Balochistan-Kech

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Introduction

Kech or Turbat district of Balochistan is located between 25° 24Ꞌ to 26° 39Ꞌ north latitudes and 61° 47Ꞌ 18” to 64° 30Ꞌ 59” east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by Panjgur district, on the east by Awaran district, on the south by Gawadar district, and on the west by Iran.

The district was first notified as Turbat district in 1977, but this name was changed to Kech in 1994-95. The name of the headquarter town remains Turbat.

District at a Glance

Name of District Kech District
Headquarters Turbat Town
Population[1] 909,116 persons
Area[2] 22,539 km2
Population Density[3] 37.7 persons/ km2
Growth Rate[4] 4.2%
Male Population[5] 54.4%
Female Population[6] 45.6%
Urban Population[7] 33.2%
Tehsils/ Talukas 04 Tehsils:

  1. Turbat Tehsil
  2. Tump Tehsil
  3. Buleda Tehsil
  4. Dasht Tehsil
Main Towns Turbat, Mand, Kech, Tump, Buleda, Dasht Kuddan, Niwano, Hothabad, Balicha, Asiabad, Balore, Nasirabad, Hoshab, Absor, and Kombail
Literacy Rate[8] 48%  (2013)
Male Literacy Rate[9] 68%  (2013)
Female Literacy Rate[10] 27%  (2013)
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding etc. 27.4%
Elementary Occupations 48.4%
Community, Social & Personal Services 8.6%
Crafts and Related Trades 4.2%
Others 11.5%
Main Crops Wheat, barley, moong, maash, moath, jowar, maize, rice, cotton, guar seed, and fodder
Major Fruits Almonds, apples, apricots, grapes, peach, pomegranate, plums, dates, musk melon, water melon, and citrus
Major Vegetables Onion, potatoes, carrots, chilies, coriander, cabbage, cauliflower, peas, radish, turnips, spinach, broad beans, tomatoes, okra, tinda, brinjal, and alfalfa
Forest (Area)[12] 1,036 HA[13]
Black Topped Roads[14] 455.0 km
Shingle Roads[15] 1,554.0 km
Electricity[16] Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) looks after supply and transmission of electricity. A powerhouse, owned and operated by WAPDA at Buleda, generates 200 KW of electricity
Telephone Exchanges[17] 05 telephone exchanges with 2,714 landlines, 1,192 wireless phones and 2,586 broad band connections.
Industrial Zones[18] No Industrial Estate and no industry of note
Major Industry[19] 1 Flour Mill and 1 Power Generation Plant at Buleda
Household Size[20] 5.1 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water[21] 20.4%
Houses with Electricity[22] 38.1%

Table 1.1 Kech District at a Glance

Figure 1.3 Village, Turbat/ Kech

Figure 1.4 A View of Turbat City

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8]  Kech District Education Plan (2016-17 to 2021-22) by GoBalochistan

[9] Kech District Education Plan (2016-17 to 2021-22) by GoBalochistan

[10] Kech District Education Plan (2016-17 to 2021-22) by GoBalochistan

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released.

[12] Balochistan Development Statistics, 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics report 104 HA under forests.

[14] Balochistan Development Statistics, 2018-19

[15] Balochistan Development Statistics, 2018-18

[16] Balochistan Development Statistics, 2018-19

[17] Balochistan Development Statistics, 2018-19

[18] Kech District Profile, with focus on Livelihood, by South Asian Partnership, 2009; Latest available

[19] Kech District Profile, with focus on Livelihood, by South Asian Partnership, 2009Latedt available.

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites/ Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the District

Kech district was part of the Makran Princely State[1] which acceded to Pakistan in 1947. It remained a Princely State till 1955, when it was amalgamated into West Pakistan on the formation of One Unit.[2] The State was located in the extreme southwest of present-day Pakistan, an area now occupied by the districts of Gwadar,[3] Kech, and Panjgur. The Makran Princely State was one of the main lines of communication between the Middle East and India, and hence, figures prominently in the ancient history of Balochistan. Makran is, in fact, full of legendary lore; one such story is about the time of Prophet Dawood (or David). It is believed that at one time, people committed suicide by entombing themselves in the small cairns/mounds (locally known as dambi) to escape from the constantly-recurring famines.[4] Another famous folklore/legend is the romantic story of Sassi and Punnu, said to be from the 12th century AD.

The area was said to be part of the kingdom of Iranian King Kaus, followed by Afrasiab of Turan, and later by Kai Khusrau.[5] After that, there is a long list of rulers which includes Lehrasp, Gushtasp, Bahman, Huma and Darab; in 325 BC, an army contingent of Alexander the Great passed through Makran (or Gadrosia, as it was known then), on their way from India to Macedonia. Greek historian Arrian commented on the land, environment, and people of the area. He found the climate to be extremely hot, the soil sandy, and the land inadequate for human settlement. Alexander the Great’s army found an oasis at Turbat and is known to have replenished their supplies here.[6] One of Alexander’s generals, Seleucus Nicator, became the ruler of the region after Alexander’s death, but ultimately lost it to Chandragupta Maurya in 303 BC.[7]

After Maurya’s conquest of the region, historical records do not mention Makran until the 5th century AD, when records show that the area was gifted to the Sassanian Bahram-i-Gor[8] as part of the dowry of Shermah’s daughter. Shermah was the Malik/ Chief of Hind, who included the country of Sindh and Makran in his daughter’s dowry on her marriage to Bahram-i-Gor. It remained under the Sassanians over the next 2 centuries. In the meantime, the Brahman dynasty of Sindh was rising, and Rai Chach had conquered Makran, bringing it under his dominions. The area was being ruled by Rai Chach when, in 643 AD, the Islamic/ Arab army, under the command of Abdullah Ibn Uthban, conquered Makran, and wrote to the Caliph Umer about the barrenness of the land. Arab kings ruled the land one after the other. All the Arab geographers of that era, including Ibn Haukal, Ibn Khurdadba, Al Istakhri, and Al Idrisi, described the country as being “for the most part desert” (p. 45).[9] In the 10th century, Ibn Haukal noted that the ruler of Makran was an Arab—Isa bin Madan—who had established his residence in Kech city, which was half the size of Multan. According to a local legend, Muhammad bin Qasim also passed through the area on his way to Sindh. Although many invaders, like the Deilamis, Seljuks, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, and Mongols conquered the land, they left the area alone in general, and the local rulers continued to exercise full authority. The local rulers included the Hoths, Rinds, Maliks, Buledais, and Gichkis.

Two particular regimes of local rulers, the Buledais and Gichkis, are notable. The Buledais gained power with the rise of the Zikri sect[10] in the 15th century. These rulers are said to be connected with the rulers of Muscat, and were called Buledais in reference to the valley from which they hailed, called Buleda. Buledai rule continued till 1740. Sheh Qasim was the last Buleda ruler who was defeated by a Gichki chief, Malik Dinar. The last strongholds of Sheh Qasim, Kech, and Gwadar fell to the Gichkis. Owing to family feuds and internal dissension between the Gichkis, the Ahmadzais (the Brahui rulers of Kalat) started advancing towards Makran, and made 9 expeditions which were either partially or fully successful sent by Mir Nasir Khan I (the then ruler of Kalat). It is said that the foremost motive behind these expeditions made by Mir Nasir Khan I, was to eliminate the Zikris. These expeditions resulted in the division of revenues from Makran between the Khans of Kalat and the Gichkis. Mir Mehrab Khan, successor of Mir Nasir Khan I, appointed Faqir Muhammad Bizanjo as his Naib (assistant) in Kech to keep a stronghold. This Naib represented the Khan in this area for more than 40 years. Afterwards, local influential people were appointed as Naibs of the Khan due to the ineffectiveness of non-local Naibs. Foreign support and the fragmented local population of the Balochs gave the Gichkis an upper hand; consequently, they became Hakims (rulers) of the area.

The First Afghan War (1838-39) directed the attention of the British to the area. Major Goldsmith visited the region in 1861, and an Assistant Political Agent was appointed at Gwadar in 1863. However, Kech remained under the control of the Khan of Kalat through his Nazims/ Assistants during the colonial era, while the British rulers exerted continued influence in the affairs of the region as well.

In 1863, the British built the main telegraph line between Europe and Gwadar, after the completion of which an Assistant Political Agent was sent to Gwadar. During this time, the Persians started making inroads into this region, and by 1869 they had taken possession of Pishin. The British, acting on behalf of the Khan of Kalat, intervened, and stopped their advance. By 1872, after prolonged negotiations, the boundaries between Indian and Persian lands were mapped, and Balochistan got its present-day boundaries.[11]

Due to local feuds, Makran was declared as a separate State in 1898, and the rulers were given the title of Nawabs.

After Independence and Partition in 1947, Makran joined the Balochistan States Union in early 1949 along with Lasbela and Kharan with the Khan of Kalat as the head of the Union. After its accession to Pakistan, Makran was given the status of a district of the former West Pakistan Province in October 1955. On the 1st of July 1970, when One Unit was dissolved and Balochistan gained the status of a province, Makran became one of its 8 districts. On 1st July 1977, Makran was declared a division and was divided into 3 districts: Panjgur, Turbat, and Gwadar. In 1994-95, the name of Turbat district was changed to its ancient name—Kech—with its headquarters at Turbat, which is also the district’s largest city.

[1] This entire section draws heavily from Kech District Profile 2011 by GoB

[2] In 1954-55 the Government of Pakistan merged the four provinces of West Pakistan into one province, and named it West Pakistan to bring it at par with East Pakistan (now Bangladesh)

[3] It is important to note, however, that the Gwadar enclave remained a part of Oman State till 1958, when it was acquired by the Government of Pakistan.

[4]Balochistan District Gazetteer Series, Makran, 1906

[5] King Kaus (Kay Kaus) and King Afrasiab are mythical kings of Iran described in the Shahnama by famous poet Firdausi. King Khusrau I ruled Iran from 531 to 579 BC (Kech District Development Plan 2011, GoB)

[6] Balochistan District Gazetteer Series, Makran 1906

[7] Kech District Development Plan 2011, GoB

[8] Bahram-i-Gor was the 14th Sassanian King of Iran/Persia from 404-427AD.

[9] Balochistan District Gazetteer, Makran 1906

[10] Zikris are a minority Muslim sect living mostly in Makran and other parts of Balochistan, They are the followers of Indian Sufi Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri.

[11] Balochistan District Gazetteers Makran 1904.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Kech district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly[1] 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 3

Under the Local Government Act 2010, Amended in 2011, Kech district has 1 District Council with 37 Union Councils. It has 1 Municipal Corporation (Turbat) and 2 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Buleda
  • Tump

Each Union Council is represented by 1 member in the District Council. In addition, there is special representation of women (33%), and of workers and peasants (5% each).

[1] This seat is shared with Gwadar

Administrative Divisions

Kech district covers an area of 22,539 km² and is subdivided into 4 Tehsils named after their major towns:

Turbat Tehsil 16 Union Councils
Tump Tehsil 08 Union Councils
Buleda Tehsil 07 Union Councils
Dasht Tehsil 06 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Kech Administrative Divisions

Heritage Sites/ Tourist Attractions

The ruins of the fort of the legendary love story’s hero Punnu (Punnu’s Fort) can still be visited and seen, but this fort is not given protected status by the Government of Balochistan.

Koh-i-Murad is a shrine which also needs protection. This shrine is considered sacred by the followers of the Zikri Sect, who believe that the founder of their religion, Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri (1443-1505), the Imam-e-Aakhiruzamaan, visited it.

Figure 1.10 Remains of Punnu’s Fort, Turbat City

Figure 1.11 Koh-i-Murad, Turbat City

Topography

The terrain of the district consists of plains, mountains and valleys with ground elevation ranging from 8 to1,435 m above mean sea level.

The district is located between two important mountain ranges, the directions of which are from north to east for one, and south to west for the other. The two mountain ranges are the Makran Coastal Range—which separates Kech from Gwadar district in the south—and the Central Makran Range, which separates it from Panjgur district in the north. Most of the western part of the district is relatively at a low elevation compared to the eastern part.

The Makran Coastal Range (locally called Bahrigarr) is in the south of the district, and has 2 main off-shoots. The first is the Gokprosh, which starts from Tal-e-Sar, due south of Hoshap in the Kech valley, and runs westward to Baho Kech in Iran. It consists of a single ridge at the eastern end, which gradually widens into a collection of parallel ridges as it approaches the western boundary of the district. The second off-shoot moves along what is almost the southern boundary of the district, separating it from Gwadar district. The height of the Makran Coastal Range varies from 600 m to 900 m.

The Central Makran Range is situated in the north of Kech district. At the northeastern end, the main mass of the range consists of a single ridge known as the Koh-e-Patandar, but which gets separated opposite to the Gwarjak village in Mashkai (Awaran district). The lower ridge, with a larger arc, runs along the northern edge of the Kolwa and Kech Valleys towards Mand. It is called by 3 different names, usually after the name of the area it skirts; thus, it is called Sami Koh when it reaches Sami, Buleda Band between Kech and Buleda, and Kech Band in Buleda itself. The higher off-shoot skirts the southern edge of the valley of Gwargo and runs westward past the Goran-e-Kandag into Zamuran (Buleda Tehsil).

In the west, the Central Makran Range includes the area of closed drainage known as Balgattar and the valley of Buleda.

The valleys lying within these mountain ranges are either structural or depositional. The important valleys include Nihang, Zamuran, Buleda, Kech, Tump and Mand in the northern part of the district, and Dasht, Balingore, Nigwar, and Pidarak Valleys in the south.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The main rivers of Kech district are Nihang and Kech Kaur, which flow in opposite directions but combine to become one at Kaur-e-Awaran (Nasirabad) to form Dasht River, which then moves in a southwestern direction through Dasht Valley and falls into the Arabian Sea in Gwadar district. The important tributaries of Nihang River are Kulbar and Tagran. Important tributaries of River Kech are Kill Kaur and Gish Kaur, and other smaller tributaries of Kech River are Kaur-e-Buleda, Dokurm, Dadde, Neelag, Koh-e-Murad Kaur (which originate from different points but join the Kech Kaur) and Dasht Kaur.

Other important streams are Shadi Kaur, which flows from the southern slope of the Makran Coastal Range and in to the Arabian Sea near Pasni town of Gwadar district, as well as Gish Kaur which has its headwater in the western and northwestern end of Buleda Valley and drains the Central Makran Range. The waters in the Gish Kaur are seasonal, and the river expands, at short intervals, into large shallow pools.

There are other numerous hill torrents which flow during seasonal rains.

The reservoir of Mirani Dam on River Kech/ Dasht is an important lake in the district, and another small but notable lake of the district is Sur Chah.

Figure 1.5 Kech River, Turbat City

Figure 1.6 A Water Pond, Turbat City

Forests

The District has a total of 1,036 HA of forests out of which 104 HA have been designated as Protected State-Owned Forest in the district.

There are 2 main forests: the Kolwa Kap Forest and Shadi Kaur Forest; of these two, Kolwa Kap Forest is a Notified Protected Wildlife Sanctuary.

The district has Dry Tropical Thorn Forest and Sand Dunes Scrub vegetation zones. The major flora of the district includes jand or kahur (Prosopis specigera), fig or karag (Ficus bengalensis), benth or chigrid (Acacia jacquemontii), vann or peelu (Salvadora oleoides), Arabian lilac or gawanik (Vitex trifoliate), and saxaul or taghaz (Haloxylon ammodendron).

Figure 1.7 GIS Map of Kech, IUCN

The following table shows the types of forests and their area in the District (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 2,560 A Scrub Forests 2,560 A
Rangelands – A Coniferous Forests – A
Irrigated Plantations – A Riverine Forests – A
Coastal/Mangrove Forests – A

Soils

The area comprises various types of soils known as matt, karkat, rikpoad, halli, and sarah. Matt is the best for agricultural cultivation as it possesses the richest clay characteristics, consisting of silt washed down from the hills. Karkat is considered second best; it is harder, and cracks appear when it gets dry. It needs to be broken with a plough, but needs less water than matt for cultivation. Both matt and karkat are suitable for spring crops and are found in Surab, Gidar, Pandran, parts of Baghbana, Tutak, Nal, Kalo, Karkh, Korask, and Jhao. Rikpoad is a light sandy soil found only in Wad, which is suitable for wheat, barley, and jowar cultivation. Halli is gravel like soil, found in the irrigated areas of Surab and Kech, in the foothills, and along the banks of rivers. Sarah or salt soil is found in large tracts at Hisar, Zehri, Gidar, and Nondara valleys.[1]

Climate

Kech district is one of the hottest places in Pakistan and is categorized in the hot summers and mild winter regions. Summer season lasts from March to November, and winter is from December to February. June is the hottest month, with the mean maximum temperature[2] rising above 40 °C. January is the coldest month, with mean maximum temperature being 18 °C. In winter, the north and northeast wind, called Gorich (in the local language) is common, which makes the region colder. Mean maximum and minimum temperatures for June, the hottest month, are 40 °C and 24 °C respectively, and the same range of temperatures for January, the coldest month, are 18 °C and 4 °C.

Average rainfall is low and uncertain. Mean annual rainfall is 110 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1]Kech District Profile by GoB, 2011.

[2] In the absence of a meteorological station in the district, the temperatures and rainfall data recorded at Panjgur are used.

Population

The following table shows the population of the district according to the 2017 Census:

Tehsil/ Taluka Area km2 Population Male % Female % Urban % Growth Rate %
Kech District 22,539 909,116 54.4 45.6 33.2 4.23
Buleda Tehsil NA 216,826
Dasht Tehsil NA 77,291
Kech/ Turbat Tehsil NA 417,898
Tump Tehsil 6,748 197,101

Table 1.3 Kech Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.6%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis Negligible %
Scheduled Castes 0.2%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.4 Kech Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.2%
Punjabi 0.3%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 0.1%
Balochi 99.2%
Seraiki 0.1%
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Kech Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The main economic activities in the district include (1998 Data; 2017 Census Data has not been released):

  • Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding etc. (27.4%)
  • Elementary Occupations (48.4%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (8.6%)
  • Crafts & Related Trades (4.2%)
  • Others (11.5%)

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 2,253,900 HA Reported Area 554,336 HA
Total Cultivated Area 69,816 HA Net Sown 39,206 HA
Current Fallow 30,610 HA Total Uncultivated Area 484,520 HA
Culturable Waste 47,364 HA Forest Area 104 HA

Table 1.6 Kech Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district is included in the Suleiman Piedmont Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Farming is mostly barani or rain-fed/ torrent-fed, and is subsistence-level. The crops of the district include bajra, gram, jowar, maash, moong, masoor, sugarcane, wheat, cotton, rapeseed, mustard & canola, sesanum, barley, maize, and rice.

The fruits grown in the district include citrus, mango, watermelon, and musk melon.

The vegetable produce of the district includes chilies, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, peas, okra, tinda, radish, spinach, turnip, carrots, bitter gourd, pumpkin, brinjal, and luffa.

Figure 1.8 A Date Tree in Turbat City

Figure 1.9 A Lush Green Orchard in Turbat City

Livestock

Livestock is also a very important sector of the local economy. It is the main source of income for nomadic families. The following table shows the position of the Livestock Population (2006 Census of Livestock, qtd. in Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19) in the district:

Cattle 43,433 Heads Buffaloes 306 Heads Sheep 64,693 Heads
Goats 455,391 Heads Camels 6,061 Heads Horses 178 Heads
Mules 410 Heads Asses 11,060 Heads

Table 1.7 Kech Livestock Statistics

The livestock breeds of the district are kharani camel, khurasani and morak goat, and rakhshani sheep.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) there are 10 poultry farms in the district.

Fishing

There is very little fishing activity in the district. Fish is brought in from Gwadar for local consumption. The reservoir of Mirani Dam has enhanced fishing as an economic activity of the district.

Bee Keeping

Only wild honey is locally used in the district, and bee keeping is not a commercial/ economic activity, mainly due to the scanty flora of the region.

Irrigation

There are 2 major sources of irrigation in the district: canals and wells. The Mirani Dam, constructed on the Dasht River, provides irrigation waters. It irrigates 33,200 acres in Kech Valley and supplies clean drinking water to Turbat and Gwadar. The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area being irrigated by the mode (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 39,206 HA Government Canals – HA
Private Canals 10,330 HA Wells 14,924 HA
Tube Wells 13,893 HA Karez/Spring/Others 59 HA

Table 1.9 Kech Irrigation Statistics

According to the Pakistan Water Gateway, the official website of IUCN Pakistan, there are 136 karezes[2] in the district. Some of these are Bayan, Absar, Bahman, Balnigor, Buleda, Tump, Naseerabad Karez, Phullan Karez, Degari Kahan, and Gashtang.

Minerals and Mining

At present, no minerals are being mined in the district, but reserves of sandstone, shale and gravel with a minor showing of quartz, and calcite veins are present, and can be mined.

Oil and gas deposits are being explored in the district.

Industry

According to the book Profile of Kech: Focus on Livelihood Issues by South Asian Partnership, there are no major industrial estates in Kech district, but there is a WAPDA Power Generation Plant at Buleda, and a flour mill at Turbat.

Handicrafts

Embroidery work is the main handicraft, usually done by women of the area. The Government of Balochistan has set up a leather embroidery center at Turbat. Other handicrafts of the district include household items made with the leaves of the mazri palm, and carpet making.

 

Economic Infrastructure

Roads are the most important means of transportation and form the backbone of the local and national economy. The road network connects Turbat city with Panjgur and Awaran in the northwest and north, Pasni and Gwadar in the south, and Karachi in the southeast. Turbat has a domestic airport which operates direct flights to Gwadar and Karachi.

Roads

According to the Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19, the road statistics of the district are as follows:

Total Roads 2,009.0 km
High Type Roads/Black topped 455.0 km
Low Type Roads/Shingle 1,554.0 km

Table 1.8 Kech Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district include:

  • Turbat-Buleda Road
  • Alandoor-Nawano Road
  • Mirabad-Rodbun Road
  • Turbat-Pasni Road
  • National Highway N-85 (Hushab-Surab) passes through the district at Sur Chah

Turbat city is linked with Tehsil headquarters through shingle roads.

Rail and Airways

There is no railway station in the district, but there is a commercial airport at Turbat, called Turbat International Airport.

Figure 1.12 Turbat International Airport, Turbat City

Radio and Television

TV can be viewed through satellite. There are 2 radio broadcasting stations in Turbat, called Radio Pakistan, and Radio Balochistan respectively.

Telecommunications

The district is connected to other parts of the country through telephone and telegraph. There are 05 telephone exchanges in Kech district, which provide 2,714 landlines, 1,192 wireless phones and 2,586 broadband connections in the District. (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19). Cellular phone companies provide their services in the district as well.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 10 post offices in the entire district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19). Courier companies provide services in the district as well.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

The following banks all have their branches[1] in the district:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah
  • Bank Al Habib
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • Mybank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • The Bank of Punjab
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 33 branches of various conventional banks and 02 branches of Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) looks after the supply and transmission of electricity to the district.

Education

The following table shows the number of primary, middle, secondary, and mosque schools in the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 316/204 Middle Schools 50/33
High Schools 46/30 Community Schools 17
Higher Secondary 03/- Degree Colleges 01/01
Universities Mosque Schools[3]
Technical Training schools 01 Private Schools[4] 03

Table 1.10 Kech Education Statistics

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Kech district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./beds Institution No./beds
Teaching Hospitals Hospitals 02/121
Rural Health Centers 11/98 Basic Health Units 38/-
Dispensaries 42/- Mother Child Health Centers 04/-
TB/Leprosy Clinics etc. 01/- Private Hospitals 07/68
Private Dispensaries

Table 1.11 Kech Health Institutions

Policing

The larger part of Kech district is bifurcated into an “A” and a “B” area. The “A” area, comprising towns and highways, has a police force. A police station has a radius of a maximum of 8 km jurisdiction. The “B” area does not have a police force. All major law and order situations in the “B” area are dealt with by levies.

Levy is a conventional force for maintaining law and order. Installed during British rule, levy members are recruited along tribal or clan lines. The levies fall under the direct command of the Deputy Commissioner (DC), with powers delegated to the assistant commissioners, and tehsildars. The levies in the district are classified as Sepoy, Hawaldar, Dafeedar, Jameedar, and Risaldar. Every district in Balochistan has its own levy, each named after the district. Recently, at the initiation of the DC administration, a new levy force has been recruited on the district level, known as the Task Force. This Task Force is better trained and equipped with advanced weapons.

The policing of Kech district is managed by the Regional Police Officer (RPO) Makran. This RPO is assisted by 1 SubDivisional Police Officer (SDPO) stationed at Turbat. In all, there are 05 police station in the district (Table 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District; by Federal Bureau of Statistics 2019).

[1] List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, provided by State Bank of Pakistan

[2] For more details please visit http://cms.waterinfo.net.pk/?q=karez.

[3] included in primary schools

[4] 2011 Data

Environment and Biodiversity

The district is free from air pollution, as there is very little heavy traffic on roads and no industry.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Important flora[1] of the district is Indian mesquite or jand or kahur (Prosopis specigera), fig or karag or bargad (Ficus benghalensis), kikri or benth or chigrid (Accacia jacquemontii), vann or peelu or kabbar (Salvadora oleoides), gawanik or Arabic lilac (Vitex trifoliata), saxaul or taghaz (Haloxylon ammodendron), harmala, Syrian or African rue (Peganum harmala), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), kandar or camel thorn (Alhagi camelorum), Sodom apple or aak (Calotropis procera), harmal (Rhazya stricta), field cottonrose or cudweed or burako (Filago arvensis), bata (Periploca aphylla), lovegrass (Eragrostis cynosuroides), peesh or mazri palm (Nannorhops ritchiana), karir (Capparis decidua), arti or phog (Calligonum comosum), purchink or blue mint (Ziziphora clinopodioides), ghaz or Indian tamarisk (Tamarix galica), and anab (Tamarix macrocarpa).

Some fodders (of which common names are not known) are Shirakah, Simsur, and Gaillonia eriantha; these are generally found in the entire district. Grasses like gandil or granachin or a type of goosegrass (Eleusine flagellifera), gomaz or drumstick (Allium sphaerocephalum), Indarkah or desert horse pursilane (Trianthema pentandra), shimsh or fenugreek (Trigonella stocksii), kash or kans grass (Saccharum Spontaneum), dill or munj sweetcane (Saccharum ciliare), drab or lovegrass (Eragrostis cynosuroides), barshonk (Pennisetum dichotomum), sundum (Epilasia ammophila), and magher (Artiplex dimorphostegium) are common.

The vegetation zones of the district are as follows:

  • Uphill steep cliffs: Common flora include banyan (Ficus benghalensis), chigirid or kikri or benth (Accacia jecquemontii), chigird, maurai/purchink or blue mint bush (Zizyphora clinopodioides), chimer or Indian goosegrass (Eleusine flagellifera), round headed leek or gomaz (Allium sphaerocephalum), indarkah or horse purslane (Trianthema pentandra), and shimsh or fenugreek (Trigonella stocksii)
  • Foothills and Plains: Common flora are kabbar or vann/peelu (Salvadora oleoides), gawanik or simpleleaf chaste tree (Vitex trifolia), taghaz or black saxaul (Haloxylon ammodendron), harmal (Peganum harmala), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), kinder or camel thorn (Alhagi camelorum), rubber bush (Calotropis procera), sihar or harmal (Rhazya stricta), alonj, burako or cudweed (Filago arvensis), apo plant/bush (salsolaceous), bata (Perploca aphylla), cane grass or lovegrass (Eragrostis cynosuroides), pish or mazri palm (Nannorhops ritchiana), karir (Capparis aphylla), phog or arti (Calligonum comosum), purchink or bluemint bush (Zizyphora clinopodioides), fodders (Shirakah, Simsur, Gaillonia eriantha), French tamarisk or ghaz/jhau (Tamarix galica), a genus of tamarisk (Tamarix macrocarpa), kash or wild/kans grass (Saccharum spontaneum), dill or reed grass (Saccharum ciliare), drab or love grass (Eragrostis cynosuroides), barshonk or wild grasses like Pennisetum dichotomum, and Epilasia ammophila, magher or salt bush (Artiplex dimorphostegium), nadag or beard grass (Andropogon jwarancusa), kandar or baun and gorkah or sewan grass (Elionurus hirsutus; Gorkah)

Fauna

Mammals of the district include Sindh ibex, wild sheep, desert fox, Asiatic jackal, hare, porcupine, and Afghan hedgehog. The area is also inhabited by the threatened desert deer, goitered gazelle, honey badger, wolves, and urial.

Birds found in the district include the houbara bustard, see-see partridge, a number of sparrows, finches, buntings, seasonal/migratory waterfowls, hawks, and sand grouse.

Reptiles include the Turkestan rock gecko, sharp-tailed spider gecko, Lumsden gecko, whip-tailed sand gecko, Baloch spiny-tailed lizard, mountain dwarf gecko, short-toed sand swimmer, Easter dwarf skink, Indian desert monitor, reticulate desert lacerta, Caspian desert lacerta, Chagai desert lacerta, dark-headed dwarf racer, Tartary sand boa, spotted desert racer, dark-headed gamma snake, Maynard’s awl-headed snake, Afghan tortoise, Indian cobra, leaf-nose viper and lizards like Agamura femoralis, and Stenodactylus maynardi.

Protected Areas and Wildlife

Kolwa Kap Wildlife Sanctuary is a notified Wildlife Protected Area in the district. This reserve provides sanctuary to the Sindh ibex, ravine deer, wolves, urial, and the migratory birds that frequent it.

[1] Most information on Flora and Fauna has been drawn from Kech District Profile 2011, by GoB