Balochistan-Kohlu

Introduction

Kohlu Agency/District is located between 29° 13Ꞌ 03” to 30° 04Ꞌ 15” north latitudes, and 68° 05Ꞌ 49” to 69° 38Ꞌ 46” east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by Loralai district, on the northeast by Barkhan district, on the southeast by Dera Bugti district, on the southwest by Bolan district, and on the west by Sibi district.

District at a Glance

Name of District Kohlu/Kohlui Agency/District
Headquarters Kohlu Town
Population[1] 214,350 persons
Area[2] 7,610 km2
Population Density[3] 27.9 persons/ km2
Growth Rate[4] 4.1%
Male Population[5] 52.3%
Female Population[6] 47.7%
Urban Population[7] 8.1%
Tehsils/ Talukas

03 Tehsils:

  1. Kohlu Tehsil
  2. Mawand Tehsil
  3. Kahan Tehsil
Main Towns Mawand, Karam Khan Shaher, Nisao, Pazza, Sufaid, and Uryani
Literacy Rate[8] 32%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 50%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 12%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding, fishing & hunting

47.7%

 

Community, Social & Personal Services 17.7%
Construction 15.1%
Electricity, Gas & Wate 15.1%
Others 4.5%
Main Crops Wheat, barley, jowar, bajra, maize, mung, maash, moath, cotton, sunflower, tobacco, and fodder
Major Fruits Almonds, apples, apricots, grapes, peach, pomegranate, plums, watermelon, musk melon, cherry, mangoes, and citrus
Major Vegetables Onions, potatoes, tomatoes, carrots, chilies, garlic, coriander, and alfalfa
Forest (Area)[12] – HA[13]
Black Topped Roads[14] 158.0 km
Shingle Roads[15] 1,192.0 km
Electricity[16] Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) is responsible for the transmission and distribution of electricity
Telephone Exchanges[17] 04 telephone exchanges, with 517 landlines, 457 wireless phones and 402 broadband connections
Industrial Zones[18] There are no industrial units in the district.
Major Industry[19] None
Household Size[20] 6.5 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water[21] 7.1%
Houses with Electricity[22] 13.9%

Table 1.1 Kohlu District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[12] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics reports zero area under forests.

[14] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] District Development Profile, 2011, Kohlu District, P&D Department, GoB, with UNICEF

[19] District Development Profile, 2011, Kohlu District, P&D Department, GoB, with UNICEF

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites/ Tourist Attractions

Brief History

The area covered by Kohlu district is also known as Marri Country, and has historically been an arena of political insurgence or tribal vendettas. It was a deserted area before it was inhabited by the Marris, which is why the history of the Kohlu district is primarily a history of the Marri tribe. However, Kohlu town and its surroundings have been predominantly occupied by the Zarkoons, which is a Pashtoon tribe.

The Miniature Gazetteer of Marri-Bugti Country (included in Sibi District Gazetteer 1907) shows that

the early history of this part of Balochistan is unknown but it must have been inhabited by the Kalmati-Kupchani and other Baloch Tribes, all traces of whom have disappeared with the exception of their tombs. The Marris first settled in the deserted areas and held the Tadri Ghar Mountain, Bijar Wad, Mando Thal and Kech Murai. It is believed that the name “Marri” has been derived from Kech Murai and through common use the name was shortened to “Marri” (p. 271).

The early history of the Marri tribe centers on Mir Chakar Khan Rind, the hero of Baloch romance. After his quarrels with the Lasharis, and after he had been driven out of Sibi by the Arghuns, Mir Chakar took refuge in what was the Marri Country (now Kohlu). Shortly afterwards, the main contingent of the Rinds migrated to the country east of the Indus, but a small section distanced itself from Chakar Khan, and elected to stay behind in the Sewistan hills. The leader of this segment was Bijar Khan. He was accompanied by Ali Khan, Mando Khan and Khalu Khan (the Rinds), a blacksmith (lohar), a gardener called Kangra, and Shaheja, who was of African descent. Bijar Khan, along with his companions, separated from Mir Chakar Khan at a place which is called Bijar Wad. Together, these men founded the Marri tribe in the first quarter of the 16th century. Bijar Khan founded the Bijarani clan, the blacksmith founded the Loharani, and Gazzo or Ghazan (a Buledi boy adopted by Ali Khan) founded the Ghazani clan, all of which also inhabit the region. These small groups gradually increased in numbers, and began raiding and conquering the neighboring regions, but later, as their strength was undermined by these raids and incursions it became necessary to recruit from outside. Thus, the Brahuis (who were Baloch from other parts of Balochistan), Khetrans, Afghans, and Jats gained easy admission to the Marri tribe.

The other notable tribe in Kohlu is the Zarkoon tribe. This tribe was once forced by the Bugti tribe to leave Kohlu, but the Marris offered them a defensive and offensive alliance. According to a treaty, the area surrounding Kohlu town was given to the Zarkoons.[1]

Present-day Kohlu district includes the Kohlu Tehsil of Sibi district, and the areas occupied by the Marri tribe which were a part of Marri-Bugti Country, and administered by the Political Agent of Sibi during British Rule. The areas occupied by the Marri tribe (Mawand Tehsil) were made a part of Kohlu district, and the entire area was made into a district in 1974. The traditional Bugti tribal areas of Marri-Bugti Country were made a part of the Dera Bugti district by the Government of Pakistan in 1983.

The Marris were subjects of the Khan of Kalat. During the reign of Mir Nasir Khan I (1750-1794) they were not allowed to carry out intestine wars or feuds, and hence, they cultivated their country instead of waging war. After Nasir Khan I’s death, the reign of authority was relaxed, and the Marris started invading territories surrounding their region, engaging in wars and blood feuds with different tribes. The British forces occupied Kahan in 1840, but were forced to evacuate by the Marris. The British authorities signed various treaties with the Marris, but the law and order situation could not be improved. The Marris viewed the British as illegal occupants of their territory. In 1898 Sardar Khair Bakhsh Khan Marri, along with a large contingent of his people, migrated to Kabul as a protest against the British occupation. However, they returned unconditionally, when the protest went unnoticed by the British.[2]

After the 1947 Partition, this area remained a Political Agency. The tribal leadership asked for unity of the Baloch tribes and an independent Balochistan. Nationalist sentiments grew rapidly, and after the arrest of the Khan of Kalat in 1958, the tribesmen started a guerrilla war—albeit on a limited scale—against the Pakistan government. The army was sent to control the movement, but the army’s presence further exacerbated the situation. Mir Sher Muhammad Marri took leadership of the movement which was called “farrari movement” and which ended in 1969.

After the dismissal of the first elected government of Balochistan in 1973, a serious conflict was initiated between Pakistan’s government and the political leadership of the province. While responding to the situation, the tribesmen in Kohlu started a large-scale insurgence in the area, and after a strong military operation, they migrated to Afghanistan along with their leaders. Coincidentally, history repeated itself, and Sardar Khair Bakhsh Khan Marri went into voluntary self-exile, reaching Kabul in 1981.

Since the uprising in Kohlu, the presence of military forces has been considered necessary to maintain law and order. However, the Pakistan government made many efforts to develop a rapport with the tribesmen. Various incentives and concessions have been awarded to the local elders. Although the Marris returned from Afghanistan in 1991, responding to an appeal by the Pakistani government, the political situation remained the same. The tribal-political leadership is of the view that the land of Kohlu district is communal property of the Marri tribe. Thus, before exploiting any natural resource, the government should negotiate with the tribal elders. However, this, and other issues, continue to create a deadlock between the tribes and the Federal Government, to the extent that in 1997 the tribes tried to occupy Kohlu city but failed. This situation has, to some extent, improved now.

At the time of Partition, Kohlu Valley was a Tehsil of Sibi district. The present-day Kohlu district includes the northern part (Mawand Tehsil) of the then Tribal Area of Marri-Bugti Country and was made into a district in 1974. The Marri-Bugti Country was administered by the Political Agent Sibi and was occupied by the Marri and Bugti tribes. The southern half of the Marri-Bugti Country occupied by the Bugti tribe was made the Dera Bugti district in 1983.

The northern areas occupied by the Marri tribe were classified as a Tribal Area till 1974, when it was made part of Kohlu district. The headquarters of the Bugti tribe, the Dera Bugti, is now a district of Balochistan.

[1] Kohlu District Development Profile 2011, GoB & UNICEF

[2] Sibi District Gazetteer (Marri-Bugti Country Miniature Gazetteer) p. 283-284 and 1998 Kohlu District Profile by GoPakistan.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Kohlu district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly[1] 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 1

Under the Local Government Act 2010, Amended in 2011, Kohlu district has 1 District Council with 7 Union Councils. It has 1 Municipal Committee as follows:

  • Kohlu

Each Union Council is represented by 1 member in the District Council. In addition, there is special representation of women (33%), and of workers and peasants (5% each).

[1] This seat is shared by Sibi and Dera Bugti districts

Administrative Divisions

Kohlu district has a total area of 7,610 km2 and is divided into 3 tehsils and 8 Union Councils as follows:

Kohlu Tehsil 04 Union Councils
Mawand Tehsil 02 Union Councils
Kahan Tehsil 02 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Kohlu Administrative Divisions

Historical/ Heritage Sites and Tourism/ Picnic Spots 

Even though Kohlu district is one of the most beautiful areas of Balochistan, due to a lack of infrastructure, tourism is virtually non-existent. There is only one shrine of Mast Tawakali at Maidan Gari near Kohlu which is easily accessible and is regularly visited by pilgrims in the district. This shrine belongs to a Sufi Saint and poet, and should be given the status of Protected by the Government of Pakistan.

Figure 1.4 Shrine of Mast Tawakali

Topography

Kohlu is situated at the southern end of the Suleiman Mountain Range.[1] It consists mainly of narrow parallel ridges of closely-packed hills which form a gradual descent from the Suleiman Plateau into the plains. They are intersected by numerous hill torrents and ravines, which are generally barren and rugged. The land area of the district can be divided into 4 portions:

  1. Kohlu
  2. Kahan including Tadri, Daho, and Bambor
  3. A portion of Phelawagh, Nesao, and Janatali
  4. Mawand and Gamboli

The mountain ranges of Kohlu district may be described as presenting a series of limestone ridges, forming more or less parallel valleys. The upper eastern half includes the Katarmari, Mar, and Jandran Ranges. The valley of Kohlu is situated among these mountains. In the lower eastern half, hill ranges attain a height of more than 2,400 m; the notable valleys are Makhmar, Nisau, and Kahan. In the western half, the important range is the Bambor Ghar, which is located along the northern boundary of the district.

The mountain ranges of Kohlu district include:

  • the Dungan (2,091 m)
  • Lakar (2,078 m)
  • Sialu (2,473 m)
  • Tikil or Tikhil (2,099 m)
  • Batur (1,751 m)
  • Jandran (2,050 m)
  • Bibartak (1,916 m)
  • Siah Koh (1,678 m)
  • Kup, Chappar (1,425 m)
  • Sir Ani (1,155 m)
  • Shatrak (1,158 m)
  • Turki Koh, Tatra (1,225 m)
  • Rastrani (914-1,219 m)
  • Danda range including Nafusk (1,145 m)
  • Bambor (1,490 m)
  • Gurandani (1,716 m)
  • Sunari range (1,750 m)

The principal passes in the district are:

  • Bibartak, Wanga, Narial, Mezhliar, Sinni, Ormazhi or Bar, Nari, Kuchali, and Spintangi, all on the Sibi-Harnai road
  • The Arand, between Khajak and Kot Mandai
  • The Angur, between Gamboli and Sembar
  • The Sembar, between Gamboli and Thal
  • The Pazha, between Beji and Thal
  • The Kuba Wanga, between Bala Dhaka and Kohlu
  • The Mar, between Kohlu and Vitakri
  • The Lunial, between Bor and Kui
  • The Dojamak, on the Kohlu-Kahan road
  • The Dangar, in the Shatrak Range
  • The Nafusk, between the Marri and Bugti areas

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

Several hill torrents flow through the district; the larger of these are the Bor, Rod Baladhaka, and the Rod Barg. The Lahri or Sanr traverses the Kohlu Valley from east to west. The principal rivers of the district are the Beji and Doda, both of which are affluents of the Nari and have a perennial supply of water. The Talli stream (known as the Sundimari, Chakar Thank, Karmari, and Manjra in different localities) rises in the hills bordering on Kohlu, with intermittent flow of perennial water. The Nal, also called the Gandhar, drains the Makhmar, Suri Kaur, and Kahan Valleys. Some of the other streams are Nesao, Phelawagh, and Janatali, which flow to the east.

The smaller nullahs and streams include Jandran, Nisoba Nala, Pharahi Nala, Waram, Siti, Loharki, and Sor. Tirchi Otak is a small water pond/ lake used for drinking water. There is a small dam on Nisoba Nala, the reservoir of which is used for supplying drinking water.

Forests

The type of forests found in the district are Dry Sub-Tropical Scrub Forests merging downwards with the Tropical Thorn Forests. At present, due to various reasons, there are no state-owned forests in the district. Overall natural vegetation, including shrubs, bushes, and grasses, can be classified as potential rangelands.

Grass and fodder plants are fairly numerous in the district. Some of the plants and trees found in Kohlu are angur/grapevine (Vitis vinifera), barar/milkbroom (Periploca aphylla), barau/ johnson grass (Sorghum halepense), ber (zizyphus), ghozera/ dwarf sophora (Sophora griffithii), girdae butae / marshmallow (Althaea ludwigii), gulab/ rose (Rosa damascena), and khar/ shrubby sea bite (Suæda fruticosa).

Soils

The Atlas of Pakistan describes the land of Kohlu as rock outcrops and loamy, very shallow, highly steep mountains, with soil mainly of arid and semi-arid zones (rock outcrops and Lithic Cambothids). The best known khushkaba[2] tracts in Kohlu district are Kohlu Valley, Kahan Valley, Mawand, Bambor, Dul, and Thadriand. The soil of some valleys and plains is fertile, and chiefly alluvial, having been formed by the silt brought down by the floods which is known as happa or latar, and is well suited for all crops. An inferior soil is known as zahrendigar or bitter soil. The gravely soil, which abounds in the hilly tracts is called ghalawar and grows poor crops.[3]

Figure 1.4 IUCN GIS Map District Kohlu

Climate

Kohlu district is located 600-1200 m above mean sea level. Generally, the climate can be described as arid with warm summers and cool winters. Summer lasts from April to October, and generally, the mean temperatures during the summer range between 21 °C and 32 °C. June is the hottest month, when the maximum temperature exceeds 32 °C and occasionally rises above 38 °C. In winter, the temperature drops below 10 °C, and in the coolest month (January), the mercury may even touch freezing point. During cold spells, mean temperature may drop below 0 °C.

The district is located in the Monsoon belt and thus, most of the rainfall occurs during July-August. In the absence of a Meteorological station in the district, the mean annual precipitation and other information recorded at Barkhan is used for climatic analysis. According to this, the mean annual precipitation is 400 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 3 of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means moderate to severe damage to property due to earthquakes.

[1] Names of mountain ranges and mountain passes have been taken from Provincial Gazetteer Series Balochistan Sibi District, text compiled by A. McConaghey. Some descriptions have also been taken from District Development Profile, Kohlu District 2011, P&D GoB, in collaboration with UNICEF as well as, Kohlu District Profile 1998 by GoPakistan.

[2] khushkaba tracts are lands irrigated through traditional water harvesting means

[3] Kohlu District Development Profile 2011; by GoB in collaboration with UNICEF

Population

The following table shows the population of Kohlu as per 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil

Area

km2

Population Male % Female % Urban % Growth Rate %
Kohlu District 7,610 214,350 52.3 47.7 8.1 4.09
Kahan Tehsil 6,685 73,981
Kohlu Tehsil 926 45,210
Mawind Tehsil NA 95,159

Table 1.3 Kohlu Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.7%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis Negligible %
Scheduled Casts 0.2%
Others Negligible %

Table 1.4 Kohlu Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.1%
Punjabi 0.5%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 6.6%
Balochi 91.2%
Seraiki 0.5%
Others[3] 1.0%

Table 1.5 Kohlu Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[3] includes Brahui language

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The main economic occupations of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding, fishing & hunting (47.7%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (17.7%)
  • Construction (15.1%)
  • Electricity, Gas & Water (15.1%)
  • Others (4.5%)

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 761,000 HA Reported Area 55,463 HA
Total Cultivated Area 33,026 HA Net Sown 3,000 HA
Current Fallow 30,026 HA Total Uncultivated Area 22,437 HA
Culturable Waste – HA Forest Area – HA

Table 1.6 Kohlu Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district falls under the Western Dry Mountain Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan and Zone VI of Balochistan. The main crops of the district include wheat, barley, jowar, bajra, maize, moong, maash, moath, cotton, sunflower, tobacco, and fodder.

Fruits include almonds, apples, apricots, grapes, peach, pomegranate, plums, watermelon, musk melon, cherry, mangoes, and citrus. Onions, potatoes, tomatoes, carrots, chilies, garlic, coriander, and alfalfa are the vegetable produce of the district.

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is the second most important sector of the economy. It is the main source of income for nomadic families. The following table shows the position of the Livestock Population according to the 2006 Census of Livestock[1] in the district:

Cattle 174,167 Heads Buffaloes 1,463 Heads Sheep 1,306,734 Heads
Goats 813,575 Heads Camels 58,318 Heads Horses 15,755 Heads
Mules 02 Heads Asses 53,365 Heads

Table 1.7 Kohlu Livestock Statistics

Indigenous livestock breeds of the district include: kohi (camel), koh-i-suleiman or lohani (cattle), shinghari and sperki or pidie (donkey), Balochi (horse), kakari, musakhaili, kajjale and bybrik (sheep), and koh-i-suleimani (goat).

Poultry

Data on the total number of poultry farms in the district is not available. There is at least one government poultry farm, and some small scale private/commercial poultry farms that breed broiler and layer breeds.[2]

Bee Keeping

Bee keeping is not taken up as an economic activity in the district.

Fisheries

Some fresh water fish is present in the rivulets of the district, but this fish is consumed locally, and does not add to the economy of the district.

Irrigation

The 3 main sources of irrigation are tube wells, wells and karezes/ springs. Privately-owned tube wells are maintained by the owners themselves, whereas the government-owned tube wells are maintained by the Irrigation Department. The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area being irrigated by the mode (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 2,520 HA Government Canals – HA
Private Canals – HA Wells – HA
Tube Wells 1,889 HA Karez/Spring/Others 631 HA

Table 1.9 Kohlu Irrigation Statistics

According to the Pakistan Water Gateway Website for Karezes in Balochistan, there are 09 karezes in the district; these are Sour Karez, Nodin Karez, Faqir Kach Karez, Sor Kumb Karez, Sanchor Karez, Manjhra Karez, Skin Kach Karez, Garisini Karez, and Lasayzai Karez.

Figure 1.7 Naisoba Dam, Khuda-e-Dad Shehr, Kohlu

Mining

At present, no mineral extraction activity is being carried out in the district but fluorite, silica sand, gypsum, coal, and marble are present in the district. Coal reserves at Chamalang are one of the largest coal deposits in Pakistan.

Oil and gas is being explored in the district.

Manufacturing/Industry

There are no industrial units in the district. The sole production unit is a power generation plant at Kahan with a capacity of 50 KV. According to Kohlu District Development Profile 2011 by P&D Department, by GoB, Bureau of Statistics Planning Studies Section, there are 08 small scale flour mills in the district.

Handicrafts

Embroidery on dresses, and caps, as well as carpet weaving are the major handicrafts of the area. There are 2 carpet centers in the district, working under the Directorate of Small Industries of the Industries Department. These are located in Kohlu and Mawand.

[1] Quoted in Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[2] Kohlu District Profile 2011, by P&D, GoB in collaboration with UNICEF

Economic Infrastructure

The district headquarters, Kohlu, is connected to Tehsil headquarters and other parts of Balochistan and Pakistan through black topped roads. Kohlu does not have train services or air service in general.

Roads

According to the Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19, the road statistics of the district are as follows:

Total Roads 1,350.0 km
High Type Roads/black topped 158.0 km
Low Type Roads/Shingle 1,192.0 km

Table 1.8 Kohlu Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district are:

  • Sibi-Kahan-Kohlu-Rakhani Road
  • Road connecting Mekhtar to Chamalang
  • Loralai-Kohlu-Gamboli-Mandai-Sibi Road
  • Kohlu-Mawand-Kahan Road

Figure 1.5 Mir Changazabad Road, Kohlu

Figure 1.6 Kohlu Bazaar

Rail and Airways

No railway or airway services exist in the district. The nearest railway stations are the Nari Gaht Railway Station (Sibi district), Spin Tangi Railway Station (Harnai district), and Babar Kach Railway Station (Sibi district). The nearest airport is the Loralai Airport.

Radio and Television

Kohlu district has no radio or TV stations, but it has a TV booster through which PTV transmissions can be viewed.

Telecommunications

The district is connected to other parts of the country through telephone and telegraph. There are 04 telephone exchanges in Kohlu district which provide 517 landlines, 457 wireless phones and 402 broadband connections in the District (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19). Cellular phone companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 02 post offices[1] in Kohlu district. Most of the courier services provide services in the district as well.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

The banks[2] operating in the district are:

  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 3 branches of these banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) looks after the supply of electricity.

Education

The following table shows the number of primary, middle, secondary, and mosque schools in the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 347/79 Middle Schools 12/11
High Schools 14/05 Community Schools 18
Higher Secondary 01/01 Degree Colleges -/-
Universities Mosque Schools[3]
Vocational Training Schools[4] 02 Private Schools[5] 03

Table 1.10 Kohlu Educational Institutes

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Kohlu district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./beds Institution No./beds
Teaching Hospitals -/- Hospitals 01/35
Rural Health Centers 03/30 Basic Health Units 36/-
Dispensaries 33/- Mother Child Health Centers 01/-
TB/Leprosy Clinics etc. 01 Private Hospitals/Dispensaries -/-

Table 1.11 Kohlu Health Institutes

Policing

For the purposes of administration, the district is divided into two areas “A” and “B”. The urban area of Kohlu is designated as the “A” area and the rest of the area of the district falls in “B” zone. “A” area is controlled by a regular police force headed by the Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP). This DSP is assisted by the Station House Officer (SHO), Inspector Police, and other staff. The “B” area is controlled by a levies force. Levies are a conventional force to maintain law and order. In levies, men of different tribes are employed. The levies force is under the direct control of the Deputy Commissioner (DC). Generally, the levies force is well equipped to deal with the law and order situation in the district.

Policing of Kohlu district is looked after by the Regional Police Officer (RPO) Sibi. This RPO is assisted by 1 SubDivisional Police Officer (SDPO) stationed at Kohlu and 1 at Kahan. In all, there are 2 police stations[6] in the district.

Figure 1.8 District Coordination Officer (DCO) House, Kohlu

Figure 1.9 A Police Station, Kohlu

 

[1] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[2] List of Operating Bank Branches 2019, provided by State Bank of Pakistan

[3] included in primary schools

[4] there is one typing and one embroidery teaching center in Kohlu

[5] 2011 data

[6] Table no. 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations 2019 by Division/District by Federal Bureau of Statistics.f

Environment and Biodiversity

The district does not have any industry, and only a few motor vehicles ply the roads, hence, there is no brown pollution in the district. However, non-disposal of solid waste is a major threat to the environment.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Depending on the aspect and elevation of the terrain, phulai (Acacia modesta) is the dominating tree species generally, along with olive (Olea cuspidate), ber (Zizyphus nummularia), karir (Capparis aphylla), benth (Accacia jacquemontii), lebbek (Grewia ziziphus nummularia), white leadtree or jumbay (Accacia leucophloa), gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal), camel thorn (Alhagi camelorum), khip (Crotalaria burhia), jand or Indian mesquite (Prosopis spicigera), perpuk or desert teak (Tecoma undulata), and several species of Tamarisk like Tamarix articulata and salt cedar (Tamarix pallasii), predominantly in the foothills and piedmont terrain of Nisau and Koh-e-Siah. In similar terrain, the following can also be found: oleander (Nerium odorum), harmal (Rhazya stricta), sodom apple (Calotropis procera), milk broom (Periploca aphylla), Indian rennet (Withania coagulans), Indian ginseng (Withania somnifera), mazri palm (Nannorrhops ritchiana), African or Syrian rue (Peganum harmala), phog (Calligonum polygonoides), common knot grass (Polygonum aviculare/ Polygonum plebeium), bladder dock (Rumex vesicarius), and giradol (Chrozophora plicata). The grasses in the district are oriental fountain grass (Pennisetum Orientale), pheasant tail grass (Stipa piñata), desert grass (Aristida plumosa), munj (Saccharum ciliare), and camel’s hay (Andropogon schoenanthus).

Vegetation zones of the district consist mainly of the following categories:[1]

  • Uphill steep rocky cliffs: This region covers hills of Koh-e-Siah, Nisau, Kahan hills, Fazel Chail Mawand, Loharki, Kishk, and Jandran. Tree formation includes olive (Olea cuspidata), mixed with phulai (Acacia modesta) at certain places. It is also occupied by ber (Zizyphus nummularia), karir (Capparis aphylla), benth (Accacia jacquemontii), lebbek (Grewia zizyphus nummularia), jumbay or white leadtree (Accacia leucophloae), and gum Arabic (Accacia Senegal). Foothills generally consist of gentle to moderately steep and undulating alluvial formation, and support ber (Zizyphus nummularia), karir (Capparis aphylla), benth (Accacia jacquemontii), lebbek (Grewia zizyphus nummularia), white leadtree or jumbay (Accacia leucophloae), gum Arabic (Accacia senegal), camel thorn (Alhagi camelorum), khip (Crotalaria burhia), Indian Mesquite or jand (Prosopis spicigera), perpuk (Tecoma undulata), and several species of Tamarisk like Tamarix articulate and Tamarix pallasii
  • Piedmont plains: A transition from foothills to plains takes place in this zone, and vegetation cover becomes more bushy and herbaceous. It is generally occupied by ber (Zizyphus nummularia), karir (Capparis aphylla), benth (Accacia jacquemontii), lebbek (Grewia zizyphus nummularia), jumbay or white leadtree (Accacia leucophloae), gum Arabic (Accacia Senegal), camel thorn (Alhagi camelorum), khip (Crotalaria burhia), jand or Indian mesquite (Prosopis spicigera), perpuk (Tecoma undulata), and several species of Tamarisk like Tamarix articulate and Tamarix pallasii, Narium odorum, Rhazya stricta, Calotropis procera, Periploca aphylla, Lyceum europium, Withania cougulans, Withania ssomnifera, Nannorrhops ritchiana, Fagonia tribulus, Peganum harmala, Calligonum polygonoides, Polygonum aviculare, Polygonum plebeium, Rumex vescarius, and Chrosophora plicata. Grasses include Pennisetum Orientale, Stipa piñata, Aristida pulmosa, Saccharum ciliare, and Andropogon schoenanthus
  • Dry stream beds: Vegetation in stream beds includes Tamarix articulate, Tamarix pallasii, Calotropis procera, Narium odorum, and Saccharum

Fauna

According to the wildlife map, jackals (Canis avreus) and red foxes (Vulpus vulpus) are commonly found in Kohlu district, whereas striped hyena (Hyena hyena) and chinkara (Gazella gazella bennetti) are rarely found. Urial (Ovis orientalis) has been declared as an endangered species. A few other game birds are also found in the area.

[1] Provincial and District Forest Departments, IUCN, UNDP, WWF, GEF

Protected Areas and Wildlife

Even though there is no government-owned Wildlife Protected Area in the district, the Torghar Conservancy is a community-based Wildlife Protected Area, which provides sanctuary to the Suleiman markhor and Afghan urial.