Balochistan-Mastung

Share now

Introduction

The district is located between 29° 20Ꞌ 13” to 30° 15Ꞌ 8” north latitudes, and 66° 11Ꞌ 34” to 67° 25Ꞌ 59” east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by Quetta district, on the east by Sibi and Bolan districts, on the south by Kalat district, and on the west by Chagai district.

The word Mastung is a combination of two words: Mas and Tung. In the Brahui/ Brahvi language, Mas means mountain, and Tung means hole, so the name Mastung is a reference to its geographical location, as it is located at the bottom of Lak Pass. While crossing Lak Pass from Quetta to Mastung, the feeling is that of passing through a hole, hence the name “Mountain Hole”.

The Ahmadzai Khans of Kalat tried to change the name of Mastung to Khudabad, but this name did not gain traction, and people continue to call the district Mastung.

District at a Glance

Name of District Mastung District
Headquarters Mastung Town
Population[1] 266,461 persons
Area[2] 5,896 km2
Population Density[3] 46.7 persons/ km2
Growth Rate[4] 3.0%
Male Population[5] 51.8%
Female Population[6] 48.2%
Urban Population[7] %
Tehsils/ Talukas 04 Tehsils:

1.    Mastung Tehsil

2.    Dasht/Spezand Tehsil

3.    Kirdagap Tehsil

4.    Khadkoocha Tehsil

Main Towns Spezand, Mastung, Umar Dohr, Isplinji, Khad Kocha, Sarparah, Nawazabad, Sorgaz, Soro, and Alizai
Literacy Rate[8] 59%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 75%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 38%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing 49.9%
Community, Social & Personal Services 18.3%
Construction 10.2%
Transport, Storage & Communication 8.8%
Electricity, Gas & Water 6.4%
Wholesale, Retail, Hotel/Restaurant 5.1%
Others 1.3%
Main Crops Wheat, barley, cumin, masoor, moong, and sunflower
Major Fruits Almonds, apples, apricots, grapes, pomegranate, peach, plum, cherry, watermelon, and musk melon
Major Vegetables Onions, potatoes, tomatoes, okra, tinda, radish, spinach, turnip, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pumpkin, peas, brinjal, luffa, cucumber, chilies, garlic, and coriander
Forest Area[12] 22,144 HA[13]
Black Topped Roads[14] 1,230.0 km
Shingle Roads[15] 307.0 km
Electricity[16] Supplied by Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO)
Telephone Exchanges[17] 02 telephone exchanges, providing 628 landlines, 715 wireless phones, and 567 broadband connections
Industrial Zones[18] NA. Government of Balochistan (GoB) has opened a Carpet Training Center in the district in Mastung City
Major Industry[19] NA
Household Size[20] 7.9 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water[21] 24%
Houses with Electricity[22] 72.7%

Table 1.1 Mastung District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[12] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics report 25,496 HA under forests.

[14] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] District Development Profile, Mastung District 2011 P&D Department, GoB

[19] District Development Profile, Mastung District 2011 P&D Department, GoB

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistorical/ Heritage Sites, and Tourism/ Picnic Spots

Brief History of the District

Mastung was the main town of Sarawan Country, which was the northern-most of the two Great Highland Divisions of the Kalat State; the other was the southern-most or Jhalawan Division.

During British Colonial Rule, according to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:

For purposes of administration the people rather than the area was divided into two sections; namely those under the direct jurisdiction of Khan of Kalat and those belonging to the tribal groups. The areas subject to the Khan are [sic] divided into two niabats of Mastung and Kalat. (v 22, p. 101)

The earliest history of Sarawan is buried in obscurity, and very little definite information regarding the history of the country is available, especially for the time period before the conquest of Balochistan by the Ghaznavids in about 977 AD. Local traditions highlight a Hindu dynasty, named Sewa (that belonged to the Rai Dynasty of Sindh), that ruled this part of the country in the 7th century AD. Kalat itself was known as Kalat-i-Sewa, a name that is still used.[1]

Records also show that Muslim dynasties ruled Balochistan from around the 7th century; in 664 AD, for example, the Arabs captured Khuzdar (the main town of Jhalawan country) and occupied the surrounding country of Jhalawan or Turan. In 711, the first Muslim invasion of India took place led by Muhammad bin Qasim. The country up to, and including, Multan was conquered by the Arabs, and the Hindu dynasty of Sind, and probably also the Sewa dynasty of Kalat, came to an end. The Arabs occupied the region till the rise of the Ghaznavid dynasty (977-1186). From the Ghaznavids, the areas became a part of the Ghorid Dynasty (in 1202 AD). At the end of the 14th century, Sarawan/Mastung became a part of the Kandahar Kingdom under Amir Timur (Tamerlane), who conferred it upon his grandson Pir Muhammad. Till 1470, Kandahar remained under the Timurid dynasty, but then it was taken over by the Arghuns, who ruled the area until 1530. During the rule of the Arghuns, the Baloch, who had been gradually extending their power eastward from Makran, were able to successfully take possession of Kalat during the 15th century. At the same time, the Brahuis/ Brahvis had been gaining strength. In the course of the next two centuries the Brahvis consolidated western Balochistan into one State under the Ahmadzai Khans of Kalat.

The country passed on to the Mughals from the Arghuns, and between 1530 and 1545, Mastung became a part of the Kandahar Sarkar (Afghanistan), which, at that time, was under the rule of Mirza Kamran Khan.[2] In the summer of 1543 Emperor Humayun, on his retreat from India, came to Mastung via Sibi. He camped in a garden in Pringabad, close to Mastung. Here, he received the news of an imminent attack on his camp by the forces of Kamran Khan led by Mirza Askari. He fled, leaving his one year old son Akbar, in Pringabad and escaped with his party via Nushki to Garmsel and Herat (Afghanistan). Mirza Askari took the greatest care of the infant Akbar, and took him to Kandahar. On Humayun’s return 2 years later, Kandahar again came under his rule, as did Mastung. Between 1556 and 1595 Kandahar and its dependencies remained under the Safavid dynasty, but were again acquired by the Mughals. During the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar, Mastung was a part of the eastern division of the Kandahar Sarkar. The Ain-e-Akbari[3] mentions Mastung as having a mud fort.

The gradual collapse of the Mughal power coincided with the rise of the Brahuis to a position of near independence in the Mastung region, and this semi-independence continued for 12 generations, till the rise of Mir Ahmed (a Brahvi, and the founder of the Ahmadzai clan) who ruled from 1666 to 1695. He acquired Mastung from Agha Jafar (the Mughal Governor of the area) and made it the capital of Kalat State.

Kalat State[4] was controlled by Nadir Shah (the Shah of Iran who ruled from 1736-1747 AD) who appointed the Khans of Kalat. Mastung remained its capital. In 1736, Nadir Shah appointed Mir Muhabat as Khan of Kalat. In 1758, the area was a scene of a battle between Ahmad Shah Abdali (successor of Nadir Shah) and Mir Muhabat Khan who was defeated and Mir Nasir Khan was made the ruler of Kalat State in his place.

Nasir Khan ruled for 44 years, from 1750 to 1794, and is the historical hero of the Brahuis. He is known as “The Great”. During his reign, he provided assistance to Ahmed Shah in his numerous expeditions to Persia and India. Ahmed Shah bestowed Quetta, Mastung, Harrand, and Dajal on Nasir Khan “The Great” in appreciation for this assistance. The Khanship of Kalat remained with the Brahuis till 1839.

Mehrab Khan was Khan of Kalat in 1839 when the British army attacked and conquered Kalat. Mehrab Khan and several of his chiefs were killed. Mir Shahnawaz Khan, the direct descendant of Mehrab Khan was nominated by the British as the Khan of Kalat, but the districts of Sarawan and Kach Gandava were annexed to Kabul and placed under the administration of British officers. These areas were restored to Kalat in 1842.

The appointment of Mir Shahnawaz Khan in 1840 was followed by a rebellion of Sarawan (Mastung) Sardars who placed Mir Nasir Khan II on the throne. This appointment had the blessings of the British, and in 1842 the Sarawan and Kach Gandava areas were restored to him. In 1854 a treaty was signed between the Khan and the British, which awarded some concessions to the British, including the permission to build railway and telegraph lines through Kalat territory.

The Khan of Kalat acceded to Pakistan in 1948. In 1958[5] the State was merged into the One Unit and became part of the West Pakistan Province. After the dissolution of One Unit, Kalat and Mastung became part of Balochistan Province.

Mastung was separated from Kalat and made a district in 1991.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Mastung district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly[6] 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly[7] 1

Under the Local Government Act 2010, Amended in 2011, Mastung district has 1 District Council with 20 Union Councils. It has 1 Municipal Committee as follows:

  • Mastung

Each Union Council is represented by 1 member in the District Council. In addition, there is special representation of women (33%) and of workers and peasants (5% each).

Administrative Divisions

Mastung district has a total area of 5,896 km2 and is divided into 3 tehsils and 13 Union Councils as follows:

Mastung Tehsil 09 Union Councils
Kirdgap Tehsil 02 Union Councils.
Dasht/Spezand Tehsil 02 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Mastung Administrative Divisions

[1] District Gazetteer Sarawan 1907

[2] Kamran Khan was the youngest son of Mughal Emperor Babar and was successor to the Kabul Kingdom.

[3] The Ain-i-Akbari, or The Constitution of Akbar is a volume detailing the administration of Emperor Akbar’s empire

[4] The rulers of Kalat were never fully independent; they were always answerable to a paramount power (Imperial Gazetteer of India, v.6 p. 277)

[5] The Khanate ended in 1955, and in 1958 the Khan of Kalat declared Balochistan an independent State; it was reconquered by the Pakistan army, and was then merged into West Pakistan.

[6] This seat is shared by Kalat district

[7] This seat is shared by Quetta

Historical/ Heritage Sites, and Tourism/ Picnic Spots 

The Fort of Emperor Akbar and Shahi Bagh of Mughal period as well as the Shrine of Hazrat Muhammad Sheikh Taqi Noorani are important historical sites and need to be protected by the GoB.

The Hazarganji Chiltan Park is a beautiful picnic area and the Shahi Bagh can also be developed as a family picnic area.

Some of the picnic spots of Mastung Valley include:

  • Dasht-e-Khumbaila
  • Koi Amach and Dasht-e-Omar Door. These areas are full of beautiful flowers, high mountains, waterfalls, and lakes, and can be visited throughout the year
  • Lak Pass provides a beautiful view of hill ranges around Mastung

Topography and Soils

The general topography[1] of Mastung district is mountainous, consisting of a series of parallel ridges running in a north to south direction. There are several valleys in between these ranges, some of which are considerably big, and attain elevations ranging from 1,524 to 1,981 m above mean sea level.

The mountains of the Central Brahvi Range cover a major part of Mastung district. In the extreme northeast, close to the boundary of Quetta and Bolan districts, are the mountains of Murdarghar, Sor Ghar, and Kuk Ghar. The highest peak in Murdarghar is 3,265 m while that of Kuk Ghar is 3,250 m. The valley of Zarakhu is surrounded by these mountains. The hills of Nagau Range are further south, the highest point of which is above 2,500 m. Further west, along the southern boundary of Dasht tehsil lie the hills of Koh-i-Siah (so called because of the hills’ black color), the highest point of which range is 3,117 m.

The Zahri Ghar Mountains run from northeast to southwest, and divide Mastung district into 2 parts. The highest peak of these hills is called Koh-i-Zindan and is 2,681 m high. In the extreme north of this range is located the famous Nishpa tunnel, which is 1.5 km long, and through which passes the Quetta-Mastung-Zahidan Railway line. This tunnel avoids the adjacent Lak Pass through which the Quetta-Zahidan and Quetta-Karachi road passes.

Northwest of Zahri Ghat is the southern extension of Chiltan Hills. The highest point in this range is 3,314 m. Further northwest, along the border of Mastung with Quetta district, are located the hills of Mashlakh range. In the southwest of Mastung Valley lie the hills of Unalath Range, the highest point of which is 2,422 m. The Garr Hills run along the boundary of Mastung district with Chagai district, west of Kirdgap Valley.

The principal valleys in the district are Kirdgap, Shirin Aab, Mastung, Kanak, Bhalla Dasht, and Gwedan.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The important river of the district is Shirin Aab which flows north to south in the western half of the district. Another important river is the Parri which flows near the southeastern boundary of the district. Other rivers and streams are Kangoi Jhal, Chunka Dhor, Bhalla Dhor, and Zarakhu Nala.

Other smaller hill torrents or intermittent streams include Sar-i-Aab, Jal Pash Karm, Takri, Siah Band, and Zalo.

There are no lakes in the district.

Forests

The district has only a limited area under forests; the type of forest found in the district is Balochistan Dry Temperate Scrubs (Steppe) Forest. A small area has been conserved as State Forest and Wildlife Protected Area. Artificial plantations have also been raised over an area of 5,000 HA in the Shamsabad area of Mastung Town to stabilize shifting sand dunes.

The following table shows the types of forests and their area in the district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 54,720 A Scrub Forests 42,720 A
Rangelands 12,000 A Coniferous Forests – A
Irrigated Plantations – A Riverine Forests
Coastal/Mangrove Forests – A

Table 1.3 Mastung Forests

The major tree species found in the district are obusht or Turkestan juniper (Juniperus excelsa polycarpos), wild ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides), and shina or kakrasinghi (Pistacia khinjuk), which occupy favorable sites. The main shrubs are janglee badaam or wild almond (Prunus ebernea), sparae or silverleaf cotoneaster (Cotoneaster spp.), tharkha or sea wormwood (Artemisia maritima), hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), kala zira or cumin (Carum bulbocastanum), Oman (Ephedra nebrodensis and Ephedra intermedia), makhi or joint pine (Caragana ambigua), khakshir or tansy mustard (Sisymbrium sophia), zralg or barberry (Berberis lyceum), and surae or rose (Rosa spp.). The ground cover is constituted mainly by Stipa himalacia, Dichanthium annulatum, Chrysopogon aucheri, and Cymbopogon spp.

Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, Duz Dara, and Koh-e-Surkho are notified Wildlife Protected Areas of the district. In addition, Shaikh Wasil Natural Forest and Sand Dune Stabilization Plantation are irrigated/manual forests of the district.

In Mastung district, a small Sericulture[2] unit exists as well.

Soils

The soil in the district is mainly limestone and clay. The soils are moderately deep, strongly calcareous, and gravely clay loam, and are considered fertile.

Figure 1.3 Map of Mastung District by IUCN

Climate

The district has extreme weather conditions. It is severely cold in winter and hot in summer. The summer season starts by mid-April and continues till mid-September. July is the hottest month, with mean maximum and minimum temperatures of about 36 °C and 20 °C respectively. The winter season starts from mid-September and continues till mid-April. December, January and February are very cold months with January being the coldest; mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 11 °C and -3 °C.

Most of the rain/precipitation is in the winter season from January to March. Rainfall is scanty but there is snowfall. Annual rainfall in the district is 200 mm.

Figure 1.4 Winter in Mastung

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 3 of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means moderate to severe damage due to earthquakes.

[1]1998 District Profile, Mastung by GoPakistan.

[2] Cultivation of silk worms for manufacturing silk.

Population

The following table shows the population of Mastung district as per 2017 Census:

Tehsil/ Taluka Area

km2

Population Male % Female % Urban % Growth Rate %
Mastung District 5,896 266,461 51.8 48.2 13.2 3.04
Dasht/Spezand Tehsil NA 64,768
Mastung Tehsil NA 173,043
Kirdgap Tehsil 28,650

Table 1.4 Mastung Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus 0.6%
Ahmadis 0.1%
Scheduled Casts 0.2%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.5 Mastung Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.2%
Punjabi 0.8%
Sindhi 0.6%
Pushto 6%
Balochi 80.1%
Seraiki 0.9%
Others[3] 11.5%

Table 1.6 Mastung Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[3] includes Brahvi language

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The main economic activities of the district are[1]:

  • Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing (49.9%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (18.3%)
  • Construction (10.2%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (8.8%)
  • Electricity, Gas & Water (6.4%)
  • Wholesale, Retail, Hotel/Restaurant (5.1%)
  • Others (1.3%)

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 686,100 HA Reported Area 324,075 HA
Total Cultivated Area 205,031 HA Net Sown 14,015 HA
Current Fallow 191,016 HA Total Uncultivated Area 119,044 HA
Culturable Waste 46,037 HA Forest Area 25,496 HA

Table 1.7 Mastung Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

Mastung district belongs to the Tropical Agro-Ecological Zone of Balochistan. The crops of the district include wheat, barley, cumin, masoor, moong, and sunflower.

The fruits grown in the district include almonds, apples, apricots, grapes, pomegranate, peach, plum, cherry, watermelon, and musk melon. The vegetable produce of the district include onions, potatoes, tomatoes, okra, tinda, and radish, as well as spinach, turnip, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pumpkin, peas, brinjal, luffa, cucumber, chilies, garlic, and coriander.

Livestock

Livestock breeding is the second most important sector of the economy. It is the main source of income for nomadic families. The following table shows the position of the livestock population according to the 2006 Census of Livestock (qtd. in Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 8,628 Heads Buffaloes 456 Heads Sheep 466,894 Heads
Goats 334,906 Heads Camels 2,802 Heads Horses 85 Heads
Mules 121 Heads Asses 6,770 Heads

Table 1.8 Mastung Livestock Statistics

Livestock breeds of the district include brahvi camel, mangeli sheep, and lehri goat.

Poultry

There are 40 poultry farms in the district (Table 17, Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock)

Bee Keeping

Due to the cold climate, bee keeping is almost negligible in the district.

Fisheries

There are no fisheries or fishing activity in the District.

Irrigation

The main sources of irrigation in the district are tube wells and dug karezes/springs. The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area being irrigated by the mode (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 17,151 HA Government Canals – HA
Private Canals – HA Wells – HA
Tube Wells 17,145 HA Karez/Spring/Others 06 HA

Table 1.10 Mastung Irrigation Statistics

According to the IUCN official website[1] there are 15 karezes in the district; these are Bangi Karez, Kaddi Karez, Rekki Karez, Dando Karez, Miani Karez, Datto Karez, Afghan Karez, Ladha Karez, Tilari Karez, Chashma Dolai Karez, Shahnawaz Karez, Tikki Wall Karez, Mothi Karez, Ghulam Mustafa Karez, and Sheikhan Karez.

Two small Delay Action Dams—the Chilton Dam and Dulay Kanak Dam—will help counter water shortage; of these, the Dulay Kanak Dam is now complete, while the Chilton Dam is still under construction.

[1] See: http://waterinfo.net.pk/?q=karez

Manufacturing/ Industry

The GoB has opened a Carpet Training Center in Mastung to help the carpet industry, but no other relevant data is available.

Mining

Fluorite, iron ore in the form of bauxite, limestone, celestite, and marble are being mined in the district.

Handicrafts

Traditional handicrafts are mostly made by women in their homes, and include embroidery on coats, shoes, caps, shalwar kameez, and leather belts as well as carpets.

Economic Infrastructure

Most parts of the district are well served by 3 National Highways, black topped and shingle roads, and railways. District Mastung is linked with all other parts of the province and country through black topped roads. The provincial government is planning to lay a railway line between Gwadar and Mastung as part of the CPEC (China-Pakistan Economic Corridor) agreement. There is no airport in the district.

Roads

The district is linked with other parts of Pakistan through black topped roads. Shingle roads mostly connect villages within the district. The following table shows the road statistics as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Roads 1,537.0 km
High Type Roads/black topped 1230.0 km
Low Type Roads/Shingle 307.0 km

Table 1.9 Mastung Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district are:

  • National Highway N-25 (also called RCD Highway)
  • National Highway N-40 which connects Quetta with Taftan in Iran
  • National Highway N-65 which connects Quetta with Sukkur
  • Pir Ghaib Road
  • Road connecting N-25 with N-65
  • Road connecting Hazarganji Chiltan National Park with N-25

Figure 1.11 Road near Lak Pass Tunnel

Rail and Airways

There are 2 railway tracks[1] running through the district. The first one, from Quetta to

Sibi, has 3 railway stations namely Mastung, Spezand, and Karidoo. The second track, built in 1905, runs between Quetta and Taftan. This track has stations in Mastung, Wali Khan, Kanak, Sheikh Wasil, and Kardigap. The provincial government has plans under the CPEC agreement to lay a new railway track between Gwadar and Mastung.

The district has no airport. The nearest airport is Quetta International Airport.

Figure 1.12 Spezand Railway Station

Radio and Television

The district has no radio or TV stations or even a booster station. The inhabitants mostly listen to radio broadcasts from other stations.

Telecommunications

The district is connected to other parts of the country through telephone and telegraph lines. There are 02 telephone exchanges in Mastung district which provide 628 landlines, 715 wireless phones, and 567 broadband connections in the District (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19). Cellular phone companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 06 post offices[2] in the district. Most of the courier services provide services in the district as well.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

The following banks[3] all have their branches in the district:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 07 branches of different conventional banks but Islamic banks are not operating in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) looks after the supply of electricity.

[1] Mastung District Development Plan 2011, by GoB and UNICEF

[2] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[3] List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 provided by State Bank of Pakistan

Education

The following table shows the number of educational institutions in the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 206/99 Middle Schools 26/24
High Schools 17/15 Community Schools 11
Higher Secondary 02/01 Degree Colleges 01/01
Universities Mosque Schools[1]
Vocational Training Schools Private Schools[2] 08

Table 1.11 Mastung Educational Institutions

In addition, there is a Cadet College in the district called Cadet College Mastung.

Figure 1.13 Mastung Cadet College

Figure 1.14 Star Model School Mastung

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Mastung district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./beds Institution No./beds
Teaching Hospitals Hospitals 02/70
Rural health Centers 04/30 Basic Health Units 14/-
Dispensaries 06/- Mother Child Health Centers 02/-
TB/Leprosy Clinics etc. 01/- Private Hospitals -/-
Private Dispensaries -/-

Table 1.12 Mastung Health Institutes

Policing

For the purposes of policing, the district is divided into two areas: “A” and “B”. The urban areas come under “A” area, and the rest of the area of the district falls in “B” area. “A” area is controlled by a regular police force, headed by the Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP), who is assisted by the Station House Officer (SHO), Inspector Police, and other staff. “B” area is controlled by a levies force. Levies are a conventional force to help maintain law and order. In levies, men of different tribes are employed. The levies force comes under the direct control of the Deputy Commissioner (DC). Generally, the levies force is well equipped to deal with the law and order situation in the district

The Regional Police Officer (RPO) Quetta is in charge of the police force. This RPO is assisted by one SubDivisional Police Officer (SDPO) stationed at Mastung. There are 03 police stations in the District (Table no. 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District 2019).

[1] included in primary schools

[2] 2011 Data

Environment and Biodiversity

Environmental pollution, especially brown pollution, is almost negligible, as there is no industrial set up or heavy traffic in the district.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Flora[1] of the vegetation zones of the district is as follows:

  • Uphill Steep Rocky Cliffs: This zone includes Chiltan, Koh-e-Haider, Ab-i-Gul and Zarighat Hills where obusht or Turkestan juniper (Juniperus excelsa polycarpos) is the predominantly climax species related with shina or kakrasinghi (Pistacia khinjjuk), joint fir (Ephedra nebrodensis and Ephedra intermedia), wild almonds or janglee badaam (Prunus ebearnea), barberry or zralg (Berberis lyceum), yellow Himalayan honeysuckle (Lonicera hypoleuca), spirea (Spiraea bronica), coinwort cotoneaster (Cotoneaster nummularius), wild rose (Rosa lacerans), common fig (Ficus johannis), olives (Olea ferruginea) and ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides). Wild olive (Olea cuspidate) is also seen occasionally in Ab-i-Gul hills
  • Foot Hills: The foot hills are comprise mostly of the fertile deep soil plateaus like Dasht-e-Baddo, and Gayawan, and provide summer grazing land for both the local and nomadic grazers. The foot hills zone is dominated by a variety of shrubs like tharkha or sea wormwood (Artimesia meritima), wild almonds (Prunus ebernea), makhi or joint pine (Caragana ambigua), zralg or barberry (Berberis lyceum), wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum), oriental fountain grass (Pennisetum orientale), marvel grass (Dichanthium spp.), and ghuzaira or pea flowered tree (Sophora griffithii) associated with herbs and other grasses
  • Piedmont Plains: The plains have mostly been modified by the local community for agriculture and other land uses. They consist of more or less flat to undulating plains. The wasteland contains mostly tharkha or sea wormwood (Artimesia meritima), dwarf griffithii saxaul (Haloxylon griffithii), and harmal (Peganum harmala), with sporadic mixture of edible seasonal forage plants which may include Stipa himalacia, Dichanthium annulatum, Chrysopogon aucheri, Pennesitum orientale, Pennesitum flaccidum, Stipa capillata, Stipa cabulica, Leptorhabdos benthamiana, and Cymbopogon spp. These support thousands of animals, both local and nomadic ones
  • Dry Stream Beds: These are commonly found in the entire district; Tamarix Spp. is commonly seen

Figure 1.5 Artimesia meritima or tharkha (sea wormwood)

Fauna

Mammals of the district include Chiltan markhor, wolf, common red fox, Asiatic jackal, striped hyena, cape hare, porcupine, Afghan hedgehog, Afghan pica, and stone marten. Avifauna includes chakor, see-see partridge, kestrel, magpie, golden eagle, a number of finches, buntings, seasonal/migratory waterfowls, hawks, bustards, and sand grouse. Reptiles and amphibians include Afghan tortoise, Afghan agama, Indian cobra, saw-scaled viper, dwarf dark-headed racer, and the Levantine viper.

Figure 1.6 Stone Marten

Figure 1.7 Golden Eagle

Protected Wildlife Areas and Fauna

The Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, Duz Dara Wildlife Sanctuary, and Koh-i-Surkho Wildlife Sanctuary are the Wildlife Protected Areas of the district. These provide protection to Chiltan markhor, Suleiman markhor, urial sheep, Indian wolf, striped hyena, leopard, caracal, jackal, red fox, porcupine, desert hare, houbara bustard, griffon vulture, Egyptian vulture, honey buzzard, laggar falcon, peregrine falcon, kestrel, Indian sparrow hawk, European bee-eater, European nightjar, Orphean warbler, blue rock thrush, variety of pipits, stonechat, saw-scaled viper, monitor lizard, Russels viper, and spiny-tailed lizard.

Figure 1.8 Hazarganji Chiltan National Park

Figure 1.9 Protected Mammals (including Markhor), Hazarganji Chiltan Park

[1] Most of the information for the Flora and Fauna sections has been drawn from Mastung District Development Profile 2011, Planning and Development Department GoB, with UNICEF