Balochistan-Khuzdar

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Introduction

Khuzdar district is located between 25° 44Ꞌ 4” to 28° 51Ꞌ 25” north latitudes, and 65° 35Ꞌ 35” to 67° 24Ꞌ 8” east longitudes. It is bounded on the north and northwest by Kalat and Kharan districts; on the east by Bolan, Jhal Magsi and Lasbela districts as well as Larkana and Dadu districts of Sindh; on the south by Lasbela district; and on the southwest by Awaran district.

Figure 1.3 Moola Village, Khuzdar

District at a Glance

Name of District Khuzdar District
Headquarters Khuzdar Town
Population[1] 802,207 persons
Area[2] 35,380 km2
Population Density[3] 25.9 persons/ km2
Growth Rate[4] 3.5%
Male Population[5] 52.5%
Female Population[6] 47.5%
Urban Population[7] 34.5%
Tehsils/ Talukas 05 Tehsils:

  1. Khuzdar Tehsil
  2. Moola Tehsil
  3. Nal Tehsil
  4. Wadh Tehsil
  5. Zehri Tehsil
Main Towns Khuzdar, Wadh, Nal, Zehri, Kahan, Saroona, Wandari, Moola, Kharzan, and Faizabad
Literacy Rate[8] 45%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 60%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 26%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing 52.0%

 

Community, Social & Personal Services 22.8%
Construction 11.7%
Electricity, Gas & Water 6.3%
Whole Sale, Retail Trade & Restaurants/Hotels 4.4%
Manufacturing 1.1%
Others 1.7%
Main Crops Wheat, barley, cumin, masoor, rice, jowar, bajra, moong, maash, moath, guar seed, maize, cotton, sunflower, and fodder
Major Fruits Almonds, apples, apricots, grapes, peach, plum, pomegranate, pistachios, dates, citrus, banana, guavas, watermelon, musk melon, ber, mulberry, and mangoes (grown only in Moola Tehsil)
Major Vegetables Peas, coriander, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, radish, turnip. Tomatoes, potatoes, okra, brinjal, bitter gourd, cucumber, bottle gourd, and pumpkin
Forest Area[12] 518 HA[13]
Black Topped Roads[14] 1,418.0 km
Shingle Roads[15] 1,514.0 km
Electricity[16] Supplied by Quetta Electricity Supply Company (QESCO)
Telephone Exchanges[17] 04 telephone exchanges with 1,312 landlines, 965 wireless phones, and 1,239 broadband connections
Industrial Zones[18] No major Industrial Estates
Industrial Units[19] Cotton Ginning 1 Unit
Barite 1 Unit
Flour Mill 1 Unit
Household Size[20] 5.4 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water[21] 7.6%
Houses with Electricity[22] 32.7%

Table 1.1 Khuzdar District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[12] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics report 8,094 HA under forests.

[14] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Khuzdar District Development Profile, 2011, P&D Department, GoB

[19] Khuzdar District Development Profile, 2011, P&D Department, GoB

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites/ Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the District

The Khuzdar district[1] is located in the center of Balochistan, and was part of Jhalawan which was, in turn, a highland division of the Kalat State. Khuzdar was the headquarters of Jhalawan until 1955, when the One Unit Policy eliminated all provincial boundaries in West Pakistan.

As with other areas of Balochistan, the ancient history of Khuzdar is obscure, and very little corroborated information is available about the country before the advent of the Arabs, who ousted the Rai dynasty of Sind in the 7th century AD.[2] During the reign of the Rai Dynasty, this area was called Turan, with its capital at Khuzdar.

Sir T. Holdich (famous British geographer, best known as the Superintendent of Frontier Surveys in British India, and author of many books), believes that one part of the army of Alexander the Great went by the Mula Pass and then traversed Choarene which has been identified as Khuzdar. The region is still called Kohiar by some inhabitants, which is an ancient name for the region. This area is not mentioned again until the rise of the Rai Dynasty of Sindh, that controlled the areas as far as Kandahar (Afghanistan), and Seistan (Persia), as well as the Suleiman and Kaikanan hills of Balochistan. Kaikanan was in the neighborhood of Kalat, and has been identified with present day Nal in Khuzdar.

During the caliphate of the Muawiyas, the Arabs conquered this part of the country, taking it from the Rai Dynasty of Sindh, in 664 AD. The Arab army was under the command of Al-Manzar, son of Al-Jarud-al-Abdi. After conquering the area, the Arabs made Khuzdar their capital. It is said that Al-Manzar died here.[3]

The central position of Khuzdar, as the point of convergence of roads from Multan (via the Mula Pass), Makran and Kandahar (province of Afghanistan), made it a very important place for the Arabs invading India. It is probable, too, that its moderate climate made the locality acceptable to them for settlement and development. During Arab rule, Khuzdar was protected by a small fortress. The strong fortress was probably on the Halwai peak at a height of 2,160 m, overlooking the valley, which is now known as Baradari (Shahi Bagh). An Arab historian, Al Biladhuri, quotes an Arabic poet who, describing Khuzdar, exclaimed: “what a beautiful country is Kusdar (Khuzdar). How distinguished are its inhabitants.”

In 997 AD the founder of the Ghaznavid Empire, Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Sebuktigin, commenced a series of invasions on India and conquered Khuzdar, but its possession was restored to the previous rulers through a treaty which stipulated that a tribute would be paid every year, part of which was to be paid immediately. During the rule of Mahmood Ghaznavi, the rulers of Khuzdar refused to pay the tribute, forcing him to attack, but when the ruler of Khuzdar paid five times the agreed-upon tribute and 15 elephants as pesh-kash [gift], he was allowed to retain his kingdom. In 1047-48, during the rule of Mahmood’s grandson Maudud, Khuzdar again rebelled, and was conquered by him and brought under Ghaznavid rule.

With the downfall of the Ghaznavids, Khuzdar passed to the Ghorids, and then to Nasir-ud-din Kabacha (Muslim Turk governor of Multan) when he asserted his independence in Sindh. In 1225 AD Khuzdar submitted to Shamsuddin Altamash. During Altamash’s rule, Khuzdar was governed by Malik Bahram Shah from whom the area was taken over by the Mongols under Malik Chap who was thought to be of “immoral character” by the locals and was later assassinated. Malik Bahram Shah’s tomb is in Washuk (now a district).

The Soomra and Samma dynasties held Sindh in the 14th century and, at their zenith, Khuzdar was included in their territories. At the same time, the Jat tribes of the country consolidated their power, but were overthrown by the rising power of the Brahvi (or Brahui) tribe.

Khuzdar passed on to the Mughals and remained a part of their empire, governed by the Zehri tribe.[4] Meanwhile, by the middle of the 15th century, the Brahvis had risen to complete power by defeating the Jat tribes; the Brahvi leader was Mir Bijar Khan, a contemporary of Mir Chakar Khan Rind. During Mughal rule, the Jhalawan areas were a part of the Kalat Princely State. Khuzdar became the seat of the Kalat Government and the residence of the Khan’s naib or representative.

In 1810 Henry Pottinger[5] visited the Jhalawan area and described Khuzdar as a valley encompassed by mountains and surrounded by a low mud wall. He also noted that the Hindus from Multan and Shikarpur appeared to have gained the trust of the rulers, so much so that the keys of the town gate were entrusted to the then senior Brahmin every night.

In 1869 the people of Jhalawan/Khuzdar rebelled under the leadership of Noor ud-Din Mengal on the instigation of Jam Mir Khan of Lasbela, but the rebels were defeated in a battle near Khuzdar. Another outbreak began in 1893 and continued till 1895 under the leadership of Gauhar Khan, the Zehri Chief. In 1895 this rebellion was suppressed by the Kalat State troops in the battle of Garmap, during which both Gauhar Khan and his son lost their lives.

In 1903, the British Government appointed a political agent at Khuzdar to carry out the administrative affairs of the government. This administrative system continued till the Partition of India.

The district has many archeological remains, especially the gabarbands or embankments of the fire worshippers. There are 2 important gabarbands in Khuzdar: one is locally known as Ahmad Band, and the other is near Pir Munaghara, in Sarona. A vaulted burial chamber cut in the slope of the hill near Pandran, and several other tombs indicate a system of super terrene burial. Earthen vessels and stones bearing Kufic inscriptions have been excavated from the numerous mounds in the country. The most archeologically significant mound is Meri Bhar or Palace Mound; it is believed to be the seat of the last Mongol governor of Khuzdar, Malik Chap, who was killed by the Kurd inhabitants of Khuzdar. The Shahi Bagh at Khuzdar gives an indication of the city’s importance and condition in ancient times. Many old dams and tombs are scattered throughout the district as well.

Khuzdar was notified as a separate district on 1st March 1974. Previously, it was a part of Kalat district.

Figure 1.4 A Bazaar in Nal

[1] The history of the district has been drawn mainly from the Imperial Gazetteer of India v 14 p 110 and 111, as well as from the District Development Profile of Khuzdar District, 2011 by P & D Department GoB with UNICEF, and Balochistan District Gazetteer Series Jhalawan, 1907.

[2] Khuzdar District Profile by CoPakistan 1998

[3] Balochistan District Gazetteer Series, Jhalawan, p. 34

[4] Zehri tribe has been mentioned by Abul Fazal in 1590. Abul Fazal was the grand vizier of Emperor Akbar the Great, and author of the Akbarnama; he was also one of Akbar’s “nine jewels” (artists, historians, and poets etc., especially treasured by Emperor Akbar)

[5] Henry Pottinger was an Anglo-Irish soldier and Colonial Administrator.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Khuzdar district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 3

Under the Local Government Act 2010, Amended in 2011, Khuzdar district has 1 District Council with 40 Union Councils. It has 4 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Khuzdar
  • Wadh
  • Nal
  • Zehri

Each Union Council is represented by one member in the District Council. In addition, there is special representation of women (33%) and of workers and peasants (5% each).

Administrative Divisions

Khuzdar district has a total area of 35,380 km2 and is divided into the following Tehsils named after their headquarters:

Khuzdar Tehsil 11 Union Councils
Zehri Tehsil 03 Union Councils
Moola Tehsil 04 Union Councils
Nal Tehsil 07 Union Councils
Wadh Tehsil 09 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Khuzdar Administrative Divisions

Heritage Sites/ Tourist Attractions

There are government protected historical/heritage sites in the district. A number of archeological sites are present in the district, which need to be protected by the government. These are:

  • Meri Bher or Palace Mound: This is believed to be the seat of the last Mongol governor of Khuzdar, Malik Chap, who was killed by Kurd inhabitants of Khuzdar
  • Shahi Bagh
  • Pir Omar Shah Noorani Shrine
  • Many old dams and tombs

The main picnic spots of the district include Pir Umar Picnic spot, the Charoo Falls in Charoo Village and Moola Chotok waterfalls in Moola Village, all of which offer scenic picnic areas. The Main Mosque of Khuzdar, which is a beautiful mosque, and a symbol of modern Islamic architecture on the RCD highway in Khuzdar, attracts many people as well.

Figure 1.6 Charoo Falls, Khuzdar

 

Figure 1.7 Chotok Waterfall in Moola Chotok, Khuzdar

Figure 1.8 A Mosque on a Main Road; Khuzdar

Topography and Soils

Khuzdar is located at the apex of a narrow valley which is at an elevation of 1,237 m (4,058 ft). The greatest length from north to south is about 318 km and the greatest width from east to west is about 175 km. The district has a gradual slope to the south.

Geographically, Khuzdar district is mountainous, consisting of numerous ridges and valleys of varying width. The ridges and hills are formed of folded sandstone and shale. In the northern part of the district, important ranges are the Harboi Range and the Central Brahvi Range, both of which run from north to south. The Moola (also spelled Mula) Hills in the East of Jhalawan form an offshoot of the Harboi Range. In the southern part of the district, the main ranges are the Khudo, the Chapar, and the Pab; these run from northwest to southeast and enter Lasbela district in the extreme south.

The Kirthar Range runs along the eastern boundary of the district in a north‑south direction. The Garr Hills form the western boundary of the district. There are a number of more or less detached mountains in the center of the district, the chief of which are Dobanzil (2,239 m), Hushtir (2,212.8 m), Shashan (2,290 m) and Dra Khel (2,469.5 m).[1]

The general elevation of the district is about 1,800 to 3,000 m above sea level. Khuzdar city’s elevation is about 1,237 m above sea level. The important valleys of the district include Surab, Gidar, Baghwana, Zehri, Khuzdar, Firozabad, Wadh, Nal, Saruna, Jau, and the valley of the Mashkai River.[2]

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The most important river of the district is the Hub, which rises in the Pab Hills in the Jhalawan area. It runs southwards and enters Lasbela district. The Mula River rises in the Harboi Hills and runs from north to south, and then north to east into the Kachhi Plains. The Sukleji and the Malghawa Rivers also rise in the Harboi Hills and run towards the south to join other streams. The Porali River rises in the Jhalawan Hills near Wadh and enters Lasbela district in the south. The Bangari River rises in the Garr Hills and runs southwards to join Nal River before entering Awaran district. Other important seasonal rivers and streams are Kohan, Saruna, Labil, Dara, Hator, Mosina, Kolachi, and Bini.

Since the district is mostly mountainous, a large number of seasonal streams are generated in the mountains which flow down during the rainy season. Some of these are Shandi Jhal, Khisun Band Jhal, Sang Nal Jhal, Kappak Jhal, Charri Jhal, Parpuki Jhal, and Chil Jhal.

There are no fresh water lakes or ponds in the district.

Forests

The district is located in the Dry Sub-Tropical and Temperate Semi-Evergreen Scrub Forest zone of the province. Generally, natural vegetation, including shrubs, bushes, and grasses can be aptly termed as rangelands; these rangelands are contributing substantially to the ecological stability of the ecosystems and the economic uplift of the district.

Major tree species are hapurse or Turkistan juniper (Juniperus excelsa polycarpos), olive or zaitoon (Olea cuspidata), gawan or wild pistachio (Pistacia khinjjak), phulai (Accacia modesta), kabar or vann (Salvadora oleoides), kandi or Indian mesquite or jand (Prosopis spicigera), pissi or beri (Zizyphus jujuba), jangli ber (Zizyphus nummularia), kikar (Accacia nolatica) and benth (Acacia jacquemontii).

The following table shows the type of forests found in the district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 1,280 A Coniferous Forests – A
Irrigated Plantation – A Riverine/Bela Forests 1,280 A
Scrub Forests – A Coastal/Mangroves Forests – A
Rangelands – A

Table 1.3 Khuzdar Forests

According to the Khuzdar District Development Profile, 2011 by P & D Department, GoB in collaboration with UNICEF, the following forests are Notified Forest Areas and protected wildlife sanctuaries in the district:

  • Khera Dori (8,094 HA)
  • Chorani (19,433 HA)
  • Kachau (21,660 HA)
  • Shahaan (29,555 HA)
  • Chhapar Kohan (194,616 HA)

Figure 1.5 IUCN GIS Map Khuzdar District

Soils

The district has various types of soil known as matt, karkats, rikpoad, halli, and sarah in which matt is the best and richest clay-natured soil for agriculture, consisting of silt washed down from the hills. Karkat is considered to be second-best for agriculture. It is harder, cracks when dry, and requires breaking up after ploughing, but requires less water than matt for cultivation. Both matt and karkat are suitable for spring crops, and are found in Surab, Gidar, Pandran, parts of Baghwana, Tutak, Nal, Kalo, Karkh, Korask, and Jan. Rikpoad is a light sandy soil found in Wadh. It is suitable for the cultivation of wheat, barley, and jowar, but the crops are considered substandard to those grown on matt or karkat. It is also well-suited for melons, onions, and vegetables. Halli is a gravely soil, found in the irrigated areas of Surab and Khuzdar, on the skirts of hills, and along the banks of rivers. It is suitable for vegetables, but the crops cultivated on it are thin and need great care. Sorah or salt land is the lowest quality soil among all and is found in large tracts at Hisar, Zehri, Gidar, Nondrav Valley, and between Mir-na-Shaher and Bajoi in Baghwana.

Climate

The climate of the district is warm in summers and cold in winter. The southern area of the district is warmer than the northern part. There is a great variation in the day and night temperatures, and the nights are much colder than the days. June is the hottest month, with mean average maximum and minimum temperatures of 38 °C and 25 °C respectively. January is the coldest month, with mean average maximum and minimum temperatures of 17 °C and 3 °C respectively. The winds in the winter blow from the north, and are locally known as goorich, while in the summer, the wind direction is from the south and southeast, and the winds are known as numbi.

The rainfall is scanty, and mostly occurs in winter. The average rainfall is about 244 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] The names of the hills have been taken from the Imperial Gazetteer of India v 14 p 109.

[2] Imperial Gazetteer of India v 14 p 109

Population

The following table shows the population of Khuzdar as per 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area

km2

Population Male % Female % Urban % Growth Rate %
Khuzdar District 35,380 802,207 52.5 47.5 34.5 3.49
Khuzdar Tehsil NA 331,412
Nal Tehsil NA 131,510
Wadh Tehsil NA 213,771
Zehri Tehsil 102,129
Moola Tehsil 23,385

Table 1.4 Khuzdar Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.1%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus 0.6%
Ahmadis 0.1%
Scheduled Castes 0.2%
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Khuzdar Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.2%
Punjabi 1.0%
Sindhi 0.6%
Pushto 0.4%
Balochi 96.7%
Seraiki 0.1%
Others[3] 1.0%

Table 1.6 Khuzdar Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[3] include Brahui language

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The economy of the district is based on agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing/hunting. The main economic activities of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing (52.0%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (22.8%)
  • Construction (11.7%)
  • Electricity, Gas & Water (6.3%)
  • Wholesale, Retail, Trade & Restaurants/Hotels (4.4%)
  • Manufacturing (1.1%)
  • Others (1.7%)

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 3,538,000 HA Reported Area 3,304,749 HA
Total Cultivated Area 149,337 HA Net Sown 70,729 HA
Current Fallow 70,354 HA Total Uncultivated Area 3,155,412 HA
Culturable Waste 1,055,416 HA Forest Area 8,094 HA

Table 1.7 Khuzdar Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district is part of the barani area, and agriculture mostly depends on rains. Important crops are wheat, barley, cumin, masoor, rice, jowar, bajra, moong, maash, moath, guar seed, maize, cotton, sunflower, and fodder.

Fruits of the district include almonds, apples, apricots, grapes, peach, plum, pomegranate, pistachios, dates, citrus, banana, guavas, watermelon, musk melon, ber, mulberry, and mangoes (grown only in Moola Tehsil).

Vegetables grown in the district include peas, coriander, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, radish, turnips, tomatoes, potatoes, okra, brinjal, bitter gourd, cucumber, bottle gourd, and pumpkin.

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is the second most important sector of the economy. It is the main source of income for nomadic families. The following table shows the position of the Livestock population according to the 2006 Census of Livestock (qtd. in Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 103,375 Heads Buffalos 5,782 Heads Sheep 1,105,410 Heads
Goats 1,036,004 Heads Camels 28,006 Heads Horses 832 Heads
Mules 185 Heads Asses 46,523 Heads

Table 1.8 Khuzdar Livestock Statistics

Indigenous livestock breeds of the district are brahvi camel, mangeli sheep, and lehri goat.

Poultry

There are 73 commercial poultry farms[1] in the district; poultry is also bred in houses (mainly by women) for eggs and meat in the rural areas.

Bee Keeping

Bee keeping is not an economic activity in the district.

Fishing

There is a significant amount of fish caught in the streams of Mula, Nal and others, but it is for local consumption and not for commercial purposes. Therefore, a Fisheries Department has not been formally established in the district and relevant data has not been collected or updated.

Irrigation

The major sources of irrigation are flood waters (spate or rod kohi system of irrigation) and rain. Permanent irrigation sources include tube wells, karezes, and springs.

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area being irrigated by the mode (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 69,753 HA Government Canals – HA
Private Canals 7,210 HA Wells 18,525 HA
Tube wells 42,808 HA Karezes/Spring/Others 1,210 HA

Table 1.10 Khuzdar Irrigation Statistics

In order to improve the irrigation system in Khuzdar, the Government of Balochistan is building small dams all over Balochistan. The dams being built in Khuzdar district are Taigh Delay Action Dam, Kashi Delay Action Dam, Hushtri Dam (Nal Area), Lohi Dam, and Harombo Dam, Khuzdar. The Sasool Delay Action Dam has been completed.

In all, there are 18 Karezes in Khuzdar district, some[4] of which are Mir Ghaus Bukhsh Bazanjo Karez, Tobro Karez, Sheikh Amdi Karez, Phulabad Karez, Tuk Karez, Haji Rehmatullah Karez, and Moenki Garuk Karez.

Mining

The district is rich in minerals like barite, chromite, granite, marble, building stones, iron ore, and manganese which are all being commercially mined.

Oil and gas exploration is being carried out in the district.

Manufacturing/ Industry

There are no large-scale manufacturing industries or estates in the district, but small enterprises include carpet centers, woodwork, crafting of household items made from leaves of the mazri plant, and furniture-making workshops. A few cottage industries are also functional in the area, where local embroidery work is carried out by women and girls. Three industrial units were established in Khuzdar and one was closed down due to non-availability of raw materials. At present, there is 1 cotton ginning factory, 1 flour mill, and 1 barite mill in the district.

Handicrafts

The handicraft cottage industries in Khuzdar include products like baskets, mats, and other household goods made with the leaves and other parts of the mazri plant. Carpets made with sheep’s wool and other woven articles manufactured by Channal (a class of professional weavers) include Chhori, Khai, and Chanji made with goat and camel hair. Handicrafts like embroidery on shirts and caps are very common. Balochi embroidery is a specialty of the area. Various embroidered products are sold in the markets of Karachi and Quetta; however, due to lack of proper marketing, the middlemen get the major share of the profit. Small industries can be setup for carpet knitting and locally made shoes called chawats.

[1] Table 17 Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock

 

Economic Infrastructure

The district has a better road network than most districts of Balochistan. Khuzdar is linked through black topped roads with Larkana, Kalat, Kharan, Panjgur, and Gwadar. The district has National Highways and district roads. The major road link is the National Highway which links Quetta with Karachi via Khuzdar. There is no railway in the district. Khuzdar is connected to other parts of the country by road and air. Postal facilities are available to the major towns of the district while about 40% of the population[1] has access to electricity.

Roads

According to the Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19, the road statistics of the district are as follows:

Total Roads 2,932.0 km
High Type Roads/black topped 1,418.0 km
Low Type Roads/Shingle 1,514 km

Table 1.9 Khuzdar Road Statistics

3 major highways of Pakistan meet at Khuzdar city. These are:

  • Motorway M-8 (Ratodero-Khuzdar-Awaran-Hoshab-Turbat-Gwadar)
  • National Highway N-25 or the RCD Highway (Lasbela-Khuzdar-Kalat-Quetta)
  • National Highway N-30 (Basima-Khuzdar)

Figure 1.9 Main Road passing at the foot of Mountains

Rail and Airways

There is no railway in the district, but it is linked by air to other parts of the country, with a commercial airport in the district called Khuzdar International Airport.

Radio and Television

Khuzdar has a powerful radio station and a TV booster, but no TV station. A radio station of 100 KW was established on 17 June 1982 and continues to broadcast radio programs.

Telecommunications

In Khuzdar district, Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation Ltd. (PTCL) has established 04 telephone exchanges[2] providing 1,312 landlines, 965 wireless phones and 1,239 broadband connections. In addition, all major cellular services are available in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

According to the Balochistan Development Statistics 20183-19, there are 19 post offices in the district. Most of the courier services provide services in Khuzdar as well.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

The following banks all have their branches[3] in the District:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 18 branches of various conventional banks and 03 branches of different Islamic Banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

In Khuzdar district, Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) looks after the supply of electricity. There is no natural gas pipe-line in the district. Instead of natural gas, people use liquid petroleum gas (LPG) cylinders.

Education

The following table shows the number of primary, middle, secondary, and mosque schools in the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 474/173 Middle Schools 29/36
High Schools 26/13 Community Schools 48
Higher Secondary 03/- Degree Colleges 01/01
Universities[5] 01 Mosque Schools[6]
Vocational Training Schools 01 Private Schools 02

Table 1.11 Khuzdar Educational Institutions

Figure 1.10 University of Engineering & Technology, Khuzdar

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Khuzdar district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./beds Institution No./beds
Teaching Hospitals Hospitals 01/90
Rural Health Centers 06/100 Basic Health Units 43/-
Dispensaries 30/- Mother Child Health Centers 01/-
TB/Leprosy clinics etc. 01/- Private Hospitals 02/30
Private Dispensaries -/-

Table 1.12 Khuzdar Health Institutes

Policing

For the purposes of administration, the district is divided into two areas: “A” and “B”. The urban area of Khuzdar comes under “A” area and the rest of the area of the district falls in “B” area. “A” area is controlled by a regular police force headed by the Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP). This DSP is assisted by a Station House Officer (SHO), Inspector Police, and other staff. The “B” area is controlled by a levies force. Levies are a conventional force to maintain law and order. In levies, men of different tribes are employed. The levies force comes under the direct control of the Deputy Commissioner. Generally, the levies force is well-equipped to maintain peace.

Policing of the district comes under the jurisdiction of the Regional Police Officer (RPO) Kalat, who has 3 SubDivisional Police Officers (SDPO), one each at Khuzdar, Nal, and Wadh. The SDPO at Kalat controls 04 Police Stations, Nal has 07 Police Station and the SDPO at Wadh has 2 police stations.[7] There are a total of 07 p

[1] Khuzdar District Development Plan; 2011, by GoB and UNICEF

[2] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[3] List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, provided by State Bank of Pakistan

[4] for more details please visit http://waterinfo.net.pk/?q=karez

[5] University of Engineering & Technology, Khuzdar

[6] included in primary schools

[7] Balochistan Police Official Website

Environment and Biodiversity

The district is free of pollution. Generally, the air is very clean, but the district headquarter is polluted, due to over-population and unsatisfactory sanitation systems. In the rural areas, drinking water is not safe.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Following are the Vegetation Zones and type of vegetation in the district:

  • Uphill Steep Slopes: These consist of hapurse or Turkistan juniper (Juniperus excelsa polycarpos), shishar or Afghan ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides), gawan or wild pistachios (Pistacia khinjjuk), janglee badaam or sweet almonds (Prunus amygdalus), pipal or olive daphne (Daphne oleoides)
  • Foothills, Piedmont Plains and Stream Beds: These consist of aur trik or hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa), archin or wild or sweet almonds (Prunus amygdalus), aveshk or poison berry or Indian nightshade (Clematis orientalis), baibru or Indian ginseng or poison gooseberry (Withania somnifera), bakarwali or field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), bar or African eggplant (Solanum indicum), bibi batav (Pycnocyla aucheriana), birori or camel thorn (Alhagi maurorum), boe-madran or dwarf griffith saxaul (Haloxylon griffithii), hitirk pea shrub (Caragana ulicina), dhatura or purple Hindu datura (Datura fastuosa), drab or love grass (Eragrostis cynosuroides), gandil goose grass (Eleusine flagellifera), garbust hoary cress (lepidium draba), ghaz or athel pine (Tamarix orientalis), willow of the brook (Salix acmophylla), gorka or needle grass (Stipa capillata), gul-i-gulab or rose (Rosa damasccena), hatam bai bush or wall flower (Erysimum repandum), hawe or lemon grass (Cymbopogon jwarancusa), hashwarg harmal (Rhazya sricta), hum or milk broom (Periploca aphylla), izghand or creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), jaghun or prickly salt wort (Salsola kali), jaur or sweet-scented oleander (Nerium odorum), jhil indigo (Indigofera pauciflora), kahero or sand paper bush (Ehretia obtusifolia), karir (Caparis aphylla), kalpora or mountain germander (Teucrium stocksianum), kapet-kawa Indian fumitory (Fumaria parviflora), karag or crown flower (Calotropis gigantea), karwan kushi (Pteropyrum olivieri), kashum or sweet cane or munj (Saccharum ciliare), kasur or turpentine tree (Pistacia mutica), kisankor or harmal (Peganum harmala), kul or narrow leaf cattail (Typha angustifolia), manguli (Orthonnopsis intermedia), marmutk (Boucerosfa aucheriana), matetave (Salvia nepeta), Nal common reed (Phragmites communis), naromb or ansab (Ephedra pachyclada), panerband or Indian rennet (Withania coagulans), parpuk or desert teak (Tecomella undulata), pathk or Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica), pipal (Daphene oleoides), pish or mazri palm (Nannorhops ritchiana), piun pulli or mayweed (Matricaria lasiocarpa), pochko or marshmallow plant (Althaea ludwigii), purchink or wild mint (Mentha sylvestris), puzho or bindweed (Convolvulus microphyllus), rang (Astragalus squamosus), righit (Suaeda monoiea), ritach or euphorbia (Euphorbia caeladenia), riza or cumin (Cuminum cyminum), rush or flixweed tansy-mustard (Sisymbrium Sophia), sadagh or dwarf griffith saxaul (Haloxylon griffithii), shampastir (Sophora griffithii), shinz camel thorn (Alhagi camelorum), simsok or chin chin bootee (Nepeta glomerulosa), Tplapissi or ber (Zizyphus spina), zarch or barberry (Berberis vulgaris) and khakshir or flixweed tansy-mustard (Sisymbrium sophia). The ground cover is constituted mainly by Stipa himalacia, Dichanthium annulatum, Chrysopogon aucheri, and Cymbopogon spp.

Fauna

Mammals found in the district include wolf, hill fox, Asiatic jackal, striped hyena, cape hare, porcupine, hedgehog, chinkara gazelle, Sindh ibex, desert cat, porcupine, and bush rat. Black bear has also been allegedly sighted in the Pab Range of the district. Leopards have been allegedly sighted in the area as well.

Avifauna of the district include painted sand grouse, see-see partridge, common kestrel, mountain bunting, trumpeter finch, Indian silver bill, great grey shrike, long-tailed shrike, wheateater, Indian robin, ashy-crowned sparrow lark, desert lark, Sindh woodpecker, graceful warbler, Kurdish wheateater, eastern pied wheateater, variable wheateater, haw finch, chakor, golden eagle, a number of finches, buntings, seasonal/migratory waterfowls, hawks, bustards, and sand grouse.

Reptiles include the Easter dwarf skink, Indian desert monitor, reticulate desert Lacerta, Caspian desert Lacerta, Chagai desert Lacerta, dark-headed dwarf racer, tartary sand boa, spotted desert racer, dark-headed gamma snake, Maynard’s awl-headed snake, Afghan tortoise, Indian cobra, leaf-nose viper and lizards like Agamura femoralis, and Stenodactylus maynardi.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Wildlife

Some forested areas have been designated as Wildlife Sanctuaries and Game Reserves. These are:

  • Chorani Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Kachao Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Shahaan Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Raghai Rakhshan Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Band Khushdil Khan Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Chhapar Kohan Wildlife Sanctuary

These provide protection/sanctuary to the black bear, urial, ibex, chinkara deer, and migratory birds.

There are 2 Private Game Reserves in the district. These are:

  • Gaj Kolachi (Kinjoo)
  • Lohindo