Balochistan-Jaffarabad

Introduction

Jaffarabad district is located between 27° 56′ 3″ to 28° 40′ 26″ north latitudes and 67° 37′ 36″ to 69° 07′ 39″ east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by Nasirabad district, on the northeast by Dera Bugti district, on the south by Jacobabad as well as Larkana district of Sindh, and on the west by Jhal Magsi district.

Sohbatpur tehsil was a part of Jaffarabad district but was upgraded to a district level in 2013. Separate data for this newly formed district is not available in its entirety, and hence, this chapter has merged information on Sohbatpur with Jaffarabad district, separating it out within this chapter wherever relevant data[1] is available.

Jaffarabad district is named after Mir Jaffar Khan Jamali, who was a close associate of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Mir Jaffar Khan died in 1967, and has been buried in Rojhan Jamali, the native village of the Jamali tribe (to which he belonged).

District at a Glance

Name of District Jaffarabad District
District Headquarter Dera Allah Yar Town
Population[2] 513,813 persons
Area[3] 2,445 km2
Population Density[4] 210.1 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[5] 3.0%
Male Population[6] 51.1%
Female Population[7] 48.9%
Urban Population[8] 30.8%
Tehsils/Talukas 04 tehsils:

1.    Jhat Pat/ Jhatpat Tehsil (also called Dera Allah Yar Tehsil)

2.    Sohbatpur Tehsil; District in 2013[9]

3.    Usta Muhammad Tehsil

4.    Gandakha Tehsil

Main Towns Dera Allah Yar, Rojhan Murad Jamali, Gandakha, Jaffarabad town, and Usta Muhammad
Literacy Rate[10] 36%
Male Literacy Rate[11] 55%
Female Literacy Rate[12] 15%
Major Economic Activity[13] Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing 70.9%
Community, Social & Personal Services 12.2%
Construction 8.1%
Wholesale, Retail and Restaurants /Hotels 3.7%
Manufacturing 1.7%
Others 3.4%
Main Crops Wheat, barley, rapeseed/mustard, masoor, chickpeas, gram, rice, jowar, bajra, maize, sesanum, moong, maash, moath, sugarcane, guar seed, cotton, and canola
Major Fruits Mangoes, citrus, guava, dates, watermelon, musk melon, ber, and mulberry
Major Vegetables Onion, potato, tomatoes, okra, tinda, radish, spinach, turnips, carrots, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pumpkin, cauliflower, peas, brinjal, cucumber, chilies, and coriander
Forests (Area)[14] 62.0 HA[15]
Black Topped Road[16] 1,843.0 km
Shingle Roads[17] 21.0 Km.
No. of Grid Stations Quetta Electric Supply company is responsible for the supply and transmission of electricity to the district
No. of Tel. Exchanges[18] 03 telephone exchanges with 462 landline connections, and 350 broadband connections.
Industrial Zones[19] No industrial estate
Major Industry[20] Rice Husking Units 10 Units
Flour Mills 13 Unit
Ice Factories 01 Unit
Oil Extraction Units 01 Unit
Cotton Ginning Factories 03 Unit
Household Size[21] 7.1 persons per house
Houses (Piped Water Inside)[22] 17.1%
Houses with Electricity[23] 64.7%

Table 1.1 Jaffarabad District at a Glance

[1] It is important to note that this chapter assumes that Jaffarabad district data generally includes Sohbatpur tehsil. Separate information is only added if, and where, available.

[2] 2017 Census

[3] 1998 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] 2017 Census

[9] Sohbatpur Tehsil is no longer part of Jaffarabad district, but has been included in this chapter for reasons specified in the Introduction

[10] Pakistan Social & living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[11] PSLM

[12] PSLM

[13] 1998 Census; includes data on Sohbatpur district.

[14] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Land Utilization Statistics does not record any forests

[16] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] District Development Profile Jaffarabad 2011, by P & D Department & Government of Balochistan

[20] District Development Profile Jaffarabad 2011, by P & D Department & Government of Balochistan; includes Sohbatpur data

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistorical PlacesTourism (Picnic Spots)

Brief History of the District

Jaffarabad district is named after Mir Jaffar Khan Jamali, who was a Muslim League veteran from Balochistan, and a close friend of Quaid‑e‑Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Mir Jaffar Khan contributed significantly to the promotion of the Muslim League cause in the area during the struggle for freedom from the British. He died on April 7, 1967, and was buried in Rojhan Jamali, which was his native village.

The areas now belonging to Jaffarabad district were called Jhatpat (also spelled Jhat Pat) and were part of the Jacobabad district of Sindh province; they remained so till 1970. Jhatpat was made a subdivision on 12 January 1932 with Captain Hoc Bland as the first Assistant Commissioner[1] of the subdivision.

After the dissolution of One Unit[2] in 1970, Jhatpat Subdivision was included in Sibi district and remained within the jurisdiction of Sibi district till January 1975, when Nasirabad tehsil was upgraded to a district level, and Jhatpat was made one of Nasirabad’s tehsils. Jaffarabad was separated from Nasirabad in 2002, after being granted district status. It has 4 subdivisions/Tehsils: Jaffarabad, Sohbatpur, Gandakha, and Usta Muhammad.

Since the district remained a part of other districts till 2002, it shares in the historical vicissitudes of those districts, details of which have been included in the relevant chapters.

[1] Jaffarabad district profile, P&D Department, GoB, 2011

[2] Provincial borders were dissolved in 1954-55, and West Pakistan became a single administrative unit under the One Unit Policy. This was dissolved in 1970, and all provincial boundaries were re-instituted.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Jaffarabad district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly[1] 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 3

Under the Local Government Act 2010, Amended in 2011, Jaffarabad district has 1 District Council with 38 Union Councils. It has 2 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Dera Allah Yar
  • Usta Muhammad

Each Union Council is represented by one member in the District Council. In addition, there is special representation of women (33%) and of workers and peasants (5% each).

[1] This seat is shared by Nasirabad district

Administrative Divisions

The district had a total area of 2,445 km2 before 2013, and was divided into 4 tehsils as follows:

Jhatpat Tehsil 16 Union Councils
Sohbatpur Tehsil (now a District)[1] 10 Union Councils
Usta Muhammad Tehsil 13 Union Councils
Gandakha Tehsil 07 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Jaffarabad Administrative Divisions

Sohbatpur district now has the following tehsils (data on Union Councils not available):

  • Sohbatpur Tehsil
  • Manjipur Tehsil
  • Hairdin Tehsil
  • Faridabad Tehsil

[1] Sohbatpur District is still not functional.

Historical Places

There are several monuments in the district which have historical value and thus need to be protected under Pakistan Laws. The most important of these are:

  • Sohbat Khan Mosque: This is a 19th century mosque with the grave of Sohbat Khan Gola. The town of Sohbatpur is surrounded by a wall with two gates for access
  • Haveli (fort-like structure) built by Mir Jaffar Khan Jamali
  • Tomb of Sakhi Jamali
  • Tomb of Nasir Khan Jabba in Dera Allah Yar
  • Shrine of Moulvi Qadir Bakhsh in Sohbatpur
  • Shrine of Faizal Faqir in Gandakha: An annual mela (fair) is held here
  • Tomb of Sakhi Dur Muhammad: An annual mela is held here

Tourism (Picnic Spots)

There are no picnic spots or tourist attractions in the district. Families generally go to various canal banks for a picnic and an outing.

Topography

Area-wise, district Jaffarabad ranks as the second smallest district in Balochistan, and is, on the whole, a flat plain which is a part of the Kachhi basin. The land generally slopes from north to south with an elevation of 50 to 100 m above mean sea level. The district touches hilly areas of different districts from multiple sides of its borders, even though there are no hilly/mountainous areas in the district itself.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The district is a part of the Kachhi Plain and, even though no river or streams flow directly through it, the district remains vulnerable to flash floods from the Nari River and its tributaries that flow through the Kachhi Plain. Some of the intermittent streams that originate from the mountains on the borders of the district and that flow through the district are Sabaya Wah, Lashkar Khan Wah, Naib Wah, Ro Khan Wah, Sohbat Wah, and Yar Muhammad Wah.

There are no lakes in the district.

Forests

The following table shows the area and type of forests in the district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area – A Scrub Forests – A
Rangelands – A Coniferous Forests – A
Irrigated Plantations 150 A Riverine Forests – A
Coastal/Mangrove Forests – A

Table 1.3 Jaffarabad Forests

There are no forests in the district, but there is tree cover along roadsides and canal banks. The main tree species include babul (Acacia nilotica), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), ber (Zizyphus mauritiana and Zizyphus nummularia), frash (Tamarix aphylla), karir (Capparis aphylla), peelu (Salvadora Oleoides), sirin or black siris (Albizzia lebbek), white siris (Albizzia procera), neem (Azadirachta indica), kandi (Prosopis cineraria) and Eucalyptus.

Figure 1.3 IUCN GIS Map Jaffarabad District

Soils

The district mainly has alluvial soils which can be classified as silt, clay, silt loam, and sandy loam.

Climate

The climate of the district is very hot in the summers but pleasant and cool in winter. The summer months are from April to October. June is the hottest month, with mean maximum and minimum temperatures of about 44 °C and 29 °C respectively. In summer, the humidity is high, and dust storms are fairly common, generally followed by rains. The winter season lasts from November to March. January is the coldest month, with mean maximum and minimum temperatures of 23 °C and 8 °C respectively.

The Monsoon does not pass through the district, and hence the district receives very little rain. Average annual rainfall is about 110 mm.

Seismic Activity

According to the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, Jaffarabad district is just at the border of Zone 2A and Zone 3 which means that the district could suffer moderate to severe damage in case of an earthquake.

Population

The following table shows the population of the district as per 2017 Census:

District Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Jaffarabad District 2,445 513,813 51.1 48.9 30.8 3.02
Jhat Pat Tehsil 1,467 252,611
Usta Muhammad Tehsil 978 186,226
Sohbatpur[1] 200,538 51.4 48.6 6.4 1.85
Gandakha Tehsil Included in  Usta Muhammad Tehsil 74,976

Table 1.4 Jaffarabad Population Statistics

Religions[2]

Muslims 98.2%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus 1.3%
Ahmadis Negligible %
Schedule Castes 0.2%
Others 0.2%

Table 1.5 Jaffarabad Religions

Languages[3]

Urdu 0.2%
Punjabi 0.6%
Sindhi 23.6%
Pushto 0.4%
Balochi 62.3%
Seraiki 10.9%
Others[4] 2.1%

Table 1.6 Jaffarabad Languages

[1] Only population data is available for Sohbatpur District.

[2] 1998 census; includes Sohbatpur Tehsil; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[3] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[4] These include Brahui etc.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The main economic sectors[1] of the district include:

  • Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing (70.9%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (12.2%)
  • Construction (8.1%)
  • Wholesale, Retail and Restaurants/Hotels (3.7%)
  • Manufacturing (1.7%)
  • Others (3.4%)

Land Use

The following table shows the land use statistics of Jaffarabad district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Area 244,500 HA Reported Area 243,862 HA
Total Cultivated Area 219,050 HA Net Sown 216,129 HA
Current Fallow 2,921 HA Uncultivated Area 24,812 HA
Culturable Waste 2,852 HA Forest Area – HA

Table 1.7 Jaffarabad Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

Jaffarabad is a plain agricultural area, and is in the Tropical Agro-Ecological Zone and Zone VII of Balochistan. This zone is canal irrigated and is in the Monsoonal belt. The crops of the district include wheat, barley, rapeseed/mustard, masoor, chickpeas, gram, rice, jowar, bajra, maize, sesanum, moong, maash, moath, sugarcane, guar seed, cotton, and canola.

Fruits grown in the district include mangoes, citrus, guava, dates, watermelon, musk melon, ber, and mulberry among others. Vegetable produce of the district includes onion, potato, tomatoes, okra, tinda, radish, spinach, turnips, carrots, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pumpkin, cauliflower, peas, brinjal, cucumber, chilies, and coriander.

Livestock Breeding

Livestock plays an important role in the economy of the district.

The following table shows the livestock statistics for Jaffarabad district (2006 Census of Livestock) included in Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Cattle 268,721 Heads Buffaloes 156,427 Heads Sheep 241,444 Heads
Goats 283,922 Heads Camels 8,252 Heads Horses 2,929 Heads
Mules 2,518 Heads Asses 52,713 Heads

Table 1.8 Jaffarabad Livestock Statistics

The main livestock breeds of the district include bhagnari cattle, barbari goat, and Balochi sheep.

Figure 1.4 Bhagnari Cattle

Poultry

There are 02 poultry farms in Jaffarabad district according to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock). According to Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19 there are 670,297

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in the Pat and Kirthar canals and their sub-canals. This fish is mainly consumed locally.

Bee Keeping

Though Jaffarabad district is one of the most important agricultural areas of Balochistan, bee keeping is not a significant economic activity in the district.

Irrigation

Jaffarabad district is irrigated by the Pat Feeder, Kirthar, and Shahi canals. Other canals irrigating the district (including Sohbatpur) are the Manjhoti and Uch Canals. Water in the Pat Feeder Canal is controlled through the Guddu Barrage, and the Kirthar and Shahi Wah Canals off-take from Sukkur Barrage. The Uch Canal, and Manjothi Canal are a part of the Desert Canal System of the Indus Basin Irrigation System.

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area irrigated by it for Jaffarabad district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Irrigated Area 216,245 HA Private Canal Irrigated – HA
Government Canals 215,558 HA Wells – HA
Tube Wells 687 HA Karezes/Springs – HA

Table 1.11 Jaffarabad Irrigation Statistics

There are no Karezes in the district.

Figure 1.5 Pat Feeder Canal

Mining

There are no mineral deposits in the district. Exploration for oil and gas has been undertaken.

Industry and Manufacturing

There are no major industries in the district. According to the District Development Profile Jaffarabad 2011, by Planning and Development (P&D) Department, Government of Balochistan in collaboration with UNICEF, the following units are operating in the district:

Rice Husking Units 10 Units
Flour Mills 13 Units
Ice Factories 01 Unit
Oil Extraction Units 01 Unit
Cotton Ginning Factories 03 Units

Table 1.9 Jaffarabad Indstries

Trade

There is no large scale trade activity in the district.

Handicrafts

In Jaffarabad district, handicrafts such as embroidery work, needlework and other crafts (including mats and sheets designed for use as flooring) are very common. Carpet making is a common handicraft in the district. Traditionally, mostly women and girls do embroidery work from home.

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

 

Economic Infrastructure

Jaffarabad has comparatively better road linkages to other districts and provinces than many other districts of Balochistan. Major cities and towns are linked by metaled roads. Jaffarabad district is linked with other parts of Pakistan through Pakistan Railway.

Roads

According to the Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19, the road statistics of Jaffarabad district (including data on Sohbatpur) are as follows:

Total Roads 1,864.0 km
High Type Roads 1,843.0 km
Low Type Roads 21.0 km

Table 1.10 Jaffarabad Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district include:

  • National Highway N-65 passes through the district (Sukkur-Sibi-Saryab Highway)
  • Dera Allah Yar-Hairdin Road
  • Usta Muhammad-Mirwah Road
  • Hairdin-Marghuzar Road
  • Jhatpat-Usta Muhammad Road
  • Dera Allah Yar-Sohbatpur Road

Rail and Airways

There is a railway station at Dera Allah Yar.

There is no commercial or military airport in the district. The nearest airport is the Jacobabad Airport in Jacobabad district.

Radio and Television

There are no TV or radio broadcasting stations in the district, but radio programs broadcast from Karachi, Quetta, and Islamabad as well as Zahidan (Iran), Kabul (Afghanistan) and the BBC can be heard throughout the district. TV can be viewed through cable.

Telecommunications

The district is connected to other parts of the country through telephone and telegraph. There are 03 telephone exchanges in the district which provide 461 landline and 350 broadband connections in the district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19). Cellular phone companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices

There are a total of 07 post offices in the district.[1] All the major courier companies provide their services as well.

Electricity and Gas

Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) is responsible for the supply and transmission of electricity to the district.

Banking/Financial Services

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, provided by the State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks all have their branches in the district (this includes data for Sohbatpur):

  • National Bank of Pakistan (NBP)
  • Habib Bank
  • United Bank Limited (UBL)
  • Muslim Commercial Bank
  • Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan (ADBP)

In all there are 21 branches of various conventional banks in the District.

Education

The following table shows the number of Educational Institutions in Jaffarabad district (including Sohbatpur) as per Balochistan Development Statistics 20183-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 353/144 Middle Schools 28/13
High Schools 21/07 Community Schools 24
Higher Secondary 01/01 Degree Colleges 01/01
Universities Mosque Schools[2]
Vocational Training Schools[3] Private Schools[4] 12

Table 1.12 Jaffarabad Educational Institutes

There is a Cadet College in Jaffarabad. Separate data for Sohbatpur is not available.

In addition there are private educational institutions imparting education at all levels.

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions[5] in Jaffarabad district (including Sohbatpur) as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./beds Institution No./beds
Teaching Hospitals Hospitals 03/190
Rural health Centers 01/20 Basic Health Units 43/-
Dispensaries 35/- Mother Child Health Centers 07/-
TB/Leprosy Clinics etc. 01/- Private Hospitals
Dispensaries (private) 01/0

Table 1.13 Jaffarabad Health Institutes

Policing

The larger part of the district is bifurcated into an “A” and a “B” area. The “A” area, comprising towns and highways, has a police force. All major law and order situations in the “B” area, however, are dealt with by levies.

A levy is a conventional force for maintaining law and order. Installed during British rule, levy members are recruited along tribal or clan lines. The levies fall under the direct command of the Deputy Commissioner (DC), with powers delegated to the assistant commissioners, and tehsildars, among others.

Policing of Jaffarabad district is the responsibility of the Regional Police Officer (RPO) Nasirabad. The RPO is assisted by 3 SubDivisional Police Officers (SDPO) stationed at Dera Allah Yar, Sanhri, and Usta Muhammad. In all, there are 14 police stations in the district (19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District; 2019 by Federal Bureau of Statistics).

Figure 1.7 Dera Murad Jamali Railway Station

Figure 1.8 A Bus Stop near Usta Muhammad

Figure 1.9 Canal Road, Usta Muhammad

Figure 1.10 Sohbatpur Mosque

Figure 1.11 A Public School in Dera Murad Jamali

Figure 1.12 Shrine of Sohbat Khan Gola

[1] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[2] included in Primary schools

[3] plans of establishing a Vocational Center at Usta Muhammad are underway

[4] This data is from Balochistan Development Statistics 2011

[5] Includes data for Harnai district also

Environment and Biodiversity

The environment in the district is hardly affected by “brown” pollution, as it lacks an industrial set-up or factories. Traffic-related pollution is limited to the areas around the highway, and the two cities: Jhatpat and Usta Mohammad. The rest of the area is free from smoke and air pollution. However, the diesel and electric powered rice shellers cause some environmental pollution.

Flora and Fauna

Due to canal network development and the subsequent conversion of land for irrigated agriculture, most of the district’s original forest cover has disappeared. The types of forests indigenous to the region were Tropical Thorn Forests. Remnants of the original vegetation have survived in areas where human interference is restricted, for instance, in graveyards, swamps and saline flats (locally called Pats).

Flora

There are 3 main vegetation zones in the district. These are:[1]

  • Farmlands: Common tree species in farmlands are babul (Acacia nilotica), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), ber (Zizyphus nummularia), farash (Tamarix aphylla), black siris (Albizzia lebbek), white siris (Albizzia procera), neem (Azadirachta indica), kandi (Prosopis cineraria), karir (Capparis aphylla), peelu (Salvadora oleoides) and Eucalyptus
  • Canal Side, Road Side: Common tree species include shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), babul (Acacia nilotica) and Eucalyptus
  • Saline and water logged areas: Common flora includes ghaz or khaggal (Tamarix dioica), desert poplar (Populus euphratica), and gum Arabica (Acacia nilotica). The main grasses are Saccharum munja, Typha angustifolia, and Panicum antidotale

Shrubs include mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), prickly sesbian (Sesbania bispinosa), aak (Calotropis procera), Haloxylon sp., and camel thorn (Alhagi camalorum). The ground cover is constituted mainly by grass like Aristida depressa, Eleusine compressa, Panicum antidotale, Saccharum munja, and Typha angustifolia.

Fauna

Mammals found in the swamps and flood inundation plains are common fox, wolf, Asiatic jackal, honey badger, grey mongoose, and wild boar.

The wildlife in the area includes migratory and non-migratory species. Migratory birds include seasonal ducks and houbara bustards, wild pigeons, kingfisher, spoonbill, herons, egrets, plovers, lapwings, stints, sandpipers, godwits, shanks, coots, quails, and curlews. Non-migratory birds include brown partridges, white partridges, batair, woodpecker common myna, parakeet, and white-cheeked bulbul. Ducks are common in marsh areas around the canal command area.

Protected Areas and Endangered Fauna

There are no wildlife protected areas in the district, nor are there any buildings of historical value being protected by Pakistani Laws.

[1] Jaffarabad District Profile 2011, by P&D Department GoB