Balochistan-Musakhel

Introduction

Musakhel (also spelled Musakhail) is located between 30° 17Ꞌ 28” to 31° 28Ꞌ 53” north latitudes and 69° 27Ꞌ 38” to 70° 16Ꞌ 26” east longitudes. It is bounded in the north by the Dera Ismail Khan district (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province), in the east by the Dera Ghazi Khan district (Punjab province), in the south by the Barkhan district, and in the west by the Loralai and Zhob districts.

Figure 1.3 A View of Kingri, Musakhel

District at a Glance

Name of District Musakhel District
Headquarters Musakhel Bazaar
Population[1] 167,017 persons
Area[2] 5,728 km2
Population Density[3] 27.9 persons/ km2
Growth Rate[4] 1.2%
Male Population[5] 54.0%
Female Population[6] 46.0%
Urban Population[7] 8.5%
Tehsils/ Talukas 02 Tehsils:

1.    Drug Tehsil

2.    Musakhel Tehsil

Main Towns/ Villages Musakhel Bazaar, Kingri, Sadar Musakhel, Drug, Toisar, Zam, Wah Hassan Khel, and Rarasham
Literacy Rate[8] 43.0%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 57.0%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 28.0%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture, forestry & fishing 57.7%
Community, Social & Personal Services 20.6%
Construction 8.2%
Electricity, Gas & Water 6.7%
Wholesale, Retail Trade, Hotel/Restaurant 5.8%
Transport, Storage & Communication 0.6%
Others 0.5%
Main Crops Wheat, barley, jowar, maize, moong, maash, bajra, sugarcane and tobacco (both in minor quantity), rapeseed and mustard
Major Fruits Almonds, apples, apricots, pomegranate, musk melon, and watermelon
Major Vegetables Onion, potato, tomatoes, okra, tinda, spinach, turnip, carrot, cauliflower, peas, brinjal, cucumber, and chilies
Forest Area[12] 4,173 HA[13]
Black Topped Roads[14] 184.0 km
Shingle Roads[15] 306.0 km
Electricity[16] Supplied by Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO)
Telephone Exchanges[17] 03 telephone exchanges, providing 488 landlines, 713 wireless phones, and 383 broadband connections
Industrial Zones[18] There is no industry in the district
Major Industry[19] There is 1 flour mill and a few furniture making workshops
Household Size[20] 7.0 persons per house.
Houses with Piped Water[21] 5.8%
Houses with Electricity[22] 33.6%

Table 1.1 Musakhel District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[12] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics report 4,173 HA under forests.

[14] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Musakhel District Development Profile 2011 by P&D Department GoB

[19] Musakhel District Development Profile 2011 by P&D Department GoB

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistorical/ Heritage Sites and Tourism/ Picnic Spots

Brief History

Early history of the Musakhel region of Balochistan is obscure, and no authentic records exist. Since the district is located in northern Balochistan, which was part of Kandahar province till the British annexed it and made it a part of British India, its early history can be surmised from that of Kandahar province. It can be asserted, then that this area has been ruled by the Ghaznavids (977-1186), Maliks of Kurt Dynasty,[1] Amir Timur and his successors (1383-1470 AD), Sultan Husain Mirza of Herat (1470-1480 AD), and Amir Shuja-ud-Din Zunnun (1480-1504). In 1505 AD, the Mughals conquered the province of Kandahar and held it till 1559, when the Safavid Kings of Persia acquired it. The Mughals regained control of the province in 1595 but lost it again in 1622 AD, this time to the Safavid Kings of Persia. Shah Abbas, one of the Safavid Monarchs, conferred the government of Pishin and its tribal dependencies upon Sher Khan Tareen[2] who became semi-independent; on the death of Shah Abbas, he refused to submit to Ali Mardan Khan, the Safavid governor of Kandahar. However, Ali Mardan attacked his fort, Kila Sheran, during Sher Khan’s absence. Sher Khan returned to try and regain his fort but was defeated, and had to retire towards Duki (Loralai district). In 1709, the Afghan inhabitants rebelled, led by Mir Wais Ghilzai, and established the Ghilzai power in Kandahar. The Ghilzai power was terminated by Nadir Shah in 1737 AD. After the assassination of Nadir Shah in 1747 AD, the first democratic government was established in Kandahar by the Afghans as they elected Ahmed Shah Durrani/Abdali as their ruler. In 1826, the first Amir of Afghanistan, Dost Muhammad Barakzai, took hold of the area and annexed it to Afghanistan.

In 1879 AD, the British took control of the northern areas of Balochistan under the treaty of Gandamak.[3] From 1879-84, efforts were made to extend the British influence over the Khetran and Musakhel territories which are now part of Musakhel district. The Musakhel Tribe was subdued by the British after they sent a military expedition against them; the Musakhels were defeated and forced to submit to British authority. Thus, on November 1, 1887, the entire area was declared a part of British India. Zhob Agency was formed in 1890 and Musakhel territory was annexed to it. Musakhel was made a Tehsil in 1892, and was transferred to Loralai district in October 1903.

Musakhel became a district on 1 January 1992, when Loralai district was divided into 3 districts: Musakhel, Barkhan, and Loralai. On 31 December 2000, the district was merged back into Loralai district, but on 1 January 2003 Musakhel district was restored.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Musakhel district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly[4] 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 1

Under the Local Government Act 2010, Amended in 2011, Musakhel district has 1 District Council with 17 Union Councils. It has 1 Municipal Committee as follows:

  • Musakhel

Each Union Council is represented by one member in the District Council. In addition, there is special representation of women (33%), and of workers and peasants (5% each).

Administrative Divisions

Musakhel district has a total area of 5,728 km2 and is divided into 2 Tehsils and 10 Union Councils as follows:

Drug (Durug) Tehsil[5] 02 Union Councils
Musakhel Tehsil 08 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Musakhel Administrative Divisions

[1] Maliks of Kurt Dynasty were a subordinate of the Ghori Dynasty

[2] Tareen or Tarin tribe are descendants of one of the sons of Qais Abdul Rasheed, the forefather of most of the Afghani tribes who is supposed to have embraced Islam at the hands of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). They had arrived with Sher Shah Suri, the Afghan King, and settled in parts of Balochistan.

[3] Signed between the British and the then Amir of Afghanistan, King Muhammad Yaqub Khan, on 25 May, 1879 AD, the treaty ended the Second Anglo-Afghan War

Historical/ Heritage Sites and Tourism/ Picnic Spots 

There are some sites which are archeologically and historically[1] important; these are:

  • Sali Archeological Site: Sali is the name of a small village where this site exists
  • Safari Valley and Archeological Site

The following villages/areas are beautiful and can be easily developed into tourist spots[2] as these provide good picnic areas:

  • Shahsar, Torghar Area: The entire area is surrounded by hills and there is a main spring cascading down the hills. The area is well-known for its forested areas and wildlife
  • Surghar: This mountain hosts 4 villages: Merdadzai, Hasankhel, Inzai, and Sadozai. This area is well-forested and full of wildlife
  • Gharhi (Zimri Palaseen): This area is famous for thick pine forests and wildlife
  • Rodh: Beautiful scenic valley, which is well-forested and full of wildlife
  • Gokar (Chassan): there is a large dam in the center of the village which provides a wetland and homing ground for migratory birds
  • Safa: It has a wetland which provides resting areas for migratory birds. It is the habitat of ducks, see-see partridges, chakor partriges, wild pigeons, and eagles. The forest mainly consists of olives, phulai, figs, and wild pistachios

[1] Information on historically significant sites has been drawn from Musakhel District Development Profile 2011, P&D Department GoB, with UNICEF

[2] Information on Tourist Spots has been drawn from Identification of Biodiversity Hot Spots in Musakhel District, Balochistan, by M Yahya Musakhel for WWF, 2005

[4] This seat is shared by Musakhel, Barkhan, and Loralai

[5] formed in 2005

Topography

The district is mountainous for the most part, with 2 principal ranges running in a north‒south direction, called Surghar (also spelled as Sur Ghar) and Torghar. Both mountain ranges are off-shoots of Suleiman Mountain Range. The Surghar Range lies in the west, and comprises of the Satyara (2,405 m), Khiazah (2,187 m), Charkundae (2,316 m), and Kakal (1,807 m) peaks. The Torghar Range lies in the east and includes the Nashtarghar or Mizri Roh (3,109 m), Chappar, Salai, Narai, Tiar (2,329 m), Buj (2,323 m), Hazargat (2,455 m) and Behu (2,429 m) peaks.[1]

The main valley[2] of the district is the Musakhel Sahra which lies from southwest to northeast, enclosed on all sides by hills. It is divided into two parts by the Tang[3] (and/ or Vihowa) stream, with the northern portion being called the Bar Sahra and the southern, Lar Sahra. Besides the Sahra, the district has other smaller valleys, the drainage of which, uniting below Khan Muhammad Kot, forms Luni River or the northern branches of the Sanghar. The Bar Sahra comprises of the tracts of Talao, Ghund, Baha, Talai, and Ulmai. Lar Sahra, which is much smaller than Bar Sahra, is divided into two unequal portions by Razana Stream, which joins Toi near its exit from the Gat Defile.[4] The western portion contains the Loghai and Daman tracts. The general elevation of the Sahra Valley varies from 900 to 1,200 m.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The general drainage[5] of the valley is from west to east, and is carried by 3 main streams: the Toi, Luni, and Sanghar. In the northeast, the Zamarai country is drained by smaller hill torrents, the Ramak, and Guzai. The Toi is formed by the junction of Razana, Tang, and Kharspun or Tangi Sar and is known beyond the boundaries of the district as Vihowa River.

The Lang and Zarni are the 2 source tributaries which form the Sanghar; the two tributaries meet at the Drug valley; in its further course, the river is called Drah, and it drains the Drug valley. The important affluents of the Luni are Rod, Lori Tang (made up of Dab and Khajuri), Kingri, and Sarin.

Figure 1.4 Saran Lahar, Rarasham, Musakhel

Figure 1.5 A rivulet near Musakhel Bazar

Forests

The type of forests found in the area is known as Sub Tropical Broad Leaved Evergreen Scrub Forests, consisting mainly of olive and phulai. There is only 1 notified forest area in the district at Surghundi or Sukandai, measuring 4,173 HA.

Main tree species that dominate these forests include natural olive (Olea ferrugenea) and phulai (Acacia modesta) associated occasionally with edible gurgara or ganger (Reptonia buxifolia), edible pine (Pinus gerardiana) and pine (Pinus excels), tamarisk (Tamarix articulate and Tamarix orientalis), dwarf palm or mazri (Nannorrhops ritchiana), sanatha (Dodonea viscosa), a thorny plant (Gymnospora spinose), ber (Zizyphus jujube), wild pistachios (Pistacia cabulica), varieties of ber (Zizyphus nummularia, Zizyphus oxyphylla, Zizyphus nummularia), many-flowered plant (Anabasis multiflora), wild almond (Prunus ebernea), spulmae or aak (Calotropis procera), urgalam or sihar or dogbane (Rhazya stricta), khamazurae or Indian rennet (Withania cougulans), pamangi or a flowering plant (Bouceros Aucheriana), bushka or hoary cress (Lepidium draba), barberry or rasaut (Berberis vulgaris), shung or wild ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides), barhara or bata (Periploca aphylla), plawan or peelu (Salvadora oleoides), zoze or camel thorn (Alhagi camelorum), spandae or harmal (Peganum Harmala), wild garlic (Allium sphaerocephalum), gandarae or oleander (Nerium odorum), malaghunae or olive daphne (Daphne oloides), ghuzera or dwarf sophora (Sophora griffithii) and makhi or pea shrub (Caragana ambigua). The ground cover is constituted mainly by Stipa pennata, Pennisetum orientalis, Chrysopogon aucheri, Cymbopogon jwarancusa, and Sorghum halepens.

The following table shows the types of forests and their area in the district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area  10,311 A Scrub Forests 10,311 A
Rangelands – A Coniferous Forests – A
Irrigated Plantations – A Riverine Forests – A
Coastal/Mangrove Forests – A

Table 1.3 Musakhel Forests

Soils

The Atlas of Pakistan[6] describes the land of Musakhel as rock outcrops with loamy, very shallow steep high mountain soils of mainly arid and semi-arid zones (rock outcrops and Lithic Camborthids[7]). The foot hills are covered with talus cones and alluvial fans, generally composed of gravel, pebbles, and sands. Beyond the foot hills, the valley floors are covered with silt and loam. These are fertile soils of great agricultural value in the rocky waste.

Locally, about 6 types of soils are found in Musakhel. Lasai or Sur Khaurai is a soft red soil containing silt or mat, and is found in Kingri Circle and the Sahra Valley. This land is used for the cultivation of wheat, jowar, and bajra. Tor Khaurai is dark hard loam found in Drug and Rarasham areas, and is used for wheat and maize. Sandy loam, the Sagai, is found in Rod Kingri and Rod Karher areas. The Zhghalina (gravely) in Drug Circle is used for cultivating moong. In some areas of Toisar and Drug, the earth is spread in rocky ground to form artificial soil. Locally, it is called Navrina Mzakka and it is used to cultivate barley and maize. Barley is also cultivated on saline soils, called Tarkhbandae, of Sanghar hills, Rod Srin, Mirzai, and Toisar.

Figure 1.6 IUCN GIS Map Musakhel District

Climate

The climate of Musakhel, which is located 1,200-2,400 m above sea level, is semi-arid and can be placed in the “warm summer and mild winter” temperatures category. The summer is hot, and begins in April, ending in October, with mean temperatures ranging from 21 °C to 32 °C. June is the hottest month, when maximum temperature can exceed 32 °C and occasionally rise above 38 °C. In winter, the temperature drops below 21 °C, but even in the coolest month (January) the mean monthly temperature does not drop below 10 °C. However, the mercury may touch the freezing point during cold spells. The mean annual rainfall is 400 mm, most of which occurs during July and August.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 3 of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means moderate to severe damage due to earthquakes.

[1] Names of the peaks are drawn from Loralai District Gazetteer 1907, p. 325

[2] The information in this paragraph is extracted from the Musakhel District Development Profile 2011 by GoB with UNICEF

[3] According to District Development Plan 2011 by GoB and UNICEF Tang and Vihowa are two names for one stream, but the British Gazetteer describes Tang as a tributary of Vihowa stream

[4] A narrow pass or gorge between hills or mountain

[5] Musakhel District Development Plan 2011, P&D department, GoB with UNICEF

[6] Musakhel District Profile, Bureau of Statistics, Planning Studies Section with P&D Department GoB,1997

[7] lithic soils have rock outcrops, and camborthid soils are fine soils

Population

The following table shows the population of Musakhel district as per 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban % Growth Rate %
Musakhel District 5,728 167,017 54.0 46.0 8.5 1.16
Musakhel Tehsil 5,728 129,502
Drug Tehsil Created in 2005, out of Musakhel 37,515

Table 1.4 Musakhel Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.6%
Christians Negligible %
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.4%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Musakhel Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.2%
Punjabi 0.1%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 78.9%
Balochi 13.6%
Seraiki 0.9%
Others[3] 6.4%

Table 1.6 Musakhel Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

[3] includes Brahvi language

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The main economic activities of the district are[1]:

  • Agriculture, forestry & fishing (57.7%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (20.6%)
  • Construction (8.2%)
  • Electricity, Gas & Water (6.7%)
  • Wholesale, Retail Trade, Hotel/ Restaurant (5.8%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (0.6%)
  • Others (0.5%)

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 572,800 HA Reported Area 48,316 HA
Total Cultivated Area 13,882 HA Net Sown 6,156 HA
Current Fallow 7,726 HA Total Uncultivated Area 34,434 HA
Culturable Waste 10,411 HA Forest Area 4,173 HA

Table 1.7 Musakhel Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Temperate Agro-Ecological Zone and the Western Dry Mountain Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture in the district mostly depends on rainfall. The crops of the district include wheat, barley, jowar, maize, moong, maash, bajra, sugar cane and tobacco (both in minor quantity), as well as rapeseed and mustard.

The fruits grown in the district include almonds, apples, apricots, pomegranate, musk melon, and watermelon.

Vegetables include onion, potato, tomatoes, okra, tinda, spinach, turnip, carrot, cauliflower, peas, brinjal, cucumber, and chilies.

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is the second most important sector of the economy. It is the main source of income for nomadic families. The following table shows the position of the livestock population according to the 2006 Census of Livestock (qtd. in Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19) in the district:

Cattle 197,318 Heads Buffalo 1,650 Heads Sheep 977,748 Heads
Goats 464,126 Heads Camels 17,639 Heads Horses 3,588 Heads
Mules 96 Heads Asses 21,226 Heads

Table 1.8 Musakhel Livestock Statistics

Indigenous livestock breeds of the district include: kohi (camel); koh-i-Suleiman or lohani (cattle); shinghari and sperki or pidie (donkey); Balochi (horse); kakari, musakhaili, kajjale, bibrik (sheep); and Koh-iSuleimani (goat).

Poultry

According to the Musakhel District Development Plan 2011, by P&D Department, GoB with UNICEF, there is one government-owned poultry farm and small private/commercial poultry farms of boilers and layer breeds in the district.

Bee Keeping

Bee keeping is not an economic activity in the district.

Fisheries

There are no fisheries in the district. Some fishing is done in the rivulets of the district for local consumption.

Irrigation

The main sources of irrigation in the district are tube wells, canals, wells and dug karezes/springs. The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area being irrigated by the mode (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 3,793 HA Government Canals – HA
Private Canals – HA Wells – HA
Tube wells 3,079 HA Karez/Spring/Others 714 HA

Table 1.10 Musakhel Irrigation Statistics

The number and names of karezes in Musakhel district are included in the chapter on Loralai district.

Bund Dam and Mirdadzai Dam are Delay Action Dams; construction on Bund Dam is now complete, while Mirdadzai is still under construction. Combined, the dams will help preserve and improve water supply in the district.

Figure 1.8 Bund Dam Reservoir & Embankment, Musakhel

Manufacturing/ Industry

No significant industrial or manufacturing activities have been reported in Musakhel district. There was a small Diesel Power Generation Plant in Musakhel, but it has not been in operation since 1997, when the transformer was vandalized.[1]

Mining

According to the Musakhel District Development Plan 2011, by P&D Department GoB with UNICEF, the exposed sedimentary sequence comprises of shale, sandstone, limestone, marl, and conglomerate. The occurrence of carbonaceous matter has an economic significance as a source for coal and hydrocarbon generation in this area. Petroleum prospecting was carried out by Oil and Gas Development Company in Musakhel, and different feasible structures for oil resources have been reported. Coal concessions are granted to the private sector and some coal is being mined in the district.

Oil and gas is being explored in the district.

Figure 1.7 Coal Mine, Musakhel

Handicrafts

Women in Musakhel are experts in traditional embroidery work, but for the most part, this work is done on women’s dresses for personal use. Although, at present, it is not a commercial activity, it can be developed as a cottage industry if proper guidance were to be provided to the women.

[1] Musakhel District Development Plan, 2011 P&D Department GoB with UNICEF

Economic Infrastructure

Musakhel district is mostly rural. It is connected with other parts of the province and the country with black topped as well as shingle roads. There is no railway or airport in the district.

Roads

According to the Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19, following are the road statistics of the district:

Total Roads 490.0 km
High Type Roads/black topped 184.0 km
Low Type Roads/Shingle 306.0 km

Table 1.9 Musakhel Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district are:

  • National Highway N-70 passes through the district (Kila Saifullah-Multan)
  • Road connecting Loralai-Dera Ghazi Khan via Kingri
  • Road connecting Musakhel Bazaar to National Highway N-50

Rail and Airways

No railway services or airways exist in the district. The nearest airport to Musakhel Bazaar is Zhob Airport. The nearest railway station to the district is located in Dera Ghazi Khan.

Radio and Television

Musakhel district has no radio or TV stations, or even a TV booster. TV can be viewed through satellite.

Telecommunications

The district is connected to other parts of the country through telephone and telegraph. There are 03 telephone exchanges in Musakhel district which provide 488 landlines, 713 wireless phones and 383 broadband connections in the district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19). Cellular phone companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 03 post offices[1] in the district. Courier services are not available.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There is only 01 branch of National Bank of Pakistan in Musakhel district[2].

Electricity and Gas

Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) looks after the supply of electricity. There was a Diesel Power Generating Plant in Kingri, which supplied electricity to the town but was closed in 1997, after the transformer was vandalized, as described already.

[1] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[2] List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan.

Education

The following table shows the number of educational institutions in the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 205/67 Middle Schools 13/07
High Schools 15/04 Community Schools 11
Higher Secondary 03/01 Degree Colleges 01/-
Universities Mosque Schools[1]
Vocational Training Schools 01 Private Schools[2] 01

Table 1.11 Musakhel Educational Institutes

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Musakhel district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./beds Institution No./beds
Teaching Hospitals Hospitals 02/70
Rural health Centers 04/30 Basic Health Units 20/-
Dispensaries 06/- Mother Child Health Centers 02/-
TB/Leprosy Clinics etc. -/- Private Hospitals -/-
Private Dispensaries -/-

Table 1.12 Musakhel Health Institutes

Policing

For the purposes of administration, the district is divided into two areas: “A” and “B”. The urban area of Musakhel district comes under “A” area and the rest of the area of the district falls in “B” area. “A” area is controlled by a regular police force headed by the Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP). This DSP is assisted by a Station House Officer (SHO), Inspector Police, and other staff. “B” area is controlled by levies force. Levies are a conventional force to help maintain law and order, comprised mainly of men of different tribes. The levies force comes under the direct control of the Deputy Commissioner (DC). Generally, the levies force is well equipped to deal with the law and order situation in the district.

The policing of Musakhel district is looked after by the Regional Police Officer (RPO) Loralai. This RPO is assisted by 2 SubDivisional Police Officers (SDPO), with one stationed at Musakhel Bazaar and the other at Kingri. In all, there are 03 police stations[3] in the district.

[1] included in primary schools

[2] 2011 data

[3] Table no. 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District 2019

Environment and Biodiversity

Environmental pollution, especially brown pollution, is almost negligible, as there is no industrial set up or heavy traffic in the district.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Vegetation zones[1] of the district mainly consist of the following categories:

  • Hills: Common flora includes olive (Olea ferrugenea), phulai (Acacia modesta), shung or Afghanash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides), pine (Pinus gerardiana) and Himalyan blue pine (Pinus excelsa), gurgara or ganger (Reptonia buxifolia), sanatha or hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa), mastic tree (Pistacia cabulica), kankera (Gymnosporia spinosa), ber (Zizyphus nummularia), and mazri palm (Nannorrhops ritchiana)
  • Plains: Common flora of the plains includes phulai (Acacia modesta), a thorny tree (Gymnosporia spinosa), ber (Zizyphus nummularia), and mazri or dwarf palm (Nannorrhops ritchiana), wild almond (Prunus ebernea), spulmae or aak/rubber bush (Calotropis procera), urgalam or harmal (Rhazya stricta), khamazurae or Indian rennet (Withania cougulans), pamangi, a flowering plant (Bouceros Aucheriana), karkana, a variety of ber (Zizyphus nummulariana), bushka or hoary cress (Lepidium draba), barberry (Berberis vulgaris), shung or ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides), barhara or milk broom (Periploca aphylla), plawan, or vann, or peelu (Salvadora oleoides), zoze or camelthorn (Alhagi camelorum), spandae or harmal (Peganum harmala), black spear grass (Heteropogon contortus), wild garlic (Allium sphaerocephalum), gangu, a fodder grass (Orthonnopsis intermedia), gandarae or oleander (Nerium odorum), malaghunae or olive daphne (Daphne oleoides), ghuzera or pea flowered tree (Sophora griffithii) and makhi or pea shrub (Caragana ambigua). The ground cover is constituted mainly by Stipa pennata, Pennisetum orientalis, Chrysopogon aucheri, and Cymbopogon jwarancusa, and Sorghum halepens
  • Stream Beds: Commonly found in the entire district, where tamarisk (Tamarix articulate and Tamarix orientalis) and wild sugarcane (Saccharam spp.) are commonly seen

Fauna

Mammals found in the district include Suleiman markhor, wild sheep, fox, Asiatic jackal, hyena, cape hare, mongoose, stone marten, porcupine, and Afghan hedgehog.

Birds of the district include chakor, see-see partridge, magpie, houbara bustard, a number of sparrows, finches, buntings, seasonal/ migratory waterfowls, hawks, and sand grouse. The area also provides a corridor to migratory bird species, including common crane and demoiselle crane.

Reptiles of the district include Afghan tortoise, brown cobra, saw-scaled viper, Levantine viper, and goh.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Fauna

There are no Protected Wildlife Areas in the district.

[1] Musakhel District Development Plan, 2011 P&D Department GoB with UNICEF