Balochistan-Ziarat

Introduction

Ziarat district is located between 67° 11′ 18″ to 68° 36′ 0″ east longitudes, and 30° 09′ 46″ to 30° 35′ 56″ north latitudes. The district is bordered on the north by Pishin, Loralai and Killa Saifullah districts, on the south by Sibi district, on the northeast by Loralai district, on the northwest by Pishin district, and on the southwest by Quetta district. In 2001, Sanjawi Tehsil from Loralai district was added to it, thereby adding to its total area and population. Overall, Ziarat remains the smallest district of Balochistan in area, with a total area of 3,670 km2.

Figure 1.3 A View of Ziarat Town

District at a Glance

Name of District Ziarat District
District Headquarter Ziarat Town
Population[1] 160,422 persons
Area[2] 3,670 km2
Population Density[3] 49.1 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 3.7%
Male Population[5] 51.3%
Female Population[6] 48.7%
Urban Population[7] 2.1%
Tehsils/Talukas 02 Tehsils:

1.    Sanjawi

2.    Ziarat

Main Towns/Villages Ziarat, Kawas, Zandra, Spezandi, Choom, Zargi (Ziarat Tehsil), Sanjawi, Tand Wani, Khaza, Uchwani, Smallan, and Aghbarg
Literacy Rate[8] 39.0%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 55.0%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 21.0%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with Its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing/ Hunting 45.9%
Community, Social & Personal Services 32.0%
Construction 9.6%
Electricity, Gas/Water 4.2%
Others 8.4%
Main Crops Wheat, barley, rapeseed & mustard, jowar, bajra, moong, and maash
Major Fruits Almonds, apples, apricots, grapes, peach, pomegranates, cherry, and melons
Major Vegetables Onions, potatoes, carrots, chilies, tomatoes, pumpkin, peas, and garlic
Forests (Area)[12] 51,313 HA[13]
Total Metalled Roads[14] 537.0 km
Shingle Roads[15] 337.0 km
Electricity Electricity supplied by Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO)
Telephone Exchanges[16] 03 telephone exchange providing 362 landlines, 341 wireless phones, and 336 broadband connections
Industrial Zones[17] No Industrial Estate
Major Industry[18] No Manufacturing Industry except a few flour mills
Household Size[19] 7.4 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water[20] 13.2%
Houses with Electricity[21] 81.9%

Table 1.1 Ziarat District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census (Ziarat district 1,489 + Sanjawi tehsil of Loralai 2,181= 3,670).

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census Ziarat district; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

[12] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics report 69,495 HA under forests.

[14] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Ziarat District Profile 2011, by P&D Department, GoB with UNICEF

[18] Ziarat District Profile 2011, by P&D Department, GoB with UNICEF

[19] 1998 Census Ziarat district; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

[20] 1998 Census Ziarat district; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

[21] 1998 Census Ziarat district; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsTourism (Picnic/Archaeological Spots) – Historic Places

Brief History

Ziarat was a small dwelling locally called Gwuskhi or Kowashki; this name was changed to Ziarat by 1886 to acknowledge the presence of a shrine of a Muslim Saint, Mian Abdul Hakim, generally known as Kharwari Baba or Mulla Tahir (clean mullah). The shrine is located in Ziarat Valley, south of Ziarat town. According to legend, the Saint arrived in the region from Khandahar, Afghanistan, and settled on a hilltop in Gwushki (or Kowashki). He prayed for the prosperity of the area, and a number of miracles are attributed to him. After his death, he was buried in the region, and pilgrims came here to pay their respects and to offer sacrifices. The name of the place slowly changed to Ziarat, which literally means “a place for pilgrimage”. Tribesmen, during the Eid festival, gather around the shrine, and hold marksmanship and wrestling competitions.

The early history of Ziarat is the same as that of the Sibi district, of which it was a part until 1986. During British rule, Ziarat was a part of Shahrig Tehsil of Sibi district, and stayed thus till 1986, when it was upgraded to a district level. In 2001, the Sanjawi Tehsil of Loralai district was also added to it which resulted in the district’s present shape.

At the outbreak of the First Anglo-Afghan War in 1839, Misri Khan, the ruler/nawab of Sibi and the chief of the Panri tribe, tendered his services to Shah Shuja[1] and was taken into the British Service as a Baloch Levy. At the termination of the War, Sibi was handed over by the British to the Khan of Kalat, who never really occupied it, and in 1843, the district again came under the rule of the Barakzais.

In 1885, the British selected Ziarat (then called Gwushki/ Kowashki) as the place to build a sanatorium, changing the name of Gwashki or Kowashki officially to Ziarat in 1886. In 1887, Sibi was made a part of British India, and Ziarat was made its summer headquarters. A Residency was built in the area in 1890-91. The land (81 Acres) was purchased in 1895 from the Sarangzai tribe for a price of Rs. 14,000.[2] A piped water supply was provided to the Residency.

Ziarat formed a part of the Shahrig Tehsil of Sibi district until 1974 when it was given the status of a SubTehsil. In 1986, Ziarat SubTehsil was upgraded to a district level, and it became the smallest district of Balochistan (in area). Later in 2001, Sanjawi Tehsil, which was part of Loralai district, was added to the Ziarat district as its Tehsil.

The founder of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, spent his last days at the Ziarat Residency, which is now a National Monument, and which now houses many relics belonging to Jinnah. The local people assert that the Quaid breathed his last in Ziarat, which is in contrast to official reports that maintain that he expired in Karachi on 11 September 1948, the day he was shifted from Ziarat. The Residency building is a majestic piece of architecture; people however, visit it primarily for its association with Jinnah.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Ziarat district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly[3] 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 1

Under the Local Government Act 2010, Amended in 2011, Ziarat district has 1 District Council with 14 Union Councils. It has 1 Municipal Committee as follows:

  • Ziarat

Each Union Council is represented by 1 member in the District Council. In addition, there is special representation of women (33%), and of workers and peasants (5% each).

Administrative Divisions

The district has a total area of 3,670 km2 and is divided into 2 Tehsils as follows:

Ziarat Tehsil 03 Union Councils
Sanjawi Tehsil 04 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Ziarat Administrative Divisions

Tourism (Picnic/Archaeological Spots) 

Following are some of the major tourist attractions in Ziarat district:

  • Juniper Forests: These include the landscape carved by the juniper forests. Snowfall on the juniper trees adds to the winter beauty of Ziarat Valley. Orchards and crops in the valleys are scenic as well
  • Quaid-e-Azam Ziarat Residency in Ziarat Town: This is a historical and national heritage building notified in 1986 under the Government of Pakistan Antiquities Act, 1975. Quaid-e-Azam spent his last days here. Built in 1903, originally as a summer residence for the Assistant Governor General of Balochistan, the property is spread over 3,885 km2. The building is made of limestone with porches and balconies made of teakwood
  • Khalifat peak: The mountains and hills including Khalifat peak, the second highest in Balochistan, are good for mountaineering and trekking for all age groups and skill levels
  • The Chashma Walk: Between the hills and the deep ravine, there is a mile-long stretch of flat land ideal for a peaceful walk. This is the Chashma Walk which leads to the springs or a chashma that provides water for the town
  • The shrine of Baba Kharwari: This is a sacred place visited by a large number of pilgrims and visitors. The shrine of Baba Kharwari is 8 km from Ziarat town. A member of Sarangzai tribe, his name was Tahir. He became a disciple of Nana Sahib and a number of miracles are attributed to him
  • Prospect Point: The view from prospect point is rewarding. It is located at a height of 2,713 m above sea level, and is 6 km from Ziarat. The road leading to the lookout area is black topped
  • Zindra: Zindra, a picturesque town with cherry orchards, derives its name from the Pushto word “Zindra” meaning “four grinding mills”
  • Zizree (16 km from Ziarat city) and Nauna Dam (20 km from Ziarat city) are also interesting places for an outing near Ziarat
  • Other attractive destinations in the district include Mana Valley, Chautair Valley, and Tangi
  • The Gorges: there are a number of gorges around Ziarat formed by natural Karez, or springwater falling through narrow openings among the mountain rocks. Famous gorges are Chutair Tangi, Kahn Tangi, Kawas Tangi, Fem Tangi, and the Sandeman Tangi
  • Ziarat Week: This is an annual traditional festival, which hosts sports teams from all over Balochistan (by invitation) for various tournaments. Cricket, football (soccer), and volleyball are the main sports. Wrestling contests, a cycle race, and tug-of-war events are also held. Ziarat Social Welfare Society organizes the tournament with financial assistance from the Deputy Commissioner, Ziarat
  • A number of hiking teams also come to Ziarat to explore the various forests and hiking trails

Figure 1.9 Sandeman Tangi

Figure 1.10 View of Ziarat from Prospect Point

Figure 1.11 Green fields, Ziarat

Figure 1.12 Ziarat Bazaar

Historic Places

  • Shrine of Baba Kharwari: This is not protected as a historical artefact, but is historically important
  • Shrine of Nau Gaza Baba: His real name was Abdul Kareem. People say that after his death, his body increased in length to 9 yards, and hence people started calling him Nau Gaza (9 yards) Baba. This shrine needs steps taken for its preservation
  • Quaid-e-Azam Residency

Figure 1.13 Quaid-e-Azam Residency, Ziarat

Figure 1.14 Shrine of Baba Kharwari, Ziarat

[1] Shah Shuja was the Durrani/ Abdali ruler of Afghanistan from 1803-1809 and then again from 1839-1842. He allied Afghanistan with the British in 1809 as a defense against a Russian occupation

[2] Sibi District Gazetteer 1907 p. 258

[3] This seat is shared by Pishin district

Topography

The district is mountainous and hilly. The highest peak, Khalifat, with a height of 3,475 m (a part of the Suleiman Range), is located in Ziarat Tehsil. A portion of Tor Ghar (or Torghar) Mountains is located in Sanjawi Tehsil. The highest peak of the Torghar range is called Machai Sar (2,992 m) and is located in Torghar District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Both these ranges support juniper forests. Long, narrow and, at times, wide valleys intersperse the mountains and hills, and support agriculture. Ziarat town and most villages are generally located along the valley roads, where there is agricultural land (mostly orchards).

The principal valleys are Kach, Kawas, Ziarat, Zandra, Mangi, Mana, and Gogi Ahmadoon with altitudes ranging from 1,800 to 3,488 m above mean sea level.

There are more than half a dozen gorges around Ziarat formed by natural Karez or spring water falling through narrow openings among the mountain rocks. The notable gorges along the road to Ziarat are Chutair Tangi, Kahn Tangi, Kawas Tangi, Fern Tangi, and Sandeman Tangi.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The Ziarat Valley is a part of the Nari River basin. This is fed by a large number of streams and hill torrents flowing down from the mountains. The important streams are Ziarat Nadi, and Mangi Nadi. These, along with the Mana Storage/ Delay Action Dam, are the main sources of surface water.

Forests

Ziarat has the distinction of having the second largest area of juniper forests in the world. One of the largest juniper forests of a single juniper species (Juniperus excelsa) in the world is found in Ziarat, adjoining Harnai and Quetta districts. The forests are, therefore, of global importance. There are artificial forests in the district as well, and these comprise of rangelands, plantations, and conifers. The juniper ecosystem is unique, and its surface area magnifies the significance of biodiversity in the district. The juniper forests of Pakistan have been nominated as a World Heritage Site.

Ziarat has 15 Notified Natural Forests[1] which include Bastirgi, Gohar, Zargat, Sasanamana, Shaeedan, Pil, Wam Tangi, Wam Kach, Kach Mangi, Kach Nallah, Surghund, Ziarat Juniper, Chasnak, Chautair, and Kurbi Kach, all measuring 61,731 HA in total.

The following table shows the area and type of forests in Ziarat district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 126,797 A Scrub Forests – A
Rangelands – A Coniferous Forests 126,797 A
Irrigated Plantations Riverine Forests – A
Coastal/Mangrove Forests

Table 1.3 Ziarat Forests

There is only one type of forest in the district: Coniferous Forests. The major tree species found in the district are obusht or Turkestan juniper (Juniperus excelsa polycarpos), wild ash or Afghan ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides) and shina or wild pistachios (Pistacia khinjjuk), which occupy favorable sites. On lower hills, zaitoon or olive (Olea ferruginea) and mazri palm (Nannorrhops ritchieana) are also present. The main shrubs and bushes are janglee badaam/wild almond (Prunus eberne), sparae (Cotoneaster spp.), tharkha or sea wormwood (Artemisia maritime), hawthorn (Crataegus sp.), joint fir (Ephedra nebrodensis and Ephedra intermedia), makhi or pea shrub (Caragana ambigua), khakshir or tansy mustard (Sisymbrium sophia), zralg or barberry (Berberis lyceum), and surae or wild rose (Rosa lacerans). The ground cover is constituted mainly of grasses like feather grass (Stipa himalacia), marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum), aucher’s grass (Chrysopogon aucheri) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon spp.)

Figure 1.4 One of the Oldest Juniper Trees of the World located in Ziarat

Figure 1.5 Juniper Forest

Figure 1.6 A Juniper Tree in Ziarat

Soils

The soil of the district is loamy on both sides of streams, and loamy-stony in other places, varying in hardness according to the proportion of clay and shingle. In most parts of Ziarat Valley, the fields are in terraces, the faces of which are carefully riveted with stones. The hill torrents are kept within bounds by well-constructed spurs of timber and rush wood. In the rainy seasons, the floodwater brought by hill torrents is diverted on to the fields. The fertile mud is beneficial for cultivation of valuable crops.

Figure 1.7 Ziarat District GIS Map, IUCN

Climate

The district is semi-arid and its climate is temperate. The climate is extremely cold in winter and cool in summers. The summer season lasts from May to August. The pleasant weather during this season attracts visitors and makes the area a hill resort. Summer rainfall is mostly received in July and August. The winter season starts in September and continues till April, with January being the coldest month. During winter, the district gets a fair amount of snow. July is the hottest month,[2] when the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 36 °C and 20 °C, whereas the maximum and minimum temperatures recorded in January are 11 °C and ‑4 °C. The average annual precipitation (both in the form of snow and rain) is 265 mm.

Figure 1.8 Ziarat Town, after a Snowfall

Seismic Activity

According to the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, Ziarat district belongs to Zone 4, which means severe damage due to earthquakes.

[1] Ziarat District Development Plan 2011 by GoB and UNICEF

[2] Since there is no meteorological station in the district, the data for maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation recorded at Quetta station are being reproduced here.

Population

The following table shows the population of the district as per 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Ziarat District 3,670 160,422 51.3 48.7 2.1 3.67
Ziarat Tehsil 1,489 67,861
Sanjawi Tehsil 2,181 92,561

Table 1.4 Ziarat Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 100%
Christians Negligible %
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis Negligible %
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Ziarat Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.5%
Punjabi Negligible %
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 99.0%
Balochi 0.5%
Seraiki Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.6 Ziarat Languages

[1] 1998 Census Ziarat district; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

[2] 1998 Census Ziarat district; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The major economic activities[1] of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing/Hunting (45.9%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (32.0%)
  • Construction (9.6%)
  • Electricity, Gas & Water (4.2%)
  • Others (8.4%)

Land Use

The following table shows the land use statistics of Ziarat district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Area 330,100 HA Reported Area 89,167 HA
Total Cultivated Area 11,212 HA Net Sown 3,076 HA
Current Fallow 8,136 HA Uncultivated Area 77,955 HA
Culturable Waste 122 HA Forest Area 69,495 HA

Table 1.7 Ziarat Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

Ziarat falls in the Tropical Agro-Ecological Zone, and most of the agricultural land is irrigated. The crops of the district include wheat, barley, rapeseed & mustard, jowar, bajra, moong, and maash.

Fruits, the main produce of the district, include almonds, apples, apricots, grapes, peach, pomegranates, cherry, and melons. The almonds and cherries produced in the district are well known for their quality and taste.

The vegetable produce includes onions, potatoes, carrots, chilies, tomatoes, pumpkin, peas, and garlic.

Livestock Breeding

Livestock plays an important role in the economy of the district. It provides job opportunities to a majority of the rural population.

The following table shows the statistics of livestock for Ziarat district according to the 2006 Census of Livestock (qtd. in Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 1,929 Heads Buffaloes 12 Heads Sheep 120,054 Heads
Goats 138,440 Heads Camels 34 Heads Horses 13 Heads
Mules 05 Heads Asses 1,029 Heads

Table 1.8 Ziarat Livestock Statistics

The main livestock breeds of the district include raigi (camel); Koh-i-Suleimani (cattle); shinghari and sperki or pidie (donkey); kakari, dumeri or hernai, and gosalli or kajalle (sheep); and khurasani and koh-i-Suleimani goat.

Poultry

Data on number of poultry farms is not available.

Fishing

There is no inland fishing in the district. Some cold-water fish are found in the streams of Sanjawi district, which can be developed to increase fishing as an economic activity.

Bee Keeping

Bee keeping is a reasonable economic activity in Ziarat district. A few makeshift stalls selling locally produced honey are common; moreover, some local vendors also market the product. Despite potential for export, the product is only marketed for tourists visiting the area.

Irrigation

In Ziarat district, almost the entire cultivated area is irrigated. The sources of irrigation are open wells, tube wells, karezes/springs and small dams. The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area irrigated by it for Ziarat district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 6,553 HA Private Canal Irrigated – HA
Government Canals – HA Wells 2,503 HA
Tube Wells 3,720 HA Karezes/Springs etc. 330 HA

Table 1.10 Ziarat Irrigation Statistics

According to the official IUCN website, there are 68 karezes in Ziarat district. Some of these[4] are Mara Karez, Sund Ghara Karez, Haji Toor Karez, Churman Karez, Inzerget Karez, Poi Karez, Bano Bagh Karez, and Chashma Karez.

Mining

According to the Ziarat District Development Profile 2011, by P&D Department, GoB with UNICEF, marble, and other dimension stones are being mined by the private sector. Other minerals that are present (but not being mined or explored) are coal, laterite (titanium) and calcite. The occurrence of these minerals has been confirmed by the Geological Survey of Pakistan.

Oil and gas deposits are being explored in the district.

Industry and Manufacturing

The manufacturing/ milling units existing in the district cater only to local demand. These units include flour mills, motor car/cycle workshops, and artisan shops.

Trade

There is no large scale trade in the district.

Handicrafts

The handicrafts of the region consist of household items made with the leaves of the mazri palm. Other handicrafts are rugs made of goats’ hair, sacks made of hides and skin (used for carrying water); cottage industries include goldsmiths, carpentry, and pottery, as well as woolen carpets and other woolen goods.

[1] 1998 Census Ziarat district; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

Economic Infrastructure

Roads are the most important means of transport and form the backbone of the district’s economy. The economic infrastructure within the district is poor; the link roads are mostly shingle, but the district’s headquarter, Ziarat, can be reached via black topped road from Quetta. However, there is no direct link to Karachi or other parts of Pakistan. The availability of electricity is limited and natural gas is not available at all.

Roads

According to Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19, the road statistics of Ziarat district are as follows:

Total Roads 874.0 km
High Type Roads 537.0 km
Low Type Roads 337.0 km

Table 1.9 Ziarat Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district include

  • Road connecting Quetta-Ziarat with National Highway N-50 (Kuchlack–Dera Ismail Khan)
  • Road connecting Harnai with N-50 passes through the district
  • Road connecting N-50 with Pishin also passes through the district
  • Ziarat–Loralai Road

Rails and Airways

There are no railway or airline services in the district. The nearest railway station and airport are at Quetta.

Radio and Television

There are no TV or radio broadcasting stations in the district, but programs broadcast from Karachi, Quetta, and Islamabad as well as Zahidan (Iran), Kabul (Afghanistan) and the BBC can be heard throughout the district. TV can be viewed through cable.

Telecommunications

Ziarat district is connected to other parts of Pakistan and the world via a modern digital telephone exchange. There is 03 telephone exchanges which provides 362 landlines, 341 wireless phones and 336 broadband connections in the district.[1] Cellular phone services, with considerable coverage in all major towns, are also available.

Post Offices

There are a total of 05 Post Offices in the district.[2] All major courier companies provide their services in the district as well.

Banking/ Financial Services

The following banks[3] have their branches in the district:

  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 03 branches of conventional banks and 02 branches of Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) looks after the supply and transmission of electricity to the district.

Education

The following table shows the number of Educational Institutions in Ziarat district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 151/73 Middle Schools 10/15
High Schools 16/03 Community Schools 20
Higher Secondary 01/01 Degree Colleges 01/-
Universities Mosque Schools[5]
Vocational Training Schools[6] 1 Private Schools[7] 02

Table 1.11 Ziarat Educational Institutions

Figure 1.15 A School in Ziarat

Health

The following table shows Government Health Care Institutions in Ziarat district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./beds Institution No./beds
Teaching Hospitals Hospitals 01/14
Rural Health Centers 03/40 Basic Health Units 14/-
Dispensaries 08/- Mother Child Health Centers 01/-
TB/Leprosy Clinics etc. 01/- Private Hospitals -/-
Private Dispensaries -/-

Table 1.12 Ziarat Healthcare Institutes

Policing

The larger part of Ziarat district is bifurcated into an “A” and a “B” area. The “A” area, comprising towns and highways, has a police force. A police station has a maximum jurisdiction with a radius of 8 km. A “B” area does not have a police force, and all major law and order situations in this area are managed by levies.

A levy is a conventional force for maintaining law and order, that was installed during British rule. Levy members are recruited along tribal or clan lines. The levies fall under the direct command of the Deputy Commissioner (DC), with powers delegated to the assistant commissioners, and tehsildars, among others. The levies in Ziarat district are classified as Sepoy, Hawaldar, Dafeedar, Jameedar, and Risaldar. Every district in Balochistan has its own levies, named after the district. Recently, at the initiation of the DC administration, a new levy force has been recruited at the district level, known as the Task Force. This Task Force is better trained and equipped with advanced weapons.

The policing of Ziarat district is managed by the Regional Police Officer (RPO) Sibi. This RPO is assisted by 2 Sub-Divisional Police Officers (SDPO) stationed at Ziarat and Sanjawi. In all, there are 02 police stations[8] in the district.

[1] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[2] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[3] List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, provided by the State Bank of Pakistan

[4] For more details please visit http://waterinfo.net.pk/?q=karez

[5] included in Primary schools

[6] Carpet Center

[7] 2011 Data

[8] Table no. 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District 2019 by Federal Bureau of Statistics.

Environment and Biodiversity

Environmental pollution, especially brown pollution, is almost negligible, as there is no industrial set up or heavy traffic in the district.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The flora of the district is scanty and consists of the following type:

  • Higher Hills: On higher mountain areas, Juniperus Excelsa polycarpos is the predominantly climax species associated with wild pistachios or shina (Pistacia khinjuk), joint fir (Ephedra nebrodensi, Ephedra intermedia) and wild ash or Afghan ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides)
  • Foothills: The foothills comprise mostly of fertile deep soil areas. The region provides summer grazing land for both local and nomadic graziers. It is dominated by a variety of shrubs like tarkha or sea wormwood (Artimesia meritima), wild almonds (Prunus ebernea), makhi or pea shrub (Caragana ambigua), zralg or barberry (Berberis lyceum), and ghuzaira or dwarf sophora (Sophora grifithii) associated with herbs and grasses. On lower hills, zaitoon or olives (Olea ferruginea) and mazri (Nannorrhops ritchieana) are also present
  • Piedmont Plains and Valleys: The plains and valleys have mostly been modified by the local community for agriculture and other land uses. The area consists of more or less flat to undulating plains. The wasteland contains mostly tharkha or sea wormwood (Artimesia meritima), and saxaul (Haloxylon grifithii) with a sporadic mixture of edible seasonal forage plants, thus supporting thousands of animals, both local and nomadic ones
  • Dry Streambeds: These are commonly found in the entire district; lavender spp. is commonly found
  • Rangelands: Common flora of this zone includes gung or chaste berry (Vitex agnus-castus), ghureza or foxtail sophora (Sophora alopecuroides), tharkha or sea wormwood (Artemisia maritime), zawal or yarrow (Achillea santolina), zoz or camel thorn (Alhagi camalorum), spanda or harmal (Peganum harmala), washta or feather grass (Stipa pennata), weezh or karley rose (Pennisetum orientale), sargarai or lemon grass (Cymbopogon jwarancusa),and margha or lemon grass (Pennisetum annulatum)

Fauna

  • Mammals: Straight-horned markhor, wolf, hill fox, Asiatic jackal, cape hare, porcupine, Afghan hedgehog, Afghan pica, urial, and stone marten
  • Birds: chakor, see-see partridge, kestrel, rosy starling, magpie, golden eagle, a number of sparrows, finches, buntings, seasonal/ migratory waterfowls, hawks, bustards, and sand grouse
  • Reptiles: Afghan tortoise, agama, brown cobra, saw-scale viper, dwarf dark-headed racer, and Levantine viper

Protected Areas and Endangered Fauna

There are 4 Notified Protected Areas in the district which include Sasanamana, Ziarat, Gogi, and Wam, measuring 58,105 HA in total. These provide protection/sanctuary to wildlife, especially to the mammals of the region.