Balochistan-Kalat

Introduction

Kalat (or Qalat) district is located in the central part of Balochistan province, between 28° 57Ꞌ and 29° 30Ꞌ north latitudes and 65° 32Ꞌ and 67° 29Ꞌ east longitudes. The district shares boundaries with Mastung district in the north, Khuzdar in the south, Bolan district and Bolan Pass in the east and Kharan in the west.

The word Kalat/Qalat is derived from the word kala/qila which means fortress; the town of Kalat is said to have been founded by Sewa, of the Sewa dynasty, and was named Qalat-e Sewa (Sewa’s Fort). The Sewa dynasty ruled Balochistan till the 7th century when the region was conquered by the Arabs.

Up till 1955, Kalat district was part of the Kalat Princely State which was also called the Khanate of Kalat. The state existed in the center of Balochistan. At its zenith, it covered an area of 185,425 km2, occupying the entire center and southwest areas of the Balochistan province. The Khanate was dissolved and merged into West Pakistan in 1955.[1]

District at a Glance

Name of District Kalat District
Headquarters Kalat City/Kalat-e-Baloch/Kalat Sewa (originally called Kahan)
Population[2] 412,232 persons
Area[3] 6,622 km2
Population Density[4] 29.8 persons/ km2
Growth Rate[5] 2.9%
Male Population[6] 51.4%
Female Population[7] 48.6%
Urban Population[8] 17.6%
Tehsils/ Talukas 03 Tehsils:

1.    Kalat Tehsil

2.    Mugachar Tehsil

3.    Surab Tehsil

Main Towns Kalat City, Shahdadzai, Surab, Kalat Sadr, Zard, Nichara, Chappar, Mehmood Gohram, Hathyari, Mangochar, Gazgz, Hajike, Mal Sohrai, and Ali Abad (Shana)
Literacy Rate[9] 54%
Male Literacy Rate[10] 61%
Female Literacy Rate[11] 45%
Major Economic Activity[12] Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing 70.9%
Elementary Occupations 19.4%
Service Workers & Shop & Market Sales Workers 3.9%
Professionals 1.6%
Others 4.2%
Main Crops Wheat, barley, moong, maash, masoor, sunflower, and fodder
Major Fruits Almonds, apples, apricots, grapes, pomegranate, peach, plums, cherries, watermelon, and strawberry
Major Vegetables Onions, potatoes, okra, tomatoes, spinach, turnip, cabbage, carrots, bottle gourd, peas, brinjal, cucumber, chilies, cumin, and coriander
Forest (Area)[13] 68,071 HA[14]
Black Topped Roads[15] 952.0 km
Shingle Roads[16] 1,286.0 km
Electricity[17] Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) looks after transmission and distribution of electricity to the district
Telephone Exchanges[18] 02 telephone exchanges, with 945 landlines, 510 wireless phones, and 861 broadband connections
Industrial Zones[19] No Relevant data available
Major Industry Same as above
Household Size[20] 6.9 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water[21] 13.2%
Houses with Electricity[22] 45.2%

Table 1.1 Kalat District at a Glance

[1] In 1954-55 the Government of Pakistan merged the four provinces of West Pakistan into one province and named it West Pakistan to bring it in-line with East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

[2] 2017 Census

[3] 1998 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] 2017 Census

[9] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[10] PSLM

[11] PSLM

[12] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released.

[13] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[14] Land Utilization Statistics report 64,367 HA under forests.

[15] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] District Development Profile Kalat 2011, P&D Department in collaboration with UNICEF

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistorical/Heritage Sites and Tourism/Picnic Spots

Brief History

Kalat district was part of the Kalat Princely State,[1] which, at its zenith, occupied nearly all of Balochistan; hence, its history is also the history of the province of Balochistan, the most striking fact of which is that, while most of the conquerors of India have passed through its borders, none have left any permanent mark in the form of buildings or monuments as proof of their presence in the area. Macedonians, Arabs, Ghaznavids, Mongols, Mughals, and the Durranis all traversed the country and occupied it briefly to guard their lines of communications, but did not cultivate it.

It is known that Alexander the Great’s retreat[2] from India in 325 BC led him through Lasbela and Makran, while another part of his army, under Cretarus, went through the Mula Pass (Central Brahvi Range). After Alexander’s death, the region fell to Seleucus Nicator (a General in Alexander’s army who later established the Seleucid Empire) which then passed from his descendants to the Graeco-Bactrian kings, who were overthrown by a Central Asian power, the Sakas, in about 130 BC. Around this time, Buddhism, of which many traces are still to be found in Kalat, flourished in the area. The empire of the Sassanians followed, and expanded slowly towards the east. The areas forming the districts of Chagai, Kharan, and the northwestern parts of Kalat were not conquered, however, till the time of Nausherwan (529-577 AD).[3]

From then, the Balochistan areas were ruled by a Hindu dynasty called the Sewas (the town of Sibi or Sivi is named after this dynasty) till the Arab invasion (7th century). All local traditions assert that the Sewas were connected with the Rai Dynasty of Sindh, whose genealogical table includes two rulers by the names of Siharas I and Siharas II, and whose territories extended as far as Kandahar, Seistan, and the Suleiman and Kaikanan hills in the neighbourhood of Kalat. Kalat itself is still known as Kalat-i-Sewa after the Sewa dynasty.

In 664 AD, Arabs, during the Caliphate of Muawiya, captured Khuzdar (which was later a part of Kalat State, which was, in turn, established in 1666) and occupied the surrounding country of Jhalawan or Turan.[4] In 711, Arabs, this time led by Muhammad Bin Qasim, again invaded, and captured, parts of India, which included most of India up to Multan, bringing the Hindu dynasty ruling Sindh to an end. After the Arab conquest, India (including Balochistan and Kalat) was captured successively by the Ghaznavids (977-1186 AD), Ghorids (1193-1215), the Mongols (1223), Arghuns (1520-1554) and the Mughals (1526-1857).

In 1223 AD the eastern parts of Balochistan were raided by Changez Khan (or Genghiz Khan), when the Mongols managed to conquer parts of India as far south as Jhalawan and Makran. About 1225, the region came temporarily under the rule of Sultan Altamush of Delhi, but soon after, it reverted to the Mongols.[5] Meanwhile, the Soomra dynasty in Sindh was established, which was followed by the Samma dynasty. The sway of these dynasties extended at their zenith to the Jhalawan country by the middle of the 14th century.[6] At this time, the Jat power was also consolidating itself in the region, but was overthrown by the Brahuis[7] (also spelled Brahvis). In 1384 the area was raided by Pir Muhammad, the grandson of Timur (Tamerlane), who was engaged in fighting the Afghans of the Suleiman Mountains.

During the succeeding century, the Baloch (indigenous tribes of Balochistan) extended their power to Kalat, Kachhi and parts of western Punjab, and wars took place between Mir Chakar Khan Rind and Gwahram Lashari that are celebrated and commemorated in Baloch verse. At the same time, the Brahuis had been gradually gaining strength, and their little principality/territory was extended up to Wadh (Khuzdar). From 1556 to 1595 the region was under the Safavids of Persia. During Mughal Emperor Akbar’s rule, the area up to Kachhi was part of the Mughal Empire (which ruled most of India and parts of Afghanistan), and from 1638 it returned to the sovereignty of the Safavids until the rise of the Ghilzai power.[8]

The following century saw the start of the downfall of the Mughal Empire’s hold in the region, and the rise of the Brahuis to a position of independence; after the Mughal Governor was ousted by the Baloch, they appointed Mir Hasan—the grandson of Mir Ibrahim Khan Mirwari of Jhalawan country—the Governor[9] of the area. His descendant, Mir Ahmad I (1666-67 to 1695-96) from whom the Ahmadzais take their name, conquered Khuzdar and its surrounding areas, and the Brahui power was fully established with Khuzdar as the seat of government as well as of the Khan’s Naib or representative. Mir Mehrab, his successor, was killed at the end of the 17th century while attempting to stop Mian Nur Muhammad and Mian Muhammad Khan Kalhora of Sindh from entering the Jhalawan country under orders from the Mughal Governor of Multan.

Kalat Princely State/ Khanate of Kalat

The areas that are a part of Kalat district were a part of the Kalat Princely State, which occupied the entire center and southwest of Balochistan province, with the exception of the small Princely State of Lasbela. Kalat State[10] was bounded on the west by Persia; on the east by Bolan Pass, the Marri-Bugti hills and Sindh; on the north by Chagai and Quetta-Pishin districts; and on the south by Lasbela and the Arabian Sea. Kalat State or the Kalat Khanate was formed in 1666 by Mir Ahmad Khan Qambrani Baloch (from whom the Ahmadzai eponym is derived). He consolidated the Baloch and Brahui territories and formed the Kalat Khanate, which then remained a Princely State till 1955, when it became a part of the West Pakistan Province under the One Unit Policy.

During the first part of the 19th century, Nadir Shah, the Afghan contender, made several expeditions to, or through, northeastern Balochistan. It was at this time that Mir Nasir Khan I (who is the historical hero of the Brahuis, and who is known as Nasir Khan the Great) ascended the throne of Kalat. He was a strong and forceful statesman, although his political position was that of the head of a confederacy of chiefs and not that of a sovereign ruler. Thus, during the 44 years of his reign (1750-94) Brahui power in the region reached its zenith, and the Khanate of Kalat extended to the districts of Quetta, Kalat, Harrand, and Dajal. Nasir Khan also asserted his authority over Panjgur, Kech, Dizak, and Kharan. His death was followed by half a century of internal strife, decay, and disintegration in Kalat, during which, the Khanate managed to hold itself together with the nominal sovereignty of the successors of Ahmed Shah Durrani, even though the areas originally included in the Khanate slowly fell to conquerors like the British.

During British rule, and at the time of Partition, the Khanate consisted of 3 main subdivisions:

  • Jhalawan Valley/ Country: The Jhalawan country consists of many important valleys like those of Kalat, Gider, Baghbana, Mula Valley, Zehrii, Firozabad Valley, Wadh, Nal, Saruna, Jau and the Mashel River. Khuzdar is the largest city of Jhalawan, and also the second largest city of Balochistan province. Khuzdar is now a separate district
  • Sarawan Country: This was a tribal area of the Kalat State; Kalat town and Mastung town were the important towns in the region. Kalat and Mastung are both separate districts now
  • Kachhi: Located in the Kachhi plains during the Khanate, the area was divided into two parts: areas subject to the Khan of Kalat, and areas under tribal chiefs. The main towns/villages were Lahri (also spelled Lehri; now a separate district: Sibi), Dhadar (now capital of Kachhi/Bolan district), Bhag (Sibi/Lahri district), Nasirabad (now a district), and Gandawa (part of Jhall Magsi district)

The political connection of the British with Kalat commenced from the First Afghan War in 1839, when this area was traversed by a British army from Sind and afterwards occupied. In the British attack on Kalat in 1840, Mir Mehrab Khan, the ruler, was killed. His son, Mir Nasir Khan II was later raised to the masnad/ throne by the tribesmen and with their help, regained possession of Kalat. In 1842, consequent upon the British withdrawal from Afghanistan, the districts occupied by the British were returned to the Khan of Kalat. The British negotiated with the Kalat State in 1854, and according to the terms of the treaty, British political agents were deputed to Kalat during the next 20 years. In 1874 Sir Robert Sandeman was sent to Balochistan as a Political Agent; his general policy for the region was one of conciliatory intervention, tempered with lucrative employment and light taxation. In 1876 he was able to conclude a treaty with Khan Khudadad Khan of Kalat, which brought Kalat under British sovereignty, and provided stronger political control to the British rulers. To consolidate the territorial extension already made, Balochistan was made a separate Agency under an Agent to the Governor General. At the end of the Second Afghan War (1878-1880) with the treaty of Gandemak (May 1879), Pishin, Sibi, Harnai, and Thal-Chotiali were ceded by Amir Yaqub Khan of Kabul to the British Government. In 1887, all these, as well as Zhob, Bori, and Shirani areas (which had been part of the Kalat Khanate), were declared to be British territory.

In 1883, the Quetta Niabat, a district of Kalat State (comprising the current Quetta Tehsil) and the Bolan Pass were permanently taken on lease by the British from Kalat State. In 1899, Nushki, and in 1903, the area irrigated by the Sind canals known as the Nasirabad Subdivision, was similarly acquired from the Kalat State on a perpetual lease. In 1940 the relation between the Kalat Khanate and the Chiefdom of Kharan became strained, and there were clashes between them in Warjak and Khudabadan villages. The British authorities intervened, and a settlement was effected, under the terms of which Kharan was recognized as a separate minor State under the direct control of the British Political Agent.

The headquarter town of Kalat district, Kalat, is a historical town and is known locally as Kalat-i-Baloch and Kalat-i-Sewa. The town occupies a spur of the Shah-e-Mardan Hills on the west of Kalat Valley.[11] The hills around Kalat were occupied by the Brahui tribe. Prior to the Muslim arrival in Makran in the 7th century BC, the town was ruled by a Hindu King Sehwa; it is said that the town of Kalat was founded by him, and named Qalat-e Sewa (Sewa’s Fort) after him. Sehwa was the Raja (king) of the Hindu Princely State of Kalat who hired the tribe of Brahui Chieftain Qambar (or Kumbar) to protect his state against marauding tribes from Multan, Shikarpur, and the Upper Sind areas. Kumbar and his troops successfully repressed the incursion, but the tribes later deposed the Raja, and Kumbar became the first Vali/Wali of the area.

In early 1948, Kalat State formally acceded to Pakistan and became part of the Balochistan State Union. In October 1955, with the unification of the provinces of Punjab, NWFP (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Sind, and Balochistan, the State of Kalat, along with the other states of the Balochistan States Union, were merged into one province, while Kalat became a separate district and was placed in the charge of a Deputy Commissioner in 1954.[12]

Kalat was notified as a district on February 3, 1954. At that time, Khuzdar and Mastung districts were subdivisions/tehsils of Kalat (which then also included Bolan, Jhall Magsi, and Dera Murad Jamali; these were separated in 1965 as Kachhi district). Khuzdar became a separate district in 1974, while Mastung was announced to be a separate district on 18 February, 1992. Kalat district thus assumed its present-day borders. The district draws its name from the ancient city of Kalat. The old name of the district headquarters was Kahan.

Figure 1.3 Balochistan Agency at time of Partition[13]

Figure 1.4 Flag of Kalat State

Figure 1.5 Khan Naseer Khan I, Khan of Kalat from 1749-1794

[1] This section has drawn heavily from the Kalat District Development Plan 2011, by GoB along with other documents (named at relevant places).

[2] Mentioned in Lasbela District Gazetteer 1907, Makran & Kharan District Gazetteer 1907 and Kalat District Development Plan 2011, by GoB and UNICEF

[3] Imperial Gazetteer of India, v.6, p. 275

[4] Jhalawan country remained a part of Kalat State; Khuzdar was its main town and is now the capital of Khuzdar district

[5] Please see the History section included in the Balochistan chapter for more details.

[6] The proof lies in the fact that important tribes like Sasois, and Mengals (among others) trace their connection to the Soomras (Jhalawan District Gazetteer p. 36)

[7] Brahvi or Brohi means mountain dwellers or highlanders

[8] Ghilzais were rulers of Afghanistan and were the most dominant Pashtun confederacy from 1000 AD until 1747 AD, when the Durranis came into power.

[9] Ahmadzais are descendants of the Mirwaris.

[10] Please see Kalat Princely State map for details

[11] Imperial Gazetteer of India, v.14, p. 305

[12] District Development Profile, Kalat District 2011, P & D Department, Balochistan in collaboration with UNICEF

[13] Map Source: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/images4/baluchistanmap.jpg

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Kalat district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly[1] 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 2

Under the Local Government Act 2010, Amended in 2011, Kalat district has 1 District Council with 29 Union Councils. It has 2 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Kalat
  • Surab

Each Union Council is represented by 1 member in the District Council. In addition, there is special representation of women (33%), and of workers and peasants (5% each).

[1] This seat is shared by Mastung

Administrative Divisions

Kalat district has a total area of 6,622 km2 and is divided into 2 Tehsils and 18 Union Councils as follows:

Kalat Tehsil 07 Union Councils
Surab Tehsil 09 union councils.
Mugachar Tehsil 02 Union councils.

Table 1.2 Kalat Administrative Divisions

Historical/Heritage Sites and Tourism/Picnic Spots

  • The shrine of Guru Nanak Sahib is situated in the old city of Kalat, called Guru Nanak Darbar. The old shrine is known as Nanak Mandir
  • Kalat Miri or Fort: This fort was destroyed in the 1935 earthquake, but the ruins are still present
  • Shrine of Ghoos Pak: This shrine is located on top of a cone shaped hill
  • Harboi Hills: These hills feature juniper forests
  • Nindo Damb, Omach Valley, Wadh, Kalat: This is an archeological site protected under the Government of Pakistan Laws. Investigations have revealed that this area was occupied by the Harrappans
  • Miri/Merry Court: This is the palace of the Khan of Kalat

Sra Dhaka (a village known for its beautiful flowers), and Shah-e-Mardan Hills are also places to visit.

Figure 1.7 Historic Kalat Fort, c1920

Figure 1.8 Terracota figurines from Nindo Dumb

Topography

The district is part of the Upper Highlands of Balochistan. According to the Kalat District Development Profile (2011) by GoB (Government of Balochistan) and UNICEF,

Geographically, the district is mountainous and consists of a series of parallel mountain ranges running in north-west. Some valleys are of considerable elevation varying from 1,525 to 1,982 meters above sea level. The main valleys in the area are of Mungochar and Chhappar in the western part of the district.

The boundary with Khuzdar runs along the southern slopes of the Gurgina pass including the southern spurs of Sarum lib north-west of Gazg, and then across Tahlagan valley into Tharboi lib. The Koh Klloes and Jalois of Lop valley are included in the district.

The district comprises undulating area intersected by broad valleys.

Surab Tehsil is situated at an elevation of 2,133 m above mean sea level, whereas Kalat’s elevation is 610 m above mean sea level. Some of the mountain ranges of the district include Koh-i-Maran, and Harboi Mountain Range (which is 2,743 m high).

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

There is only one river in the district called Moro, which passes through Johan toward Mastung district. Besides the Moro, the Sheerinab River rises about 22 miles (35.4 km) southeast of Kalat to the Harboi Hills, and joins the Shorarud River in the Quetta-Pishin district, under which name it eventually flows into the Pishin Lora.

Other smaller streams which originate from the mountains and are mostly dry most of the year (except during rainy season) are Mushmunki Jhal, Tharki Rud, Rashkan Rud, and Rej River.

There are no lakes in the district.

Forests

A total of 68,071 HA of land is under forests in the district. The district has Dry Temperate Scrub (Steppe) Forest type of flora which resembles the juniper forests of Ziarat in terms of flora and fauna. According to the Kalat District Development Profile (2011):

Forests in Kalat district are grouped into natural and artificial ones; comprising of conifers (Junipers), rangelands, plantations (artificial), and other types of trees. There are six (6) notified natural forests in the district; these are:

  • Dasht-e-Baddo (809 hectares)
  • Mangochar (4,047 hectares)
  • Harboi (22,351 hectares)
  • Muhammad Shahi (10,161 hectares)
  • Shiekhani (14,569 hectares) and
  • Narwari (12,432 hectares) measuring 64,369 hectares in total.

Major tree species found in the district are Greek juniper/obusht (Juniperus excelsa polycarpos), wild ash/Afghan ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides) and shina/khanjak/Bombay mastix (Pistacia khinjuk), which occupy favorable sites. The main shrubs are janglee badaam/ wild almond (Prunus spp.), honeysuckle (Lonicera quinquelocularis/Lonicera hypoleuca), Himalayan abelia (Abelia triflora), barberry (Berberis vulgaris), wild rose (Rosa beggeriana), sparae/loni (Cotoneaster nummularia), tharkha/sea wormwood (Artemisia maritime), hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), kala zira (Carum bulbocastanum), Oman/joint pine (Ephedra nebrodensis, Ephedra intermedia), makhi/dwarf pea shrub (Caragana ambigua), khakshir/tansy mustard (Sisymbrium sophia), zralg/Indian barberry (Berberis lycium) and surae/rose (Rosa spp.).

The ground cover is constituted mainly by Stipa himalacia, Dichanthium annulatum, Chrysopogon aucheri, Pennesitum orientale, Pennesitum flaccidum, Stipa capillata, Stipa cabulica, Leptorhabdos benthamiana, and Cymbopogon spp.[1]

The following table shows the types of forests and their area in the district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 168,207 A Scrub Forests 112,947 A
Rangelands – A Coniferous Forests 55,260 A
Irrigated Plantations – A Riverine Forests – A
Coastal/Mangrove Forests – A

Table 1.3 Kalat Forests

Figure 1.6 IUCN GIS Map Kalat District

Soils

According to the Kalat District Development Profile (2011) by GoB with UNICEF:

The soil of the district is fertile, both in irrigated and non-irrigated tracts. Among the non-irrigated tracts, the soil of Narmuk is the most fertile soil of the district. It may be regarded as a fairly uniform quality of soil. The best quality of soil is of reddish color and called malt or matmal. The second quality of soil, known as “siahzamin”, is a dark loam, generally found in the irrigated areas. Malt is best for the cultivation of wheat. Other well-known but lesser quality soils are “Karkat”, “Thathakhari”, or “Sani”, yall or kher, korki and dagi.

Climate

The climate of the district is dry and hot in summer, and cold in winter. It is one of the coldest districts of Pakistan. Since Kalat city is situated at a higher elevation as compared to other areas, it is cooler than the rest of the district, and experiences heavy snowfall in winter. The district sees all four seasons, which are clearly marked. Spring (called hatam in the local language) is from March to May; summer (tirma) is from June to August; autumn (sohel) is from September to October; and winter (selh) from November to February.

From April to September (spring and summer), the climate is dry, and sunny, and in autumn, the nights become cool while the days are still warm. In winter Kalat and its surroundings receive heavy snowfall. The rainfalls occur generally in winter, from January to March. Rainfall is irregular and scanty. The mean annual rainfall is 261 mm.

The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during June, the hottest month, are 35 °C and 16 °C respectively, whereas the mean maximum and minimum temperatures during January, the coldest month, have been recorded at 10 °C and ‑3 °C respectively.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 4 of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means severe damage due to earthquakes.

[1] District Development Profile, Kalat District 2011, P & D Department Balochistan in collaboration with UNICEF

Population

The following table shows the population of Kalat as per 2017 Census:

Tehsil/ Taluka Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban % Growth Rate %
Kalat District 6,622 412,232 51.4 48.6 17.6 2.93
Kalat Tehsil NA 129,368
Surab Tehsil NA 206,478
Mangochar Tehsil Included in Kalat Tehsil 76,386

Table 1.4 Kalat Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.2%
Christians Negligible %
Hindus 0.6%
Ahmadis Negligible %
Scheduled Castes 0.2%
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Kalat Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.2%
Punjabi 0.2%
Sindhi 0.5%
Pushto 0.4%
Balochi 98.6%
Seraiki Negligible %
Others[3] 0.1%

Table 1.6 Kalat Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released.

[3] includes Brahvi language

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Following are the main economic occupations of the district (from 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released):

  • Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing (70.9%)
  • Elementary Occupations (19.4%)
  • Service Workers & Shop & Market Sales Workers (3.9%)
  • Professionals (1.6%)
  • Others (4.2%).

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 662,200 HA Reported Area 631,452 HA
Total Cultivated Area 114,818 HA Net Sown 15,293 HA
Current Fallow 99,526 HA Total Uncultivated Area 516,634 HA
Culturable Waste 24,669 HA Forest Area 64,367 HA

Table 1.7 Kalat Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

Kalat district belongs to the Cold and Very Cold Agro-Ecological Zones of Balochistan. The crops of the district include wheat, barley, moong, maash, masoor, sunflower, and fodder.

The fruits grown in the district include almonds, apples, apricots, grapes, pomegranate, peach, plums, cherries, watermelon, and strawberry.

The vegetable produce of the district include onions, potatoes, okra, tomatoes, spinach, turnip, cabbage, carrots, bottle gourd, peas, brinjal, cucumber, chilies, cumin, and coriander.

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is the second most important sector of the economy. It is the main source of income for nomadic families. The following table shows the position of the Livestock Population (2006 Census of Livestock) in the district (qtd. in Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 31,896 Heads Buffaloes 592 Heads Sheep 1,239,499 Heads
Goats 807,608 Heads Camels 10,264 Heads Horses 511 Heads
Mules 143 Heads Asses 22,370 Heads

Table 1.8 Kalat Livestock Statistics

Cow breeds of the district include Sindhi, Sahiwal, and cross-bred Friesian cows. Neeli Ravi and Kundi are the main buffalo breeds, while Brahvi camel, Mangeli sheep, and Lehri goat are also indigenous breeds of the district.

Poultry

There are 37 poultry farms in the district (Table 17, Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock).

Fishing

There are no fisheries in the district.

Bee Keeping

Due to the cold climate, bee keeping is almost negligible in district.

Irrigation

The main sources of irrigation in the district are tube wells, karezes, and springs. The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area being irrigated by the mode (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 16,450 HA Government Canals – HA
Private Canals – HA Wells – HA
Tube Wells 16,412 HA Karez/Spring/Others 38 HA

Table 1.10 Kalat Irrigation Statistics

Mir Shahbaz Karez and Chashma Karez are the main karezes of the district. Chapchal Dam (which is now complete) and Tariki Dam (which is about 50% complete at the time of writing) are Delay Action Dams under construction in Kalat district.

Manufacturing/ Industry

No relevant data are available.

Mining

No minerals are being mined in the district, even though the district has deposits of marble, fluorite, and iron ore.

Oil and gas is being explored in the district.

Handicrafts

Kalat and Khuzdar districts are famous for their “Moshamka” needlework, which involves stitchwork in different colors. It may include the use of mirrors as well. Embroidered caps, purses, shoes, and belts are common. Tabletops, ashtrays, and other decoration pieces made of marble, as well as carpets and wall-hangings, pottery, and ornaments, especially items made with silver, are other important handicrafts of the district. Furniture-making and manufacture of other items of wood is also common.

 

Economic Infrastructure

The district is linked with Karachi in the south and Quetta (provincial capital) in the north; it is connected via black topped and shingle roads to its Tehsil headquarters and other urban areas. There is no air or rail service in the district.

Roads

According to the Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19, the road statistics of the district are as follows:

Total Roads 2,238.0 km
High Type Roads/Black Topped 952.0 km
Low Type Roads/Shingle 1,286.0 km

Table 1.9 Kalat Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district are:

  • The National Highway N-25, also called the RCD Highway, passes through Kalat city
  • Road connecting Kharan district to Kalat city
  • Surab-Kharan Road
  • Kalat City-Jhal Jhao Road
  • Road connecting Kalat City to Chagai district

Rail and Airways

No railway or air services exist in the district. The railway stations nearest to Kalat are the Mastung Railway Station and Khuzdar Railway Station. The district has no airport. The nearest airport is Quetta International Airport.

Radio and Television

The district has no radio or TV stations, but there is a TV booster in Kalat city. The inhabitants mostly listen to radio broadcasts from other stations.

Telecommunications

The district is connected to other parts of the country through telephone and telegraph. There are 02 telephone exchanges in Kalat district, which provide 945 landlines, 510 wireless phones and 861 broadband connections in the district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19). Cellular phone companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 10 post offices[1] in the district. Most of the courier services provide services in the district as well.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

The following banks have their branches in the district:

  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

According to the “List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019” by State Bank of Pakistan there are 10 branches of various conventional banks in the District.

Energy Sources

Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) looks after the supply of electricity throughout the Kalat district.

Education

The following table shows the number of primary, middle, secondary, and mosque schools in the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 331/162 Middle Schools 25/26
High Schools 36/17 Community Schools 08
Higher Secondary 02/03 Degree Colleges 01/-
Universities Mosque Schools[2]
Vocational Training Schools Private Schools[3] 08

Table 1.11 Kalat Educational Institutes

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Kalat district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Teaching Hospitals Hospitals 02/90
Rural health Centers 03/30 Basic Health Units 16/-
Dispensaries 42/- Mother Child Health Centers 04/-
TB/Leprosy clinics etc. 01/- Private Hospitals -/-
Private Dispensaries 01/-

Table 1.12 Kalat Health Institutes

Policing

For the purposes of administration, the district is divided into two areas: “A” and “B”. The town area of Kalat comes under “A” area, and the rest of the area of the district falls in the “B” area. The “A” area is controlled by a regular police force headed by the Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP). This DSP is assisted by Station House Officer (SHO), Inspector Police, and other staff. The “B” area is controlled by a levies force. Levies are a conventional force that maintain law and order. In levies, men from different tribes are employed. The levies force is under the direct control of the Deputy Commissioner (DC). Generally, the levies force is well equipped to deal with policing the district.

The policing of Kalat district is looked after by the Regional Police Officer (RPO) Kalat. This RPO is assisted by one SubDivisional Police Officer (SDPO) stationed at Kalat. In all, there is 01 police stations[4] in the district.

Figure 1.9 Kalat Fort

Figure 1.10 A Historical Graveyard, Kalat

Figure 1.11 Mountains, Surab

Figure 1.12 Makran Coastal Highway Khuzdar to Kalat

Figure 1.13 Mosque at Khan’s Palace

[1] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[2] included in primary schools

[3] 2011 Data

[4] Table no. 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District, 2019 by Federal Bureau of Statistics.

Environment and Biodiversity

Environmental pollution, especially brown pollution, is almost negligible, as there is no industrial set up or heavy traffic in the district.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Vegetation zones and flora of these zones are as follows:

  • Uphill steep rocky cliffs: Greek juniper/obusht (Juniperus Excelsa polycarpos) is the predominantly climax species associated with wild pistachios or shina/ khanjak/ Bombay mastix (Pistacia khinjjak); other flora of the rocky cliffs include joint pine or long ephedra (Ephedra nebrodensis), Chinese joint fir (Ephedra intermedia), barberry (Berberis lyceum), honeysuckle (Lunicera spp.), kharawa or Sparae/loni (Cotoneaster nummularia), wild rose (Rosa lacerans) and Afghan/ wild ash tree (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides)
  • Foothills: These provide grazing by a variety of shrubs like tharkha or sea worm wood (Artimesia meritima), wild almonds (Prunus ebernea), makhi/dwarf pea shrub (Caragana ambigua), Indian barberry or zralg (Berberis lyceum), wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum), oriental fountain grass or tall tales (Pennisetum orientale), marvel grass or blue stem fodder (Dichanthium spp.), ghuzaira or sophera (Sophora griffithii) along with herbs and other grasses
  • Piedmont Plains: The plains are mostly modified by the local community for agriculture and other land uses. The area consists of more or less flat to undulating plains. The region mostly contains tharkha or wormwood (Artimesia meritima), dwarf saxaul (Haloxylon griffithii), harmal (Peganum harmala), with sporadic mixture of edible seasonal forage plants which may include types of grass (Stipa himalacia), marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum), Aucher’s grass (Chrysopogon aucheri), oriental fountain grass (pennisitum orientale), flaccid grass (pennisetum flaccidum), bridal veil (Stipa capillata), feather grass (Stipa cabulica), leptorhabdos (Leptorhabdos benthamiana), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon spp.)
  • Dry Stream Beds: Commonly found in the entire district, dry stream beds are where salt cedar (Tamarix spp) is most commonly found

Medicinal plants of the district include boh-e-madran/ yarrow (Achillea wilhelmsii), camel thorn/ prickly clover (Alhagi maurorum), jir/bootae/mugwort (Artemisia scoparia), zarch/ barberry (Berberis baluchistanica), aak (Calotropis procera), karir (Capparis decidua), marmot (Caralluma tuberculata), bitter apple/ bitter cucumber (Citrullus colocynthis), baruva or khabbal/ devil’s grass (Cynodon dactylon), sanatha (Dodonaea viscosa), Mormon tea (Ephedra intermedia), and pine weed (Gentianoides olivieri).

Fauna

Mammalian fauna of the district include wolf, fox, jackals, hare, ibex, urial, wild goat, straight-horned markhor, stone marten, Persian jirds, collared pikas, migratory hamsters, mouse-like hamsters, and Afghan hedgehogs. Avifauna include chakor partridge, houbara bustard, and saker falcon. Reptiles and amphibians include a variety of snakes, lizards, toads, and frogs.

Protected Wildlife Areas

Koh-e-Gishk is a Protected Wildlife Sanctuary in the district. This provides protection to wild goats, ibex, urial, and markhor, as well as the houbara bustard and the saker falcon, among others.