Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Bannu

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Bannu district is located between 32° 56′ to 33° 16′ north latitudes, and 70° 22′ to 70° 57′ east longitudes. The district is bounded on the north by Hangu district, on the east by Karak district, on the south by Lakki Marwat district, and on the west by South Waziristan Agency (now a District).

Figure ‎1.3 General View of Bannu City

District at a Glance

Name of District Bannu District
District Headquarter Bannu City
Population[1] 1,211,006 persons (i/c population of Ex. FR Bannu)
Area[2] 1,972 km2
Population Density[3] 614.1 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.9%
Male Population[5] 50.8%
Female Population[6] 49.2%
Urban Population[7] 4.3%
Tehsils/ Talukas 03 Tehsils:

1.    Bannu Tehsil

2.    Domel[8] Tehsil

3.    Local Area Bannu

Main Villages/ Towns Bannu, Ismail Khel, Surani, Bazar Ahmad Khan, Norar, Mandan, Mamash Khel, Kaki, Bharat, Shahbaz Azmat Khel, Shah Dev, Mandev, Khojari, Ghori Wala, Doud Shah, and Sukari
Literacy Rate[9] 55%
Male Literacy Rate[10] 81%
Female Literacy Rate[11] 28%
Major Economic Activity[12] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing & Hunting 42.1%
Community and Social Work 19%
Construction 18.3%
Wholesale/ Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant 13%
Transport, Storage & Communication 4.4%
Others 3.3%
Main Crops Wheat, sugarcane, rice, barley, gram, maize, tobacco, moong, rapeseed & mustard, sugar beet, guar seed, linseed, and sunflower
Major Fruits Mango, guava, watermelon, papaya, apricots, melon, banana, dates, plums, citrus, mulberry, walnuts, persimmon, apples, and figs
Major Vegetables Potatoes, garlic, pumpkins, beans, tomatoes, chilies, coriander, turmeric, okra, tinda, brinjal, and radish
Forests (Area)[13] 14,402 HA[14] (Mostly Private Plantations)
Total Black Topped Roads[15] 687.0 km
Shingle Roads[16] 388.0 km
No. of Grid Stations Electricity is supplied by Peshawar Electric Supply Corporation (PESCO); there is 01 grid station of 132 KV capacity
No. of Tel. Exchanges[17] 10 telephone exchanges, providing 5,572 connections
Industrial Zones[18] One Small Industries Zone and 62 Registered Industrial Units, out of which 55 are running
Major Industry[19] Biscuit & Sweets[20] 3 Units
Leather 15 Units
Ice Factories 16 Units
Flour Mills 6 Units
Daal 2 Units
Cement Based 2 Unit
Household Size[21] 9.7 persons
Houses with Piped Water Inside[22] 43.2%
Houses with Electricity[23] 94.1%

Table ‎1.1 Bannu District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census; added area of Ex FR Bannu

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Domel Tehsil was created in 2009

[9] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM);Latest available

[10] PSLM

[11] PSLM

[12] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

[13] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[14] Land Utilization Statistics report 562 HA area under forests

[15] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[20] For a full list please refer to article on “Industry”

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites/ Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the District

The Sanskrit grammarian, Panini,[1] describes Bannu as Wano, the historical city of Varnu or Verəna. The Avesta[2] mentions Verəna or Bannu as well. According to the Avesta, Varəna is one of the 16 perfect lands created by Ahura Mazda.

The Chinese pilgrim, Hiuen-Tsang visited Bannu and Jaguda, Ghazni, while crossing the lands of the “O-po-kien” or the Afghans/ Pashtuns.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India states that “The population of Bannu is, and has been for many centuries, essentially Afghans. There are, however, remains which tell of an older Hindu population and afford proof that the district came under the ancient Graeco-Bactrian civilization of Punjab” (v. 6, p. 393). This is verified by old relics discovered in the district from the archaeological sites of Akra Mounds, Raja Til-Kot, Rok, Mari, and Sheri Khan Tarakai.

The earliest known village settlement in the Bannu region is the archaeological site of Sheri Khan Tarakai which was discovered in 1985 by members of the Bannu Archaeological Project.[3] The available dating evidence indicates that Sheri Khan Tarakai was occupied from the late 5th century BC to the early 3rd century BC. The findings also show that this area remained a part of Khorasan (Iran), and that its inhabitants were Hindus. The area was later occupied by the Achaemenid Dynasty,[4] which was overthrown by the Greeks led by Alexander the Great in 326-7 BC, and thus, the area formed an integral part of the Graeco-Bactrian Empire. After Alexander’s death, the area was ruled by his General Selecus Nikator, who was overthrown by Chandragupta Maurya, and the area became a part of the Mauryan Empire and the Gandhara Civilization.

The Mauryan Empire ruled the region till 232 BC. After that, the area was a part of the Sakas kingdom (80 BC-10 AD), and the Indo Parthians (20 BC-late 1st century AD), from whom the Indo-Scythians took over and ruled the area from 80 BC to 50 AD. After that, the area became part of the empire established by the Kushans, [5] who ruled from 10 AD to 230 AD. The Kushans linked the sea-going trade of the Indian Ocean with the commerce of the Silk Road through the Indus Valley. The kingdom was then conquered by the Iranian Kings of the Sassanian Dynasty, who remained in power till 365 AD, when the kingdom was assaulted by Kidara-II, the chief of the Kidarite Dynasty, who, in 368 AD, took over the control of Gandhara and its surrounding areas including Bannu (then locally called Akra). The Kidarites lost their control over many parts of the kingdom including Bannu to the White Huns or Ephthalites between 427 and 457 AD. In 457 AD, the area was taken over by the Turk Shahis dynasty, which was later known as the Kabul Shahis.

Mehmood of Ghazni (or Mahmud Ghaznavi), after defeating the Kabul Shahis at Bannu in 1001 AD, passed through this territory each time he attacked the Delhi Sultanate. During one of his attacks, he destroyed the Akra Fort, but the remains of the fort are present to-date. After the Ghaznavid dynasty (977-1186), the Ghoris ruled this area (1186-1215 AD). During the rule of the Ghoris, 3 Pashtun tribes—the Hanni, Angal, and Mangal—occupied the vast territories of Bannu which had been lying barren after the defeat of the forces of Raja Jayapala, the ruler of Bannu who was defeated by Mahmud Ghaznavi.

The Bannuchi or Bannudzai tribe living in the Shawal area (which is located partly in the present-day North Waziristan and partly in the Paktia province of Afghanistan), forcibly ejected Hanni, Angal, and Mangal from Bannu in 1285 AD, and occupied the land, devoting themselves to agricultural pursuits. After this, the history of the Bannuchis is obscure.

The area later became a vassal of the Timurid dynasty and the Lodhi dynasty. The Lodhis ruled for 50 years, till Babar, the first Mughal Emperor, conquered the area in 1505 AD. Babar in his treatise Tuzk-e-Babri or Babarnama [the Book of Babar] asserts that “The Bangash River (Kurram) runs through the Banna territory, and by means of it, the country is chiefly cultivated” which shows his familiarity with the region.

During Mughal rule, the area was allowed to self-govern, provided they paid a fixed annual tribute.

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:

Nadir Shah’s great invasion took place in 1738. Ahmad Shah Durrani subsequently led his army three or four times through the Bannu Valley, levying what he could by way of tribute on each occasion. In 1818 the Nawab of Mankera annexed Marwat territory, but was speedily forced to give way to Ranjit Singh, who first crossed the Indus in 1823. In 1838, the valley passed by cessation to the Sikhs. Ranjit Singh lost no time in attempting to occupy his new territory. Elsewhere in the District he had met with little opposition; but in the Bannu Valley he was forced after several efforts to fall back upon the expedients of his predecessors, and to content himself with a periodical dispatch of a force to levy what he was pleased to term arrears of revenue: in reality to devastate the country and carry off whatever booty could be secured.

Such was the state of affairs when, after the first Anglo-Sikh War [1845-1846] the district came under the British influence. In the winter months of 1847-8 Lieutenant (afterwards Sir Herbert) Edwardes was dispatched to the frontier as the representative of Lahore Darbar and accompanied by a Sikh army under General Van Cortlandt. He arrived in Bannu to find that a large portion of the district was practically independent. In the Bannu valley every village was a fort. (v. 6, p. 394)

Sir Edwardes accompanied by a Sikh army was joined by a force from Peshawar under Lieutenant Taylor. They camped in Bannu proper. Within a few months, most of the Bannuchi chiefs tendered their submission to him. After some time the neighboring Wazir tribe also submitted. Sir Edwardes started construction of a fort which angered the Bannuchis and they started a guerrilla war. This did not stop the construction of the fort and on its completion the British forced the Bannuchis to demolish all their smaller forts on the threat of war. Sir Edwardes later built roads and canals, thus encouraging agriculture. After his death in 1868, the name of Bannu city was changed to Edwardesabad after him. This name was reverted to Bannu after Partition.

In 1849 Punjab was annexed by the British and the district passed under British rule. Bannu was at that time a part of Dera Ismail Khan and was made a separate district in 1861. The district comprised of Mianwali and Isa Khel tehsils as well. Mianwali and Isa Khel tehsils were made into one district in 1901.

Over time, Punjab was truncated, and 5 districts—Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, and Hazara—were separated from Punjab to form a separate Pathan administrative entity, the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) under a Chief Commissioner on November 9, 1901. Malakand—which consisted of the 3 Princely States of Dir, Swat, and Chitral, as well as the 4 Tribal Agen­cies: Khyber, Kurram, North and South Wazirstan—was also added to NWFP. The NWFP was upgraded to a Governor Province in 1935 and Bannu became a part of this new province.

Mirza Ali Khan (1897-1960), a Waziri from a village of Ipi in North Waziristan, launched a movement of civil disobedience against the Colonial power in 1936. He was nicknamed the Faqir of Ipi by the locals. Two major incidents prompted him to launch this movement: one was the incident of Masjid Shaheed Ganj[6] in Lahore which was destroyed by the Sikhs on July 5, 1935. The other, in Bannu, was that of a Hindu girl who became a Muslim as Islam Bibi, but the British authorities forcibly returned her to her Hindu parents. This enraged the Muslims, especially the followers of Mirza Ali Khan who raised two lashkars (troops) of 10,000 strong men each, and fought the British, blocking all roads, capturing outposts and ambushing all convoys. The British retaliated by sending troops to the hills occupied by the followers of the Faqir, but failed to subjugate him and his supporters. They even employed the Royal Air Force to bombard the strongholds of the Faqir and his followers. Sporadic action con­tinued from 1937 to 1947. The creation of Pakistan in 1947 significantly dulled the Faqir’s insurgency. As the government was Muslim-led, the religious grounds for the insurgency were lost, but the Faqir did not accept Pakistani rule, and continued his struggle for an independent Pashtunistan. On 4 November 1954 his lieutenants, namely Mehar Dil and Khalifa Gul Nawaz, voluntarily surrendered themselves in person to the Commissioner of Bannu, and this, in effect, brought the Faqir’s struggle to an end. He died in 1960 without surrendering to the Pakistani government and is buried in Gurwek, North Waziristan.

The district of Bannu was bifurcated in 1992, with Lakki Marwat being separated to become a new and independent district.

[1] Panini was a renowned Sanskriti grammarian and scholar of Hinduism. His works are dated between the 4th and 6th centuries BC

[2] Avesta is the holy book of the Zoroastrians (fire worshippers)

[3] The Bannu Archaeological Project is a collaborative archaeological project involving scholars from the Pakistan Heritage Society and University College London. The excavations were done from 1985 to 2000

[4] The Achaemenid Dynasty, also called the first Persian Empire that ruled from 550 to 330 BC, was founded by Cyrus the Great

[5] The coins of all Kushan Kings were found at Akra and are now preserved in the Peshawar and Lahore museums.

[6] Masjid Shaheed Ganj was built during Mughal Emperor Shahjahan’s rule, but the Sikhs converted it into a Gurdwara and Muslims were not allowed inside.

Governmental Structure 

At the Federal level, Bannu district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 4

Under the Local Government Act, Bannu district has 1 District Council constituted by general seats, seats reserved for women, peasants/ workers, youth, and non-Muslims as prescribed under the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act 2013. Bannu District Council is composed of 49 general members, 17 women members, 3 peasants/ worker members, 3 minority members, and 3 youth members.

There is one Member in the KP Provincial Assembly that looks after all the former Frontier regions of former FATA

Administrative Divisions 

Bannu district, with an area of 1,972 km2 is divided into 3 tehsils as follows:

Bannu Tehsil 49 Union Councils
Domel Tehsil[1] 04 Union Councils
Tribal Area Bannu 06 Village Councils

Table ‎1.2 Bannu Administrative Divisions

Domel was given the status of a tehsil in 2009 and hence data on its area is not available.

[1] Created in 2009

Heritage Sites/Tourist Attractions/Picnic Spots

The following historical sites/ buildings are being protected under Government of Pakistan Laws:

  • Akra Mounds near Village Bhart, Bannu: This site dates back to the 6th century BC. Relics recovered included broken pieces of pottery and coins of the Greek period
  • Sheri Khan Tarakai, Jani Khel Wazir village, Bannu: This site was discovered in 1985 by members of theBannu Archaeological Project, and it is the oldest known village settlement in the Bannu  The available dating evidence indicates that Sheri Khan Tarakai was occupied from the late 5th century to the early 3rd century BC
  • Ghundai Village, Bakka Khel Wazir, FR Bannu

Non-protected heritage sites include:

  • Til Kafir-Kot or Raja Til-Kot: This fort is located a few miles to the south of the location where River Kurram flows into the Indus, upon a spur of the Khisor hills. The outer walls are composed of immense blocks of stone, measuring 1.8 m (6 ft) in length, 0.91 m (3 ft) in width, and 0.91 m (3 ft) in depth, with the exposed side smoothly chiseled. In the center are the remains of several Hindu temples or sanctuaries, the domes of which are perfect, with steps leading up to them. The carving, representing idols and other designs, both inside and outside, is in a good state of preservation. No pottery, bones, or coins are yet to be found among these ruins
  • Remains at Rok and Mari: These ruins consist of portions of two circular walls composed of blocks of stones, layered with white plaster. The temples here are very similar to those at Kafir-Kot but are larger and better preserved. The massive fortification makes these ruins remarkable
  • Laki Gate Mosque

Thanedar Wala Game Reserve is a shallow, fresh to brackish seepage lagoon and an extensive marshy area formed at the junction of Tochi and Kurram rivers.

The Kurram Valley includes the Baran Dam, which has aesthetic and recreational values for the general public, and is a popular area for boating and sport fishing.

A potential tourist attraction in Local Area Bannu is Barganata, a picnic spot with motels.

Figure ‎1.8 Baran Dam

File:Akra (A) Mound, Bannu.jpg - Wikimedia Commons

Figure ‎1.9 Akra Mounds

Figure ‎1.11 Lakki Gate Mosque, Bannu

Topography

The district is located in the Bannu Valley which forms a basin drained by 2 rivers from the hills of Waziristan: the Kurram River and the Gambila or Tochi River. These rivers unite at Lakki and join River Indus south of Kalabagh. The valley of Bannu proper, stretching to the foot of the frontier hills, forms an irregular sedimentary oval, and is surrounded on all sides by the hard and dry mountain ranges. The plains are formed by deposits brought down by the rivers Kurram and Gambila/ Tochi and are the flood plains at the center of the basin/ valley.

The Bannu district is bounded by the following hills:[1]

  • Waziri Hills: These are located on the west and northwest of the district, separating it from Waziristan. The highest point is known as Gabar, and is nearly 1,944 m high
  • Bitanni Range (also spelled as Bhittani): A low spur of crumbling sandstone hills, which are a part of the Suleiman Range known as the Bitanni Range held by the Bitanni tribe (North Waziristan). This range forms the boundary between Dera Ismail Khan and Bannu districts. This Bitanni Range ends at the Pezu Pass
  • Sheikh Budin Range also called Marwat Range: Starting at Sheikh Budin Village and extending as far as Darra Tang (now in Lakki Marwat district) and east of Pezu Pass is the Sheikh Budin Range (also spelled Shaikh Badin). This Range separates Bannu district from Dera Ismail Khan district. The highest point is 1,376 m. Locally, it is called Shinghar or Sabz Roh. This Range juts out into the Bannu plains
  • Maidani Pahar/Khattak Niazi Range and the northern spur of Marwat Range: This is located on the east of the district; it separates the district from Isa Khel tehsil of Mianwali district. The highest point of Maidani Range near the valley of Maidan is 1,297 m

The valley of Bannu, stretching to the foot of the frontier hills, forms an irregular sedimentary basin.

The valley is flanked on all sides by mountain ranges (described above) grading in the west and north into Sufaid Koh and the Suleiman Mountains. A large number of hill torrents flow down these hill ranges, bringing down material to form piedmont plains.

There are 2 types of plains in the Bannu Basin: the flood plains and the piedmont plains. The flood plains are formed by the deposits brought down by the Kurram and Gambila/ Tochi River systems and occur in between these two rivers at the core of the basin.

Piedmont plains are formed from the material brought down by the hill/ rain torrents from the hills; these piedmont plains are also called Thal. To the south and east of the Khattak-Maidani hills lies the valley of the Indus.

Topography of Local Area Bannu

The Area is mostly hilly; the heights of these hills range from 450 to 1,216 m with the highest peak (1,216 m) located to the south of Walai. The important mountain range of the Area, locally known as Kharaghora, has an average height of 850 m.

The Thal Valley is to the east of River Kurram. The southern part of this valley is occupied by the Marwats, and the Waziris live in the north. This is a flat sandy plain area and is the property of the winter immigrants from the Waziri Hills. The Waziri Hills along River Kurram separate the Region from Waziristan. The whole area is interspersed with hill torrents.

Mountain Passes

The important mountain pass of the district is the Tochi Pass, which connects Bannu with Ghazni in Afghanistan.

Figure ‎1.4 Sheikh Budin Mountains

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

There are 2 main rivers in the district: the Tochi (or Gambila as it is known in Waziristan) and the Kurram River. There are a number of hill torrents or nullahs which irrigate the district:

  • The Tochi River: This river emerges from the hills and runs nearly parallel to the Kurram River for some distance and then joins Kurram River 3 miles from Lakki Marwat. The Waziri and Bannochi tribes depend upon this river for irrigation. The main tributaries of Tochi River in the district are Khairore and Shakti
  • The Kurram River: This river rises in the southern slopes of Sufaid Koh and forms the western boundary of Kohat district. This river irrigates not only the plains of the district but the hills as well. The important tributaries of the river are Tangai, Algad, Adhmi/Tarkhoba, Tarkhobi Algad, and Kashu Algad
  • The Baran River flows through the Local Area Bannu.

Other smaller nullahs or hill torrents irrigate the lands. The important nullahs of the district include Kasucum Fur, but its waters are slightly brackish and hence not used for irrigating the lands. Khisor and the Shaktu nullahs originating from hills on the Waziristan side are perennial nullahs and are used for irrigation purposes.

Baran Lake, Malugul Dhand and Thanedar Wala Wetland are important lakes/ wetlands of the district.

Forests

The following table shows the type and area of forests in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 35,587 A Resumed Land – A
Reserved Forests – A Communal Forests – A
Protected Forests 236 A Guzara Forests – A
Un-classed Forests[2] – A Private Plantation – A
Private Plantation 35,351 A Section 38 Forests[3] – A
Linear Plantation 335 km Miscellaneous – A

Table ‎1.3 Bannu Forests

The district is home to Sub-Tropical Thorn Forests. The flora includes kikar or prickly acacia (Acacia nilotica), siris (Albizia lebbeck), amaltas or golden shower tree (Cassia fistula), karir (Capparis deciduas), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), bathu (Chenopodium album) Syrian rue or harmal shrub (Peganum harmala), ajwain shrub (Trachyspermum ammi), and mazri palm (Nannorhops ritchieana).

Soils

The soils of the flood plain areas of the district are composed of thick deposits of calcareous lacustrine clay, underlain by coarse gravel, or, in places, by rounded pebbles.

The Bannu lowland is made of sandy and gravelly materials brought down by rivers, except for a small area near Bannu town which contains rich silt. Perennial irrigation, made possible by the construction of the Kurram Garhi Dam on River Tochi, is confined to the land between River Kurram and River Tochi.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

Climate

The general elevation of the Bannu district is 388.9 m. The climate of Bannu district is hot and semi-arid, with cold winters. The summer season starts in May and continues till mid-August. May and June are dry and hot months. In July and August the weather is hot and moist. June is the hottest month with mean maximum and minimum temperatures being 40 °C and 26 °C respectively. December, January, and February are the winter months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures in January (the coldest month) are 17 °C and 5 °C respectively, but the temperature may go down to 2 °C.

Maximum rainfall occurs in August; mean annual rainfall of Bannu district is 550 mm.

[1]Geography of Bannu and Environs” Excerpts from Gazetteer of the Bannu District (1887)

[2] Un-classed Forests are owned by the Government

[3] Section 38 Forests were Private lands voluntarily given up by the owner

Population

The following table shows the tehsil-wise population of Bannu district as per 2017 Census:

District Area

km2

Population Male % Female % Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Bannu District 1,972 1,211,006 50.8 49.2 4.2 2.92
Bannu Tehsil 1,227 958,504
Domel Tehsil Formed in 2009 209,388
Tribal Area Bannu 745 43,114

Table ‎1.4 Bannu Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.4%
Christians 0.2%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.3%
Scheduled Castes Nil %
Others Negligible %

Table ‎1.5 Bannu Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.4%
Punjabi 1%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 98.5%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.1%
Others Negligible %

Table ‎1.6 Bannu Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Bannu district provides a safe and short route to the Central Asian markets. Agriculture, followed by allied livestock breeding, is the most important economic activity. Forestry, fishing, quarrying, and industry and manufacturing are other important economic activities of the district. The major industrial occupations in the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing & Hunting (42.1%)
  • Community and Social Work (19%)
  • Construction (18.3%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant (13%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (4.4%)
  • Others (3.3%)

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of Bannu district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 122,700 HA Reported Area 206,523 HA
Total Cultivated Area 97,275 HA Net Sown 32,340 HA
Current Fallow 64,845 HA Uncultivated Area 109,248 HA
Culturable Waste 8,591 HA Forest Area 562 HA

Table ‎1.7 Bannu Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Barani Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture mostly depends upon rains. The major crops of Bannu district are wheat, sugarcane, rice, barley, gram, maize, tobacco, moong, rapeseed & mustard, sugar beet, guar seed, linseed, and sunflower.

Major vegetables of the district are potatoes, garlic, pumpkins, beans, tomatoes, chilies, coriander, turmeric, okra, tinda, brinjal, and radish. Other vegetables of both Kharif and Rabi[1] seasons are also grown in minor quantities.

Major fruits of the district are mango, guava, watermelon, papaya, apricots, melon, banana, dates, plums, citrus, mulberry, walnuts, persimmon, apples, and figs.

Livestock Breeding

Flat-tailed sheep, camels and donkeys are raised in the non-irrigated parts of Bannu plains, and wool is the most important commercial commodity.

The following table shows the statistics of livestock in Bannu district (i/c Ex. FR Bannu) as per Livestock Census 2006 (qtd. in KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle[2] 266,356 Heads Buffaloes 67,703 Heads
Sheep 220,612 Heads Goats 861,509 Heads
Camels 1,713 Heads Horses 1,824 Heads
Asses 25,109 Heads Mules 481 Heads

Table ‎1.8 Bannu Livestock Statistics

Balkhi, Waziri, and Hashtnagri sheep, and Rojhan cattle are indigenous livestock breeds of the district.

No photo description available.

Figure ‎1.5 Hashtnagri Sheep

Poultry

There are 03 poultry farms[3] in the district.

Fishing

Fishing as an economic activity is taken up in both the Kurram River and the Tochi River. Trout is abundantly available. In addition, the Baran Dam Reservoir provides ample opportunities for fishing.

Bee Keeping

Bannu district has high potential for fostering the honey bee industry. At present, ber/ sidr/ jujube honey is collected. There are a large number of honey bee colonies in the rural areas of the district.

Irrigation

The district is mostly irrigated by River Kurram. Baran Dam on Kurram River has been constructed to collect rain water and is thus a unique source of irrigation. The dam is situated in a natural low basin area and has not needed reconstruction since its initial construction. Bannu has pure drinking water provided to all segments of society. The following table shows the mode and area irrigated by each mode in Bannu district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Irrigated Area 60,155 HA Govt. Canal Irrigated 5,817 HA
Tube Wells 22,001 HA Wells 820 HA
Others 250 HA Private Canal Irrigated 30,997 HA
Lift Pumps 270 HA

Table ‎1.11 Bannu Irrigation Statistics

Mining

Iron ore, magnesite, manganese, alum, and phosphate are being mined in Bannu district. In addition, salt is being quarried.

The government has awarded an exploration license for the exploration of oil and gas in the district.

Industry and Manufacturing

There is a Small Industries Estate in Bannu. In addition, there are the following training centers:

  • Leather Goods Service Center, Bannu
  • Automotive Training Center, Bannu
  • Readymade Garments Center for females, Bannu
  • Handicrafts Development Center for females, Nurar, Bannu

The following table shows the type and number of industries in the district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Industry Number Industry Number
Biscuit & Sweets 03 Cement Based 02
Daal Processing 02 Flour Mills 06
Leather 15 Paper & Board 01
Pharmacy 01 Spice Grinding 01
Woolen 01 Ice Factories 16
Beverages 01 Cement 01
Engineering 01 Marble & Chips 01
Metal Works 01 Pet Lube 01
Sugar 01 Total 55

Table ‎1.9 Bannu Industries

Trade and Commerce

The main industries are cloth weaving and the manufacture of cotton fabrics, machinery, and equipment. Bannu is famous for its weekly Jumma Bazaar (Friday Fair/ Market). Bannu district is very green, located amid rugged and dry mountains, and has very fertile land. The chief export of the district is wheat.

Handicrafts

Leather footwear, spice grinding, furniture making, and making of small leather products are the main handicrafts of the district.

Figure ‎1.6 Leather Products, Bannu

 

Figure ‎1.7 Spices (whole and ground), Bannu District

[1] Kharif season / crops are Monsoon crops or autumn crops, and Rabi crops/ season are winter season crops which are harvested in spring.

[2] Number of Livestock in Ex FR Bannu has been added.

[3] Table 17: Number of Commercial Poultry farms and Number of Birds by size of Flock

Economic Infrastructure

The district headquarter Bannu is linked to its tehsil headquarters through black topped roads. A black topped road connects Bannu city to the Indus Highway (N-55) which then connects the district to other parts of Pakistan.

Bannu city is connected to other parts of Pakistan by rail and air as well.

Roads

According to the KP Development Statistics 2018-19, the road statistics of the district are as follows:

Total Roads 1075.0 km
High Type Roads 687.0 km
Low Type Roads 388.0 km

Table ‎1.10 Bannu Road Statistics

Important roads of the district include:

  • Bannu-Miranshah Road
  • Bannu-Kohat road
  • Bannu-D.I. Khan Road
  • Bannu-Nurar Road
  • Bannu-Thal Road
  • Road along Tochi/Gambila River in Local Area Bannu

Bannu city is connected to the Indus Highway or National Highway N 55 through a black topped road.

Rail and Airways

A narrow gauge railway line passes through the district with a station at Bannu. Bannu Airport is situated 11 km west of the city center of Bannu. It is a domestic airport, and does not cater to international flights.

Radio and Television

There is no state-owned or private radio or television station in the district. Both can be accessed through the fiber optic network.

Telecommunications

According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, there are 10 automatic telephone exchanges in Bannu district with 5,572 working telephone lines. In addition, nearly all cellular network providers provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 104 branches of Pakistan Post in the district with 1 Head Office, 33 Sub-Offices and 70 Branch Offices in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19).

Electricity and Gas

Peshawar Area Electricity Board was re-organized and formed into a corporation named Peshawar Electric Supply Corporation (PESCO) in 1998. PESCO is responsible for providing electricity to all civil districts of KP.

At present, the district is not connected to the national gas supply line but LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) is available for cooking

Banking/ Financial Services

According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, there are 83 branches of various banks in the district.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks all have branches in the district:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Bank of Khyber Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 68 Branches of various conventional banks and 15 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Education

The following table shows the number of educational institutions in Bannu district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 765/710 Middle Schools 97/91
High Schools 79/45 Higher Secondary Schools 19/14
Mosque Schools 12 Degree Colleges 07/04
Polytechnic Institutes 01 Commerce Colleges/ Institutes 02
Vocational Centers 02 Private Primary Schools 26
Private Schools (Middle + Secondary) 141 Post Graduate College 02
Universities[1] 01 Engineering Colleges/ University[2] 02
Medical Colleges[3] 01 Military Institutes
Homeopathic College 01 Law Schools

Table ‎1.12 Bannu Educational Institutes

Bannu Medical College

Figure ‎1.12 Bannu Medical College

 

Figure ‎1.13 Engineering University Peshawar, Bannu Campus

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) Bannu is overall in charge of all health care activities in the district. The following table shows the government health care institutions in Bannu district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Hospitals 07/698 Dispensaries 135/-
Rural Health Centers 02/38 Basic Health Units 45/-
Mother Child Health Centers 16/- Sub-Health Centers
Leprosy Clinic 01/- TB Clinics 02/-
Private Hospitals[4] 01/150 Private Medical Practitioners 124

Table ‎1.13 Bannu Health Institutes

Figure ‎1.14 A Hospital in Bannu district

Policing

There are 13 police stations[5] in the district.

The District Police Officer (DPO) reports directly to the Zila Nazim for public safety. The Police Department is headed by the Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP). The SSP supervises and controls the police force in maintaining law and order and the investigation of cases of a criminal nature. The Police Department operates under the Police Rules.

[1] University of Sarhad, Bannu Campus

[2] University of Science & Technology, and University of Engineering, Peshawar, Bannu Campus

[3] Bannu Medical College

[4] Khalifa Gulnawaz Memorial Hospital

[5] Table no. 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District by Federal Bureau of Statistics 2019

Environment and Biodiversity

Bannu is richly endowed with fertile agricultural lands, a scenic landscape, an ancient culture, and a diverse climate. The existing physical environment of the district is, however, being polluted due to unsustainable consumption of all physical resources. Similarly the biodiversity is also being affected.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Some of the flora of the district includes prickly pear or Indian fig (Opuntia ficus-indica), kikar (Acacia nilotica), palusa or phulai (Acacia modesta), kara or karir (Capparis deciduas), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), lasura or Assyrian plum (Cordia obliqua), tooghu fig or common fig (Ficus carica), Persian lilac or bakain (Melia azedarach), sanatha (Dodonaea viscosa), weeping willow or wala (Salix babylonica), Indian willow (Salix tetrasperma), athel pine or ghaz (Tamarix aphylla), ber (Zizyphus mauritania), toot or mulberry (Morus alba), wild olives (Olea oleaster), pistachios (Pistacia vera), almonds (Prunus dulcis), barberry (Berberis vulgaris), jand (Prosopis cineraria), phog (Calligonum polygonoides), harmal (Rhazya stricta), and khar sussa/sissa (Aerua javanica).

Some common herbs/ weeds are devil’s cotton or olat kambal (Abroma augustum), Indian dodder (Cuscuta reflexa), chickweed (Stellaria media), Indian mallow (Abutilon indicum), durva grass (Cynodon dactylon), creeping wood sorrel (Oxalis corniculata), water berry (Syzygium cornocarpum), nut grass (Cyperus rotundus), opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), prickly chaff flower (Webber achyranthes), qurashka (Chenopodium album), henna (Cassia obovata), alfalfa (Heliotropium sp), gukhro (Tribulus terrestris), a weed harmful to chickpea crop (Asphodelus tenuifolius), dhaman grass (Cenchrus ciliaris), and a common weed (Dactyloctaenium scindicum).

Mazri or dwarf plam (Nannorrhops ritchiana) is grown widely as its leaves are used for making mats, ropes, ornamental items, brooms, and baskets.

Marsh flora of Thanedar Wala Game Reserve and Kurram River Valley includes tamarisk (Tamarix dioica), elephant grass (Typha angustata), tall grass (Phragmites karka), a type of canna (Cocha indica), gurgura (Reptonia buxifolia), wild olives (Olea ferruginea), hopbush or sanatha (Dodonaea viscosa), bansa or vasaka (Adhatoda vasica), milk vetch (Astragalus spp.), a medicinal herb known for its carcinoma healing (Cyperus laevigatus), dhab grass (Desmostachya bipinnata), konnai grass (Imperata cylindrical) and species of chara (a type of algae), jungle gobhi (Launaea), date palm (Phoenix), pond weed (Potamogeton), poppy plant (Ranunculus), fodder (Tavernieria), thatch grass (Saccharum), kaner (Nerium indicum), bahia grass (Phyla nodifiora), datura (Xanthium strumarium), makhan boti (Argyrolobium roseum), moharki (Solanum surattense), figwort used in treatment of TB (Scrophularia), and money plant (Tavernieria).

Fauna

The mammalian fauna found in the protected areas include markhor, Afghan urial, wild boar, hare, and squirrels. The wetlands—Thanedar Wala Game Reserve, and Kurram Valley Game Reserve including Baran Dam Game Reserve—support a large variety of migrant water fowl. Some of these include cranes, demoiselle crane, Siberian white crane (all endangered), egrets, great egret, grey herons (endangered), white stork, grey and black partridges, see-see partridges, dakkani grey partridge, houbara bustard, wide variety of ducks, bar-headed goose (endangered), mallards, ferruginous duck (endangered), Eurasian widgeon (threatened), and black-winged stilts.

The reptiles found in these game reserves are a variety of lizards including monitor lizards.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Fauna

Following are the wildlife areas in the district:

  • Thanedar Wala Game Reserve and Wetland: This is on the Ramsar List of internationally important wetlands. It provides breeding grounds for a large number of migratory birds
  • River Kurram Valley including Baran Dam Reservoir

A non-protected but important wetland of the district is Malugul Dhand.

These protected areas provide sanctuary to all the game birds specially see-see partridge, dakkani grey partridge, black and grey partridges, all three varieties of cranes, herons, bar-headed goose, and houbara bustard, as well as markhors and Afghan urials.