Balochistan-Dera-Bugti

Introduction

Dera Bugti district is located between 68° 16Ꞌ to 69° 48Ꞌ east longitudes and 28° 28Ꞌ to 29° 40Ꞌ north latitudes. The district is bounded in the north by Kohlu Agency, in the south by Jacobabad district (Sindh), in the east by Dera Ghazi Khan and Rajanpur districts (Punjab), and in the west by Nasirabad and Bolan districts.

Dera means abode and since the Bugtis are the main tribe inhabiting the area, the district has been named Dera Bugti [the abode or the residence of the Bugtis].

District at a Glance

Name of District Dera Bugti Agency/District
District Headquarters Dera Bugti Town
Population[1] 312,603 persons
Area[2] 10,160 km2
Population Density[3] 30.4 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.9%
Male Population[5] 52.4%
Female Population[6] 47.6%
Urban Population[7] 31.8%
Tehsils/ Talukas 03 Tehsils:

  1. Dera Bugti Tehsil
  2. Sui Tehsil
  3. Phailawagh Tehsil
Main Towns Dera Bugti, Sui, Saddar, Phailawagh, Kalchas, Gulzar, Siahaf, Loti, and Kachi Kalat
Literacy Rate[8] 25%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 43%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 4%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing 57.1%
Elementary Occupation 25.7%
Plant & Machinery Operators And Assemblers 4.3%
Service Workers, Shop & Market Sales Workers 4.3%
Others 8.7%
Main Crops Bajra, gram, jowar, maash, moong, masoor, sugarcane, wheat, cotton, rapeseed, mustard, canola, sesanum, barley, maize, and rice
Major Fruits Citrus, mango, watermelon, and musk melon
Major Vegetables Chilies, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, peas, okra, tinda, radish, spinach, turnip, carrots, bitter gourd, pumpkin, brinjal, and luffa
Forests (Area)[12] – HA[13]
Black Topped Roads[14] 569 km
Shingle Roads[15] 602 km
Electricity[16] Supplied by Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO)
No. of Tel. Exchanges[17] 03 Telephone Exchanges with 803 landlines, nil wireless Phone connections, and 762 broadband connections
Industrial Zones[18] No Industries
Major Industry[19] Cottage industries producing carpets and handicrafts like slippers, embroidery with mirror work, and furniture
Household Size[20] 6.2 persons per house
Houses (Piped Water Inside)[21] 13.9%
Houses with Electricity[22] 15.7%

Table 1.1 Dera Bugti District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[12] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics also report zero area under forests.

[14] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Dera Bugti District Development Profile 2011 by GoB

[19] Dera Bugti District Development Profile 2011 by GoB

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been published yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been published yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been published yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistorical/ Heritage Sites and Tourism/ Picnic Spots

Brief History of the District

Dera Bugti is located at the southern foothills of the Suleiman Mountains, between the River Indus and the Kachhi Plains. Bughtis or Bugtis, the tribe after which the area has been named, are a loose conglomerate of various other sub-tribes/clans mainly of Rind[1] origin, with their headquarters at Syahaf or Siahaf (also called Dera Bibrak and Bughti Dera). The Bugtis are said to be descended from Gyandar, who was a cousin of Mir Chakar Khan Rind, a famous Baloch chieftain of the 15th century AD. At the time of Partition in 1947, Dera Bugti was a part of the Marri-Bugti Country; the Marris occupied 8,460 km2 of the region in the north, while the Bugtis occupied 10,000 km2 in its south. Currently, this region has been divided into 3 districts for administrative purposes: Kohlu, Dera Bugti, and Sibi. The Marris mostly live in the Kohlu district, whereas the Bugtis occupy the Dera Bugti district. Dera Bugti was a Tribal Agency and a part of the Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA) till it was made a district in July 1983.

The early history of Dera Bugti is recounted mostly as the history of the Bugti tribe. According to the Imperial Gazetteer Sibi District 1907, “they [the Bugtis] came from Bug in Persian Balochistan and consisted of a small nucleus which gradually gathered strength and expelled the Buledais from the country which they now occupy” (p. 285). It is believed that the Balochis entered Makran and settled in Buleda (a small town in Makran). At that time, the Baloch tribe comprised about 44 subclans, and Mir Jalal Khan was their chieftain (Sardar). Mir Jalal Khan, son of Mir Jiand the First, is said to have been the Grand Ruler of the Balochis. He has a prestigious position in Baloch oral history for being the ancestor of the more prominent Baloch tribes that include the Buledai, Rind, Lashari, Korai, Hooth or Hot, Jatoi, Marri, Bugti, Khosa, Leghari, Bozdar, Magsi, and Chandio.

Originally, the Dera Bugti region was largely an autonomous principality of the Khanate of Kalat (Kalat Princely State), but the tribe did not pay any revenue to Kalat, and maintained independence in their area of residence. The British wrested control from the Khan of Kalat in the early 1840s and the Marri-Bugti region became the staging ground for the Afghan-British wars.[2]

As described above, the Bugti tribe[3] is the descendant of Gyandar, the cousin of Mir Chakar Khan Rind, the epic hero of Baloch verses. Gyandar’s son, Raheja, is said to have given his name to the Raheja clan, which is a subclan of the Bugti tribe, and the ruling tribe of the region. Most of the Bugtis’ early history relates to wars or battles fought with their traditional foes, the Marris, who were a tribe occupying adjacent lands.

The Bugtis first fought the British in 1839, when a force under the command of Major Billamore was sent to subdue them, as the tribe had been consistently conducting guerilla warfare against British troops traveling through the region to gain access to Afghanistan. The Bugtis were defeated by the British, but only after putting up immense resistance, and suffering great losses; their Sardar (Chief) was captured and sent to Sindh. After Major Billamore was recalled by the British government (having subdued the tribes), the Bugtis continued their guerilla warfare against the remaining British troops, so in 1845, Sir Charles Napier undertook a military campaign to subdue them, conducting it from two sides, with one force operating from Uch (now in Punjab) as its headquarters and the other working from Phuleji (Nasirabad district, Balochistan). The line of retreat to the north for the Bugtis was blocked by the Marri tribe. Even though Sir Charles Napier was ultimately able to occupy the Dera, the victory was short-lived, since, as soon as the British force was removed, the Bugtis returned to their abode, to continue the resistance.

From 1845 to 1882 the history of the tribe is mainly an account of tribal warfare between various tribes. Another war was fought with the British by the Bugti tribe in 1867, but this time both the Marri and Bugti tribes fought together, recognizing the British as their common foe. The British forces that fought the war were the 5th Punjab Cavalry. They defeated the tribesmen who ended up losing more than 200 men in the war against the British forces.

In 1871, a conference was held in Mithankot (Punjab) during which the management of both the Marri and Bugti tribes was handed over to the Deputy Commissioner of Dera Ghazi Khan (Punjab). The tribal wars between the Marri and Bugti tribes continued, however, till 1882, when the management of the areas belonging to the Bugti tribe was handed to the Political Agent of Thal-Chotiali.[4] By 1890, this area had become a part of the British Empire. The Bugti territory was one of the last territories to be occupied by British Colonial rule. During the British rule, both the Marri and Bugti tribes remained under the control of the Political Agent in Thal-Chotiali (Sibi), with the Extra-Assistant Commissioner of the Sibi Subdivision in subordinate charge. The Chiefs of the tribes were semi-independent, with the British interfering only in intertribal disputes. They lived in what was called the Marri-Bugti Country, which is now divided into 3 districts: Sibi, Kohlu, and Dera Bugti.

Around the 1930s, Balochi nationalist parties emerged (centered in Kalat) to demand freedom from British rule.

Post-Independence

Dera Bugti was the southern part of Marri-Bugti Country situated in the southern end of the Suleiman Range.

The Dera Bugti Agency/District territory was administered as a part of Sibi district until 1974, when Sibi was reorganized to create Nasirabad district and the Kohlu Agency. Dera Bugti Agency was included in Kohlu Agency; it was detached in July 1983 to create what is now Dera Bugti district.

The chief of the Bugti tribe post-Partition was Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti, who was the son of Nawab Mehrab Khan Bugti and a grandson of Sir Shahbaz Khan Bugti. He was elected Member National Assembly in 1958 and served as Governor of Balochistan from February 1973 to January 1974. He was involved in struggles, at times armed ones, against the Pakistani government in Balochistan in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, as he wanted greater autonomy for Balochistan. He died in 2006 in an armed struggle with the Government of Pakistan.

Figure 1.3 Nawab Akbar Bugti

Government Structure

At the Federal level, Dera Bugti district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly[5] 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 1

Under the Local Government Act 2010, Amended in 2011, Dera Bugti district has 1 District Council with 14 Union Councils. It has 2 Municipal Committees: Dera Bugti and Sui.

Each Union Council is represented by 1 member in the District Council. In addition, there is special representation of women (33%) and of workers and peasants (5% each).

Administrative Divisions

Dera Bugti district covers an area of 10,160 km² and is subdivided into 3 tehsils named after their major towns:

Dera Bugti Tehsil 03 Union Councils
Phailawag Tehsil 05 Union Councils
Sui Tehsil 04 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Dera Bugti Adminitrative Units

[1] These are the descendants of Mir Chakar Khan Rind who was a Baloch Sardar (Chief)

[2] The Afghans and the British fought3 wars; the first was between 1839-42, the second around 1878-80, and the third lasted a couple of months in 1919.

[3] The following account of the history of Dera Bugti draws heavily from Imperial Gazetteer, Sibi District 1907

[4] Thal-Chotiali was part of Sibi at that time; in 1903 the name was changed to Sibi district.

[5] This seat is shared by Sibi, Dera Bugti, and Kohlu districts

Historical/ Heritage Sites and Tourism/ Picnic Spots

The fort of Nawab Mohammad Akbar Khan Bugti and the Sui Gas installations at Sui Town are the only historically important sites in the district.

The Marav Lake provides a good picnic spot.

Remains of one of the largest mammals that roamed the earth a few millennia ago were discovered by Sir Clive Cooper in 1910. In the 1990s, the eminent French paleontologist Jean-Loup Welcomme came to Balochistan in order to explore and catalogue the fossils of this mysterious creature. He followed the trail first laid by Cooper and discovered that Dera Bugti was the original location where the bones of the Baluchitherium had first been unearthed. Welcomme was sponsored by a project named “Mission Paleontologique Française au Balochistan” in association with the Pakistan Museum of Natural History, and received help from Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti, the chief of the Bugti tribe.

In 1997, Welcomme discovered the first finger of the Baluchitherium in a stony valley near Dera Bugti. After the first discovery, a large deposit of fossils was discovered in a concentrated area of 200 m2. Scientists also found traces of crocodile’s teeth on bones which suggest that the Baluchitherium was a common prey of crocodiles.

By 2003, the French team had carefully examined every major and minor bone and finally arranged them, building a composite skeleton of the Baluchitherium. The skeleton suggested that the giant creature was at least 5 m tall and weighed 20 tonnes, making it almost as massive as 3 large elephants. This skeleton is on display in the Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Islamabad.

Figure 1.8 Illustration of the Baluchitherium

Figure 1.9 Sui Road

Topography

The Dera Bugti district[1] is part of the lower highlands of Balochistan province and is located in the southern foothills of the Suleiman Mountains. The southern part of the district is included in the Kachhi Plain Areas of the province. The Bugti country is a hilly, barren, and inhospitable region.

The Bugti area (Dera Bugti district) at the southern end of the Suleiman Range consists of parallel ridges of hills which gradually descend from the Suleiman Plateau into the Kachhi Plain. The hills are intersected by numerous hill torrents and ravines, and are generally rugged and barren. There are some good pasture grounds and some valleys or plains. The principal hill ranges in the Dera Bugti district are Bambor (1,490 m high), Nafusk (1,145 m) and Danda Range which includes the Nafusk and Bambor Hills. These hill ranges separate the Bugti area from the Marri Area (Kohlu district). Other notable mountains are the Zen (1,106 m), the Mir Dost Zard Hills, the Khalandrani Range (1,069 m), Pir Koh (1,112 m) and the Giandari Hills (1,263 m).An important mountain pass in the Bugti area is the Taraki or Takri Pass, which was the stronghold of the Bugtis against the British when their country was invaded in 1845 by the force led by Sir Charles Napier. The principal plains and valleys in the Bugti region are the Sham, Siahaf, Marav, Chat, Siahtak, Patr, Loti, Lop, Tusso, Machro, Dashti-Goran, the Mat plain (south of Zen Range) and the Nilag (north of Siri). The Kachhi plain extends into the southern part of the district. This plain areas plain a is intersected by small seasonal streams.

Figure 1.4 Mountains in Dera Bugti Painted with Pakistani Flag

Figure 1.5 Road around Pir Koh Mountains

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

Even though there is no major river flowing through the district, a large number of hill torrents flow down the mountains and drain the district. These hill torrents ultimately join the River Nari in Harnai district. Some of the notable streams are Siahaf Rud, Shori, Gheran Rud/ Nala, Pathar Rud/ Nala, Takri or Taraki, Sheshi Nala, and Pathar Nala.

There is one lake in the district called Marav Lake.

Forests

There are no State forests in Dera Bugti district.

Figure 1.6 IUCN GIS Map Dera Bugti District

Soils

The district is characterized as a barren plain. The soil is not suitable for cultivation. The area available for cultivation comprises of alluvial soil, and depends on the availability of surface water as well as rainfall to become productive.

Climate

The Dera Bugti area is generally hot and dry during the summer, while in the winter it is cold and dry. Since there is no meteorological station in Dera Bugti, the temperature and rainfall statistics of Sibi district are being used for reference purposes. The data shows that the hottest month is June, when the mean maximum and minimum temperature ranges between 46 °C and 31 °C respectively, whereas the mean maximum and minimum temperatures during January, the coldest month, are 23 °C and 6 °C respectively.

Most of the summer rains are received in the months of July, August, and September, and the winter rains in February and March. The mean annual rainfall is 150 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 3 of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means moderate to severe damage due to earthquakes.

[1] This section contains data extracted from the District Gazetteer Series Sibi District by A. McConaghey,

Population

The following table shows the population of the district according to the 2017 Census:

Tehsil/ Taluka Area

km2

Population Male% Female % Urban % Growth Rate %
Dera Bugti District 10,160 312,603 52.4 47.6 31.8 2.9
Dera Bugti Tehsil[1] 58,757
Phelawag 115,896
Sui Tehsil 137,950

Table 1.3 Dera Bugti Population Statistics

Religions[2]

Muslims 98.9%
Christians Negligible %
Hindus 0.6%
Ahmadis Negligible %
Scheduled Castes 0.2%
Others 0.3%

Table 1.4 Dera Bugti Religions

Languages[3]

Urdu 0.4%
Punjabi 1.2%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 0.7%
Balochi 95.9%
Seraiki 1.1%
Others 0.6%

Table 1.5 Dera Bugti Languages

[1] Data for the area of the 3 tehsils is not available

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been published yet.

[3] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been published yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The discovery of natural gas deposits at Sui has brought new economic life to the area. The Zain-Koh Mountains near Sibi have major prospects of untapped natural gas deposits. The main economic occupations[1] of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing (57.1%)
  • Elementary Occupation (25.7%)
  • Plant & Machinery Operators And Assemblers (4.3%)
  • Service Workers, Shop & Market Sales Workers (4.3%)
  • Others (8.7%)

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been published yet.

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 101,6000 HA Reported Area 70,158 HA
Total Cultivated Area 30,158 HA Net Sown 27,131 HA
Current Fallow 3,027 HA Total Uncultivated Area 40,000  HA
Culturable Waste – HA Forest Area – HA

Table 1.6 Dera Bugti Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district is included in the Suleiman Piedmont Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan; farming is mostly barani or rain-fed/ torrent-fed based on subsistence level farming. The crops of the district are bajra, gram, jowar, maash, moong, masoor, sugarcane, wheat, cotton, rapeseed, mustard, canola, sesanum, barley, maize, and rice.

The fruits grown in the district are citrus, mango, watermelon, and musk melon.

The vegetable produce of the district includes chilies, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, peas, okra, tinda, radish, spinach, turnip, carrots, bitter gourd, pumpkin, brinjal, and luffa.

Livestock

Livestock is also a very important sector of the economy. It is the main source of income for nomadic families. The following table shows the position of the livestock population in the district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 144,860 Heads Buffaloes 6,795 Heads Sheep 506,095 Heads
Goats 775,361 Heads Camels 35,573 Heads Horses 11,812 Heads
Mules 64 Heads Asses 25,135 Heads

Table 1.7 Dera Bugti Livestock Statistics

The indigenous livestock breeds of the district are kohi camel, lohani cattle, shingari and piddie donkeys, Balochi horses, kakari, musakhaili, kajali and bibrik sheep, and Koh-i-Suleimani goats.

Poultry

No data is available on the number of poultry farms in the district but, according to the Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19, there are 185,429 poultry birds in the district.

Fishing

There is very little fishing activity in the district.

Bee Keeping

Only wild honey is locally used in the district and bee keeping is not a commercial/economic activity mainly due to scanty flora of the region.

Irrigation

The district belongs to Zone VII of the Agro-Ecological Zone Map of Balochistan which is mostly canal irrigated. Since a large number of hill torrents flow down the hills/mountains, spate irrigation, or the rod kohi irrigation system is also practiced. The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area being irrigated by the mode (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 22,783 HA Government Canals 3,212 HA
Private Canals – HA Wells 637 HA
Tube Wells 18,579 HA Karez/Spring/Others 355 HA

Table 1.9 Dera Bugti Irrigation Statistics

Kachhi Canal off-taking from Taunsa Barrage on River Indus helps irrigate a large area in the district.

Minerals and Mining

There are many gas fields in the district, but the 4 major gas fields are Sui Gas Field, Pir Koh Gas Field, Loti Gas Field and Uch Gas Field. Large reservoirs of natural gas are present in the Sui Tehsil of Dera Bugti, discovered in 1963, and are being used all over the country.

No other minerals are found in the district.

Industry

There are no industrial units in the district, but the Government of Balochistan has set up a Carpet Center.

Handicrafts

The main handicrafts of the district are embroidery on clothes and the manufacturing of sandals/shoes, as well as embroidery on leather. Carpet weaving is also a main handicraft of the district.

Economic Infrastructure

The district lacks economic infrastructure. Sui is the oldest and largest gas field of Pakistan, but except for the 3 black topped roads—Sui-Kashmore Road, Sibi-Dera Bugti Road, and Dera Bugti-Jampur Road—most of the other roads are shingle roads. There is no railway line in the district.

Roads

According to the Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19, the road statistics of the district are as follows:

Total Roads 1,171.0 km
High Type Roads/Black Topped 569.0 km
Low Type Roads/Shingle 602.0 km

Table 1.8 Dera Bugti Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district include

  • Sui-Kashmore Road
  • Pir Koh Road
  • Dera Bugti-Sibi Road
  • Dera Bugti-Kohlu Road

The district headquarters is linked with Tehsil headquarters through shingle roads.

Rail and Airways

There are no railway stations in the district, and the nearest railway stations are at Abigum and Mach (Bolan district), as well as at Nasirabad district, and Sibi district.

There is a commercial airport in Sui Town, Dera Bugti district, called Sui Airport.

Radio and Television

There is no radio or TV station in the district, but TV can be viewed through cable. Radio is a major source of entertainment, especially in the rural areas.

Telecommunications

The district is connected to other parts of the country through telephone and telegraph lines. There are 03 telephone exchanges in Dera Bugti district which provide 803 landline connections and 762 broadband connections (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19). Cellular phone companies provide their services in the district as well.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 02 post offices in the entire district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19), and courier companies provide services in the district as well.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

The following banks have their branches[1] in the district:

  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • Habib Bank Ltd.

In all there are 03 branches of these banks in the District.

Energy Sources

Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) looks after the supply and transmission of electricity to the district.

[1] List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, provided by the State Bank of Pakistan,

Education

The following table shows the number of primary, middle, secondary, and mosque schools in the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 238/52 Middle Schools 29/07
High Schools 21/04 Community Schools 10
Higher Secondary 01/01 Degree Colleges 01/-
Universities Mosque Schools[1]
Technical Training Schools 01 Private Schools[2] 01

Table 1.10 Dera Bugti Educational Institutes

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Dera Bugti district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./beds Institution No./beds
Private Hospitals 01/10 Hospitals 01/70
Rural Health Centers 03/30 Basic Health Units 30/-
Dispensaries 12/- Mother Child Health Centers 03/-
TB/Leprosy Clinics 01 Private Dispensaries -/-

Table 1.11 Dera Bugti Health Institutes

Policing

The larger part of Dera Bugti district is bifurcated into an “A” and a “B” area. The “A” area, comprising towns and highways, has a police force, with police stations that have a radius of a maximum of 8 km jurisdiction. A “B” area does not have a police force, and all major law and order situations in this area are dealt with by levies.

A levy is a conventional force for maintaining law and order. Installed during British rule, levy members are recruited along tribal or clan lines. The levies fall under the direct command of the Deputy Commissioner (DC), with powers delegated to assistant commissioners, and tehsildars. The levies in Dera Bugti district are classified as Sepoy, Hawaldar, Dafeedar, Jameedar, and Risaldar. Every district in Balochistan has its own levies, named after the district. Recently, at the initiation of the DC administration, a new levy force has been recruited on the district level, known as the Task Force. This Task Force is better trained and equipped with advanced weapons.

The policing of Dera Bugti district is looked after the Regional Police Officer (RPO) Sibi. The RPO is assisted by 2 SubDivisional Police Officers (SDPO) stationed at Sui and Dera Bugti. In all, there are 03[3] police stations in the District.

Figure 1.10 Putting together the fossils of Balochitherium

Figure 1.11 Camels in Dera Bugti

Figure 1.12 Sui Gas Pipeline from Dera Bugti

 

Figure 1.14 Peshbogi Sui to Dera Bugti Road

[1] included in primary schools

[2] Dera Bugti District Development Plan 2011, by Go Balochistan and UNICEF

[3] Table 19.7(a) Number of Police Stations by Division/Districts 2019, by Federal Bureau of Statistics.

 

 

 

 

Environment and Biodiversity

The district is free from air pollution as there is very little heavy traffic on roads and no industry.

Flora and Fauna

The district belongs to the Suleiman Piedmont area and the Kachhi Plain area of Balochistan. The areas in and around the district can be referred to as rangelands. Generally, the flora is scanty, and the district lacks any forests. Vegetation in and around Dera Bugti is of the dry subtropical type.

Flora

The district has 3 vegetational zones as follows:

  • Mountains: the vegetation in the mountains consists of olives (Olea cuspidate), phulai (Acacia modesta), jhar ber (Zizyphus nummularia), karir (Capparis aphylla), baonli (Accacia jecquemontii), ber (Grewia zizyphus nummularia), tamarind (Accacia lencophloae), gum Arabica (Accacia Senegal), and sorghum
  • Foothills: vegetation consists of jhar beri (Zizyphus nummularia), karir (Capparis aphylla), silk vine or dashtar (Periploca aphylla), baonli (Accacia jecquemontii), ber (Grewia zizyphus nummularia), tamarind (Accacia lencophloae), ber (Zizyphus jujube), gum Arabic (Accacia Senegal), camel thorn (Alhagi camelorum), kharshan (Crotalaria burhia), jand (Prosopis specigera), dog bane or sehar (Rhazya stricta), paneer doda (Withania coagulans), common rue or harmal (Peganum harmala), Perpuk (Tecoma undulata), and several species of Tamarisk like Tamarix articulate and Tamarix pallasii
  • Piedmont Plains: the piedmont plains have the same vegetation as the foothills

Fauna

Mammals found in the district include wolf, hill fox, Asiatic jackal, striped hyena, cape hare, porcupine, Afghan hedgehog, Afghan pica, and stone marten.

Avifauna includes chakor, see-see partridge, kestrel, magpie, golden eagle, a number of finches, buntings, seasonal/migratory waterfowls, hawks, bustards, and sand grouse.

Reptiles include Afghan tortoise, Afghan agama, Indian cobra, saw-scaled viper, dwarf dark-headed racer, and the levantine viper.

Protected Areas and Wildlife

There are no protected wildlife areas in the district, but the main lake of the district, the Marav Lake, provides a home to a number of migratory birds and it needs to be added to the list of “protected water areas” under the Government of Pakistan Rules, so that illegal hunting of these birds can be stopped. The Houbara Bustard, which is an endangered species and also the Provincial Bird of Balochistan, is a regular visitor at Marav Lake, and needs to be protected.

Figure 1.7 Endangered Houbara Bustard with its eggs in Dera Bugti