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Flora and Fauna of Pakistan

Flora of Pakistan

Pakistan’s native flora reflects its varied climatic zones, which range from arid and semi-arid, to temperate and tropical, as discussed already. This volume provides an overview of the country’s Flora and Fauna. For further details, and an extensive list, please visit The Pakistan Plant database, available online, and for details of flora in different districts, please consult the relevant chapters in this volume. The database provides access to flora of Pakistan, which is a comprehensive inventory of the plants of Pakistan, the first modern cataloguing of more than 6,000 species from Pakistan, a large, relatively poorly known region of South Asia. This Pakistan Plant Database (PPD) includes all information published in the Flora volumes already in print, and available in a searchable web-based format. To date, this project has produced 217 volumes of the Flora, the last 16 of which have been co-published by the Missouri Botanical Garden and the University of Karachi. Many volumes have been authored by world authorities on the taxa involved, who have often partnered with Pakistani botanists[1].

Some of the most common flora of Pakistan is shown in the following table:

Common name Scientific name Common name Scientific name Common name Scientific name
Deodar Cedrus deodara Fir (Partal) Abies pindrow Blue Pine (Kail) Pinus wallichiana
Pine (chir) Pinus roxburghii Elm (Kaeen) Ulmus walichiana Walnut (Akhrot) Juglans regia
Oak (Bung) Ouercus incana Yew (Battangi) Taxus baccata Betula (Birch) Betula utilis
Chilghoza Pine Pinus gerardiana Spruce (Kachal) Picea smithiana Poplar (Putch) Populas ciliata
Monotheca (Gurgura) Monotheca buxifolia Viburnum (Guch) Vibernum nervosum Burberis (Sumbal) Berberis lycium
Pistacia (Khunjak/


Pistacia mutica Acacia (palosa) Acacia modesta Sanatha (Zarawanai) Dodenea viscose
Bhaiker (Arosa) Adhatoda vasica Ber (Karkana) Zizyps mauritiana Babool (Kikar) Acacia nilotica
Olea (Zaitoon) Olea furrigenea Frash (gaz) Tamarix aphylla Prosopis (Jund) Prosopis spicigera
Sanobar Juniper Lai Tammariy diocca Jhao Tammariy gallica
Kandi Prosopis spicigera Khabar Salvadora oleoides Liar Dia rothii
Dranu Crotalaria burlia Thohar Euphorbia caudicifolia Gangi Grewia populifolia
Khoombhat Acacia senegal Dharm Khatri Aristida scopria Mert Panicum turgidum
Oont Katara (a tye of shrub) Alhagi camelorum Dumahoo Fagonia cretica Devi Prosopis juliflora
Flame tree (Gul Mohar) Delonix regia Hog Weed (Santoori) Boethavia diffusa Banyan or Bohar Ficus indica
Mulberry (shahtoot) Moususalba Mango (Aam) Mangifera indica Siris Albizzia lebbeck
Jamolan (Jaman) Enginia jambolana Lasura Cordia myxa


Amaltas Cassia fistula
Neem (Nin) Melia indica Dates or Khajji Pheni docty lifera Poplar (Bhan) Populus euphratica
Mimosa (Sharinh) Albizzia lebbeck benth Cedar (Drek or bakain) Malia a zerdarach Gul e Khaira Althea rosea L.
Asmani booti Ephedra gerardiana Phunka Adiantum incisum L Hopwood (Sanatha) Dodona viscosa
Wild olives (Kao) Olea-ferruginea China berry (Drek) Melia sempervirens Sacred fig (pipal) Ficus religosa
Shisham Dalbargio sissoo Black Mulberry (Toot) Morus marrceal Karir Cappris aphylla
 Van Salvadora abeoides aak Calotropois hamiltonit  

Table 1.12 Pakistan Flora

Fauna of Pakistan

There are around 174 mammal species, 668 bird species, around 177 species of reptiles and 198 native and introduced freshwater fish species in Pakistan. There has been little research on invertebrates of Pakistan, but about 5,000 species of invertebrates have been recorded including insects (1,000 species of true bugs, 400 species of butterflies and moths, 110 species of flies, and 49 species of termites). Other species include 109 species of marine worms, over 800 species of mollusks and 355 species of nematodes[2].

Some of the common Mammals of Pakistan are[3]:

Snow leopard Wild boar Common leopard Wild cat lynx Mongoose
Wolf Markhor Jackal Ibex Porcupine Chinkara
Black deer Hog deer Blue bull Grey goral Wild rat Barking deer
Mountain Sheep Musk deer Sindh Ibex Urial Wild ass Woolly flying squirrel
Civet cat Brown bear Hyenas Black bear Indian Otter Asiatic Jackal
Black Buck Monkeys Steppie Pygmy Shrew Striped Hyenas Grey Shrew Hedgehog
Variety of Bats Scaly ant eater Indian wild dog Jungle cat Sand Cat mongoose
Fishing cat Bengal fox Marco polo sheep Blue sheep Wild boar Hare

Table 1.13 Pakistan Mammals

Some common birds of Pakistan include:

2 varieties of loon 5 varieties of Grebes 5 varieties of Shearwaters and petrels Red-billed and red-tailed tropic birds 3 varieties of pelicans Masked Booby
4 varieties of cormorants 16 varieties of egrets 7 varieties of storks 4 varieties of spoon bills Greater and Lesser Flamingoes Large variety of ducks
White-bellied sea eagle Egyptian vulture Black kite Short-toed eagle Shikra Sparrow Hawk
Tawny eagle Imperial eagle Mountain Hawk-eagle Falcon Kestrels Snow Partridge
See-see partridge Sand partridge Junglebush quail Indian pea fowl quails Cranes
Coots Houbara Bustard Ibis bill stilts Collared Pratincole Red-wattled lapwing
Various varieties of gulls Brown noddy nightingales Common mynah peacocks Cuckoo
crow sparrow Purple moorhen pigeons chakor peegit

Table 1.14 Pakistan Common Birds

Reptiles of Pakistan include a variety of turtles, tortoises, soft shell turtles, mugger crocodiles, variety of geckos, variety of agamas, lizards, chameleon, sand lizards, skinks, wide variety of snakes including boas and pythons, kraits and cobras, sea snakes, and vipers.

There are 12 varieties of dolphins and whales found in the waters of Pakistan. The Indus River Dolphin or Blind Dolphin is endemic to Pakistan and is considered to be endangered.

[1] http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

[2] Biodiversity Action Plan for Pakistan, WWF – P, IUCN – P and GoP

[3] For complete list of all mammals please visit www.zooreach.org/downloads/…/2003_CAMP_Pakistan_Mammals.pdf