
Industrial Zones[18] There are no Industrial Estates or Zones and no Manufacturing Industry
Major Industry[19] Handicrafts which include the manufacture of small arms/armaments, and embroidery on textiles, as well as the manufacture of small leather goods like belts and other household items.
Household Size[20] 7.3 persons per house
Houses (Piped Water Inside)[21] 24.8%
Houses with Electricity[22] 49.8%

Table 1.1 Kachhi District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census (after deducting area of Lehri Tehsil now part of Sibi district)

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[12] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics report zero area under forests

[14] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Census of Manufacturing Industries, 2005-06 (Latest available)

[19] Census of Manufacturing Industries, 2005-06 (Latest available)

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistorical/ Heritage Sites and Tourism/ Picnic Spots

Brief History of the District

At the time of Partition of India in 1947, Kachhi district (part of the Kachhi Plains of Balochistan) was the eastern-most division of the Kalat State. At that time, Kachhi district included the Tehsils of Bhag (now Sibi district), Lehri or Lahri (now Sibi district), Dhadar (now capital of Kachhi/Bolan district), Gandahwa (now part of Jhal Magsi district), Jhal Magsi, Temple Dera Chattar (original name of Nasirabad district) and Mirpur Tehsil (now part of Jhal Magsi district). At that time, Kachhi district was divided into two parts: areas under the jurisdiction of the Khan of Kalat and those under Tribal Chiefs.

The entire Kachhi area with its capital at Dhadar was separated from Kalat State in 1965, with Tehsils as named above. In 1975 Nasirabad (Temple Dera Chattar) was declared a separate district, and then in 1992 Kachhi district was bifurcated into two: Bolan and Jhal Magsi. Other administrative changes were made in the following years, and in January 2003, Bolan district was formed with its present day areas. In 2008, the name of Bolan district was changed to Kachhi district, which is a derivation of the word Kach meaning plains.

The historic Bolan Pass is located near Dhadar, the district’s capital. This is an 85 km long Pass on the Toba Kakar Range of mountains extending from Kolpur (101 km from Sibi, Mach Tehsil)—the highest place in Kachhi district with an altitude of 2,200 m above sea level—to Rindli (also spelled Rind Ali) near Dhadar. For centuries, the Bolan Pass has been the route along which traders, invaders, and nomad hordes traveled between India and Central Asia. The Pass is also historically significant because it was used as the gateway to the subcontinent by most of the immigrants from Central Asia. Traditionally, the Brahuis (a Baluchi ethnic group) are in charge of policing the Pass Area. This tribe continues to inhabit the areas in present day Balochistan in Pakistan, and have preserved their Dravidian language.

The history of the area dates back to pre-historic times, verified by the archeological site of Mehrgarh discovered by an archeological team directed by archeologists Jean-Francois Jarrige and Catherine Jarrige in 1974. This site was excavated continuously from 1974 to 1986 and then again from 1997 to 2000. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh, in the northeast corner of the 2 km2 (495 acre) site, was a small farming village that has been dated to between 7000 BC and 5500 BC.[1]

During the Sassanian Period,[2] the area now belonging to the Kachhi Plains was part of the Sassanid Empire (224 AD to 651 AD) as a province.[3] This area was conquered by the Arabs during the Caliphate of Hazrat Omar in 644 AD. To the Arabs, the country was known as Nudha or Budha. It was re-conquered by Rai Chach of the Rai Dynasty during the middle of the 7th century. In the 8th century, the area was invaded by Mohammad Bin Qasim, the 16 year old son-in-law of Hajjaj Bin Yousaf of the Omayyad Caliphate; he conquered all of Balochistan and Sindh including the Kachhi Plains. The Arabs’ power lasted in the area till about the end of the 10th century.

After the decline of Arab power, the history of the area becomes obscure and seems to follow the historical vicissitudes of Sindh, thereby passing to the Ghaznavids in 1025 AD. On the downfall of the Ghaznavids and rise of the Ghorid dynasty, a tribe named Soomra declared its independence in 1054 and secured the governance of the Kachhi area. The Soomras were succeeded by the Sammas in 1351. They reigned till 1521 and it was during their reign, specifically during Jam Tughlaq’s reign (1423-1450 AD) that Baloch first appeared in the area.

During the 15th century, the Baloch extended their power to Kalat, Kachhi, and the Punjab. Mir Chakar Khan Rind, in fact, ruled Kacchi peacefully for 30 years after which hostilities arose between him and Gwahram Lashari. Both Lashari and Rind were competing over a Jat woman named Gohar, and a series of wars waged between them for 30 years. These wars are celebrated in Baloch verse. In these wars, a prominent part was played by Mir Zunnun Beg Arghun, who was the governor of northeastern Balochistan under Sultan Husain Mirza of Herat in about 1470.[4] After the wars, Mir Chakar Khan Rind, with most of his followers, left Sibi and went to Punjab, while the Lasharis remained in the Kachhi area. The area passed from the Arghuns to the Mughals and from them to the Kalhoras of Sindh.

During the declining years of the Mughal Empire, the Ahmadzai Chiefs of Kalat found themselves freed from external interference. Mir Abdullah (1715-16 to 1730-31), a contemporary of Nur Muhammad Kalhora, and the Ahmadzai Chief of Kalat, invaded the Kachhi area, and conquered it.

In 1739, Nadir Shah (of Persia) invaded India and occupied Delhi. In a treaty between Muhammad Shah (the then Mughal Emperor) and Nadir Shah the greater parts of Sindh including the Kachhi areas were ceded to Nadir Shah. In 1740 the Kachhi areas were handed over to the Brahuis (also spelled Brahvis) in compensation for the death of Mir Abdullah, the Ahmadzai Khan of Kalat. After the death of Nadir Shah in 1747, Sindh and Kalat became a tributary to Ahmad Shah Abdali/ Durrani. During his rule, the Kalat areas including Kachhi were ruled by Nasir Khan I and, after his death, by Mahmud Khan and Mehrab Khan. Their power in the region was weak, and the area faced depredations due to the persistent attacks of Baloch tribes from the hills.

During the First Afghan war in 1838, the British arrived in the area for the first time. They found Kachhi to be of prime importance as a communication line to their forces in Afghanistan, and thus they held, and administered, Kachhi from 1839-1842. The advancing British armies were continuously attacked by the Marris, Bugtis, Dombkis, and Jakranis, tribes that were living in Kacchi. Once the British armies had successfully passed through Kachhi, the Jagirs of the tribes were confiscated, and various expeditions were undertaken to subdue them. In 1839, Kalat was attacked, and Mehrab Khan, the then ruler of Kalat, was killed. The Kachhi areas were taken from Kalat and handed over to Shah Shuja of Afghanistan. In 1841 Kachhi was restored to the then Khan of Kalat, Mir Nasir Khan.

After the First Anglo-Afghan war, General John Jacob was employed to bring the tribes under British control and removed to Sindh. By the end of 1842, however, the British had retreated from Afghanistan, Balochistan, and Kachhi. In 1843 Sindh was annexed to the British Empire, and Kachhi became the refuge of all the tribes resisting this annexation. Sir Charles Napier launched a campaign against the tribes of Kachhi that were under the Dombki chief. After losing this war, Bijar Khan Dombki fled into the Bugti Hills.

In 1876, Sir Robert Sandeman concluded the agreement with Khan Khudadad Khan of Kalat and brought Kachhi under the political control of the British Empire. In 1883, Quetta Niabat (presently Quetta Tehsil) and Bolan Pass had been permanently leased by the British from Kalat State. In 1947 Kalat, along with the Kachhi area, became a part of Pakistan.

Governmental Structure 

At the Federal level, Kachhi/Bolan district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 2

Under the Local Government Act 2010, Amended in 2011, Kachhi/Bolan district has one District Council with 19 Union Councils. It has 2 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Dhadar
  • Mach

Each Union Council is represented by one member in the District Council. In addition, there is special representation of women (33%) and of workers and peasants (5% each).

Administrative Divisions 

Kachhi district covers an area of 7,499 km² and is subdivided into 4 Tehsils named after their major towns:

Bhag Tehsil 05 Union Councils
Dhadar Tehsil 08 Union Councils
Mach Tehsil 05 Union Councils
Sanni Tehsil 09 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Kachhi Administrative Divisions

Historical/ Heritage Sites and Tourism/ Picnic Spots 

The following historical/ heritage sites are protected under the Government of Pakistan/ Balochistan Laws:

  • Ruins at Mehrgarh
  • Pirak Mound, Village Kolachi, Kachhi
  • Pir Ghaib: This is a beautiful area, consisting of a waterfall which flows down from the hills into the date-palm trees to make a water pond
  • Khajoori, near Peer Ghaib: This is another scenic spot for a picnic
  • Shrine of Daloo Baba
  • Shrine of Pir Shabbir Shah at Bhag
  • Shrine of Pir Dupasi, Sikander Shah Baba, at Dhadar
  • Shrine of Pir Sufan Shah at Bhag
  • Shrine of Pir Izzat Shah at Mithri

In addition to the above mentioned sites, there are a number of other buildings and mausoleums/ shrines which have historical importance. These are:

  • Mach Central Jail, constructed in 1929
  • Mausoleum of Mir Jangi, Deputy of the Khan of Kalat in the 19th century
  • Khanqai-i-Shaheedan (tomb/ mausoleum) in Bhag
  • Maqbara Mustafa Khan (tomb) in Bhag
  • Shrine of Pir Ghaib
  • Bolan Pass

[1] This period is the Neolithic and ceramic (i.e. without the use of pottery) era.

[2] the last Iranian Empire before the rise of Islam

[3] “Balochistan, History, Geography and Ethnology” Encyclopedia Iranica

[4] District Gazetteer Sarawan, Kachhi, and Jhalawan

 

Topography

The district headquarters, Dhadar, of Kachhi district is situated near the bank of Bolan River. The district comprises of both plain and hilly areas. Mach Tehsil and the western parts of Sanni Tehsil are mostly hilly, while the remaining Tehsils—Dhadar, Bhag, and Eastern Sanni—are mostly plain areas.

The mountains are the offshoots of the Central Brahui and Kirthar Ranges. These two ranges form the boundary with Sindh province. Other hills include the Pab/Pub Range or Bannh Range. The hills vary in height from 300 to 1,200 meters. The mountain ranges along the Bolan Pass cover a distance of about 90 km from Kolpur in the north to Rindli on the south.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The major river in the district is the Bolan which rises near Kolpur in the north and flows underground till it appears above ground near Nari Bolan, and again disappears near Abigum; it then rises to the ground where it is finally joined by the Bibi Nari stream. The river branches into a number of channels all passing through the Kachhi district, in a north-to-south direction. Bibi Nari stream is subject to flash floods. Another intermittent stream of the district is the Kumbri.

There are a number of karezes in the district, some of which are Jhal Karez, Grang Karez, Shahaq Karez, Kahar Karez, Kuhni Karez, Katwar Karez, and Saina Karez.

Forests

There are no State forests in Kachhi district. There are some irrigated, privately-owned plantations in the district, which include Direnjin, Drazbent and Bamboo (all at Dhadar). Total area of forests is 135 A (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19).

Figure 1.3 IUCN GIS Map Bolan/ Kachhi District

Soils

The soil of the district is alluvial, while some parts of the district are non-sandy desert soils.

Climate

The climatic conditions of the district vary according to the topography. There is a great variation of temperatures between the hilly areas and the plains; for example, in Kolpur, which is situated on a high altitude, the winter temperature can fall to -17 °C in winter. In the rest of the district, the mean maximum and minimum temperature recorded in the month of January (the winter month) is about 23 °C and 6 °C respectively, which means that in the plain areas, the winter temperatures remain mild. Summer temperature in the plain areas can go up to 54 °C, whereas summers in the hilly areas are pleasant.

The hilly areas in Kachhi record mild temperatures in summer and severely cold in the winter. Because of the low altitude, however, the plain areas are extremely hot and humid in the summer. In winter, the climate in the plain areas remains pleasant. Day and night temperatures also vary substantially. Dust storms are common in the plain areas in the months of June, July, and August.

The summer season begins in April and lasts till October. June is the hottest month, with mean maximum and minimum temperatures of about 46 °C and 31 °C in the plains respectively. The winter season is from November to March with mean minimum and maximum temperatures being recorded at 23 °C and 6 °C.

The mean annual rainfall in the district is higher in the northern part compared to the southern. In the absence of a meteorological station in Kachhi district, the data of Sibi Station, which is very close to Dhadar, has been taken. This station records a mean annual rainfall of 150 mm in the district.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 3 of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan. This means there will be moderate to severe damage in case of an earthquake.

Population

The following table shows the population statistics of the district according to 2017 Census:

Tehsil/ Taluka

Area

Km2

Population Male % Female % Urban % Growth Rate %
Bolan District 5,682 310,649 53.3 46.7 14.5 0.91
Bhag Tehsil 1,308 73,619
Dhadar Tehsil 1378 86,060
Mach Tehsil 708 39,680
Khattan Tehsil 2,011 111,290

Table 1.3 Bolan/ Kachhi Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 98.2%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus 1.4%
Ahmadis Negligible %
Scheduled Castes 0.1%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.4 Bolan/ Kachhi Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.3%
Punjabi 0.9%
Sindhi 17.7%
Pushto 1%
Balochi 58%
Seraiki 16.9%
Others[3] 5.2%

Table 1.5 Bolan/ Kachhi Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[3] Includes Brahui etc.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The main industrial occupations of Kachhi district include:

  • Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing (72.2%)
  • Community, Social and Personal Services (13.1%)
  • Construction (9.1%)
  • Wholesale, Retail, Trade & Hotel/Restaurant (2.7%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (1.6%)
  • Manufacturing (0.5%)
  • Others (0.8%)

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 568,200 HA Reported Area 324,707 HA
Total Cultivated Area 80,444 HA Net Sown 23,756 HA
Current Fallow 56,688 HA Total Uncultivated Area 244,263 HA
Culturable Waste 92,266 HA Forest Area – HA

Table 1.6 Bolan/ Kachhi Land Use Statistics

There is no government maintained forest in the district. There are a few privately-owned irrigated plantations in the district, which include Direnjin, Drazbent and Bamboo[1] (all at Dhadar).

[1] Bolan District Development Profile; 2011 by P&D Department, GoB

Agriculture

The district is included in the Suleiman Piedmont Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan; farming is mostly barani or rain-fed/torrent-fed based on subsistence level farming. The crops of the district are wheat, rice, jowar, barley, rapeseed, mustard & canola, rice, moong, moath, cotton, sesanum, and fodder.

The fruits grown in the district are mangoes, citrus, guava, dates, watermelon, musk melon, and ber.

The vegetable produce of the district includes chilies, onions, peas, tomatoes, okra, tinda, radish, spinach, turnip, cabbage, carrots, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, cauliflower, brinjal, and coriander.

Livestock

Livestock is an important sector of the district’s economy. It is the main source of income for nomadic families. The following table shows the livestock statistics for the district as cited in Livestock Census 2006 (qtd. in Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 151,736 Heads Buffaloes 4,151 Heads Sheep 124,569 Heads
Goats 766,109 Heads Camels 34,401 Heads Horses 4,915 Heads
Mules 149 Heads Asses 36,325 Heads

Table 1.7 Bolan/ Kachhi Livestock Statistics

The indigenous livestock breeds of the region are bhagnari cattle, berberi goat, Balochi sheep, and aseel chicken, as well as brahui camel, and jhatnasal or raidi breed of camels.

Poultry

No data is available on the number of poultry farms in the district.

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in the Nari River and the Bolan Weir area of the Bolan Dam. There are 4 fish species found in the district: rohu, thella, moraki, and black moli.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

Only wild honey is locally used in the district and bee keeping is not a commercial/economic activity, mainly due to the scanty flora of the region.

Irrigation

The district is mostly canal irrigated and is in the Monsoonal belt. The ancient karez system is still in use in the district. The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area being irrigated by the mode (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 41,020 HA Government Canals – HA
Private Canals 27,570 HA Wells – HA
Tube Wells 13,450 HA Karez/Spring/Others – HA

Table 1.9 Bolan/ Kachhi Irrigation Statistics

The Bolan Dam on River Bolan provides irrigation water to the district. Another dam, the Kumbri Delay Action Dam, is being constructed on River Kumbri which will help not only in irrigation but also in replenishing the aquifers. Kachhi canal, off-taking from Tuansa Barrage, also irrigates a large area of the district.

Minerals and Mining

Coal mining, stone crushing, and marble mining and cutting are important mining activities within the district.

Mineral resources of the district include sulphur, gypsum, and chromite.

Oil and gas is being explored in the Kachhi areas.

Industry

There are no industrial units or zones in the district.

Handicrafts

The main handicrafts of the district include embroidery on clothes and sandals, and shoe making, as well as embroidery on leather products. Other handicrafts include the manufacture of small arms and armaments.

Economic Infrastructure

Roads are the most important means of transport and form the backbone of the economy in Kachhi district. The district is also linked with other parts of Pakistan through Pakistan Railways but there is no direct air link.

Roads

According to the Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19, the road statistics of the district are as follows:

Total Roads 1,240.0 km
High Type Roads/ Black Topped 960.0 km
Low Type Roads/ Shingle 280.0 km

Table 1.8 Bolan/ Kachhi Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district include

  • National Highway N-65 passes through the district connecting it with Quetta and Sindh
  • Sibi Road
  • Bolan Pass

The district headquarters is linked with other Tehsil headquarters through shingle roads.

Rail and Airways

Main railway stations in Kachhi district are Kolpur, Mach, Abigum, Dhangar, Landsay, and Belpat (now called Baktiarabad, named after the father of Chakar Khan Domki, Baktiar Khan Domki). In total, there are 20 tunnels between Kolpur and Nari Bank stations.

The nearest airport, the Sibi Airport, is at Sibi.

Radio and Television

There is no radio or TV Station in the district, but TV can be viewed through cable. Radio is a major source of entertainment, especially in the rural areas.

Telecommunications

The district is connected to other parts of the country through telephone and telegraph. There are 02 telephone exchanges in Kachhi district which provide 391 landlines, 761 wireless phones, and 290 broadband connections in the district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19). Cellular phone companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 08 post offices in the entire district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19). Courier companies provide services in the district as well.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

According to the “List of reporting Bank Branches 2019” by State Bank of Pakistan,  following banks have their branches in the district:

  • United Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 06 branches of various banks in the District.

Energy Sources

Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) looks after the supply and transmission of electricity to the district. The district is connected to the national grid through transmission lines from Guddu Barrage.

Education

The following table shows the number of primary, middle, secondary, and mosque schools in the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 318/73 Middle Schools 21/14
High Schools 21/11 Community Schools 35
Higher Secondary 03/01 Degree Colleges 01/-
Universities Mosque Schools[1]
Vocational Training Schools

Table 1.10 Bolan/ Kachhi Educational Institutes

Health

The following table shows the Government Healthcare Institutions in the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./beds Institution No./beds
Teaching Hospitals Hospitals 02/121
Rural health Centers 11/98 Basic Health Units 11/-
Dispensaries 42/- Mother Child Health Centers 03/-
TB/Leprosy Clinics 01/- Private hospitals 1/36
Private Dispensaries 1/-

Table 1.11 Bolan/ Kachhi Health Institutions

Policing

There are two major channels of conflict resolution in the District. One is the government channel and the other one is private. The government channel works through judicial decisions made by Judicial Magistrates, Civil Judges, and a Session Judge in Sibi. There is a Qazi Court in Dhadar.

The larger portion of Kachhi district is bifurcated into an “A” and a “B” area. The “A” area, comprising towns and highways, has a police force. A typical police station has a radius of a maximum 8 km jurisdiction. A “B” area does not have a police force. All major policing issues in the “B” area are dealt with by levies.

A levy is a conventional force for maintaining law and order. Installed during British rule, levy members are recruited along tribal or clan lines. The levies fall under the direct command of the Deputy Commissioner (DC), with powers delegated to the assistant commissioners, tehsildars, etc. The levies in Kachhi district are classified as Sepoy, Hawaldar, Dafeedar, Jameedar, and Risaldar. Every district in Balochistan has its own levies, named after the district.

Recently, at the initiation of the DC administration, a new levy force has been recruited at the district level, known as the Task Force. This Task Force is better trained and equipped with advanced weapons.

Policing of Kachhi district is looked after by the Regional Police Officer (RPO) Naseerabad. The RPO is assisted by 3 SubDivisional Police Officers (SDPO) stationed at Mach, Bhag, and Dhadar. In all, there are 3 police stations[2] in the district.

Historically, the Jirga system has been in place as an effective traditional system of justice, which was practiced in Balochistan to settle legal cases and disputes. This system, in practice since British rule, was modified under the Special Provision Ordinance (Criminal Provisions 11) of 1968 and altogether abolished in 1991. However, the government at times still leaves conflict resolution with a Jirga (comprising of notables from multiple tribes), giving the decision a legal status by confirming the Jirga’s verdict.

The private channel has, in many cases, proven to be more effective in conflict resolution than the government channel. There is a Mehr system where one of the parties in conflict can go the other party. Another private channel for conflict resolution is known as the Biradiri (Brotherhood) system, in which a few close family members, fellow tribesmen or notables from within or outside the family or tribe can mediate and settle disputes.

Figure 1.4 Mach Jail

Figure 1.5 Railway Station, Mach

Figure 1.6 Bridge at Mach

Figure 1.7 An Abandoned Road Tunnel & Railway Tunnel, Bolan Pass

Figure 1.8 A sketch of the British Army in the Bolan Pass, c1879

Figure 1.9 Bolan Pass, Aerial view

[1] included in primary schools

[2] 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District; 2019 by Federal Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan.

Environment and Biodiversity

The district is free from air pollution as there is very little traffic on roads and no established industry. Dust and a lack of a sanitation system continue to cause pollution. Potable water is a scarcity.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Trees grow throughout the district. The most commonly grown trees include eucalyptus, kikar, babul (Acacia sp.), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), ber (Zizyphus), sirin or siris (Albizia), neem (Azadrichta), mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), karir (Capparis aphylla), grass (Panicum antidotale), and camel thorn (Alhagae maurorum).

Fauna

Mammals of the district include jackals, foxes, wolves, hyenas, and rabbits. Mountain sheep and markhor are found in the Harboi Hills. Among the non-migratory bird species are grey, see-see, and chakor partridges. Migratory birds, visiting the area in winters from Central Asia, include the sand grouse, houbara bustard and ducks (in the Nari area and the Bolan Weir).

Protected Areas and Wildlife

There are no protected wildlife areas in the district.