Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Charsadda

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Introduction

Charsadda district is located between 34° 03′ and 34° 28Ꞌ north latitudes and 71° 28Ꞌ and 71° 53′ east longitudes. Charsadda is located in the west of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and is bounded by Malakand district on the north, Mardan district on the east, Nowshera and Peshawar districts on the south, and the Mohmand Agency (now a district) of the former Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) on the west.

District at a Glance

Name of District Charsadda District
District Headquarter Charsadda City
Population[1] 1,616,198 persons
Area[2] 996 km2
Population Density 1,630 persons/km2
Population growth Rate[3] 2.4%
Male population[4] 50.8%
Female population[5] 49.2%
Urban Population[6] 16.7%
Tehsils/talukas 03 Tehsils:

1.    Charsadda

2.    Tangi

3.    Shabqadar

Main Towns Charsadda, Tangi, Shabqadar, Prang, Rajjar, Qazi Khel  Utmanzai, Umarzai,  Sherpao, Turangzai, Bala Hisar, Takht Bhai, and Sardheri
Literacy Rate[7] 50%
Male Literacy Rate[8] 71%
Female Literacy Rate[9] 30%
Major Economic Activity[10] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 49.1%
Construction 17.7%
Community, Social & Personal Services 14.7%
Wholesale and Retail Trade 9.1%
Manufacturing 2.1%
Transport 5.5%
Others 1.8%
Main Crops Tobacco, sugarcane, sugar beet, wheat, maize, sunflower, rice, barley, sun hemp, sesanum, and fodder    .
Major Fruits Apricot, citrus, plum, strawberry, pears, melon, musk melon, watermelon, banana, persimmon, mango, guavas, peach, grapes, dates, pomegranates, apples, and persimmon
Major Vegetables Potato, tomato, cabbage, brinjal, okra, lotus roots, chilies, garlic, onions, coriander, peas, and spinach
Forests (Area)[11] 71,580 HA[12] (all forests are privately owned)
Total Metalled Road[13] 411.3 km
Shingle Roads[14] – Km
No. of Grid Stations PESCO looks after distribution and transmission of Electricity in the district. No. of Grid Stations is not available
No. of Tel. Exchanges[15] 25 telephone exchanges with 6,238 connections
Industrial Zones[16] There is one Small Industries Estate in the district; there are 44 running Industrial units in the district.
Major Industry[17] Cement Based 25 Units
Flour Mills 11 Units
Ice Factories 5 Unit
Marble & Chips 1 Units
Biscuits & Sweets 1 Unit
Cigarettes/Tobacco 1 Unit
Household size[18] 8.0 persons per house
Houses (Piped Water Inside)[19] 12.6%
Houses with Electricity[20] 90.5%

Table 1.1 Charsadda District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Cencus

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[8] PSLM

[9] PSLM

[10] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[11] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[12] Land Utilization Statistics 0 HA is under forests.

[13] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[14] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[19] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites, Tourist Attractions, and Picnic Spots

Brief History

Charsadda district was part[1]  of the ancient Gandhara kingdom, which lasted from the first millennium BC to the 11th century AD; this kingdom and its associated civilization flourished in northern Pakistan and southeastern Afghanistan.

The twin towns of Charsadda and Prang (the southern portion of Charsadda town) have been identified by General Sir Alexander Cunningham (British Archaeologist, and the founder of an organization called Archaeological Survey of India) as “Pushkalavati” (Lotus City), which was the capital of the region at the time of Alexander’s invasion. Pushkalavati city is said to have been founded by Pushkara, the son of Bharata and nephew of the Hindu God Rama. This area has also been known as Hashtnagar or “Eight cities.” These eight cities, situated very close to each other, are Pushkalavati (Charsadda), Prang, Tangi, Sherpao, Umarzai, Utmanzai and Rajar.

Around 516 BC, Gandhara became a part of the Achaemenid Empire (550-330 BC) and paid tribute to Darius the Great of Persia. Gandhara is mentioned in the famous Behistun[2] inscription of Darius, and is known to be one of the richest provinces of the Achaemenid Empire. The area is also mentioned in the hymns of Rigveda (2nd millennium BC) for its famous wool.[3] The Achaemenid Empire was overthrown by Alexander the Great in 330 BC. Alexander’s troops occupied Pushkalavati in 324 BC, and the name Pushkalavati was transliterated as Peukelaus or Peukelaotis by the Greek historians.

In the 2nd century BC when Indo-Greeks (Bachtrians from Northern Afghanistan) conquered Gandhara, they laid the foundation of the 2nd city of Pushkalavati at the site of Shaikhan Dheri—an ancient site that has been excavated by the Department of Archaeology, University of Peshawar, led by A. H. Dani in 1966. This city remained the capital of Gandhara from the Indo-Greeks to the late Kushan period.[4] This area was the capital of Gandhara from 6th century BC to 2nd century AD. but was later abandoned (5th century AD) for “Parashawara” or “Purusapura,” now called Peshawar. The originator of Sanskrit grammar, Panini (500-600 BC) was from this area.

Pushkalavati became famous for a large stupa erected during the Gandhara period on the spot where Buddha was said to have made an alms-offering of his eyes. The subsequent fame of this stupa brought Chinese pilgrims to the area during the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries AD.[5] The most famous of these Chinese Pilgrims are Fa Hian (5th century AD), Sung Yun (520 AD), and Hiuen Tsang (630 AD).

The Greeks were superseded by the Mauryans, who made Buddhism the state religion. The Mauryans ruled from 322-187 BC. After this there was a short period of Brahmanism revival during which period Buddhist priests were persecuted by the Brahmans. The area then passed to the Greco-Bactrians. In around 80 BC, Khorasan, Afghanistan, Sindh, and the Punjab were united under a Saka King. The Sakas were, in turn, displaced by the Turk Hindu Shahis of Kabul. In 988 AD King Sebuktigin (of the Ghaznavid Empire) defeated Jaipal, the Hindu Shahi King, and made Peshawar (along with Charsadda) part of his Empire. After his death in 997 AD his son Mahmud became king and was known as Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. During his reign, one of the first wars was fought between the Ghaznavi and Hindu Shahi armies on the Maira flat lands (or plain area) located between Nowshera and Indus in 1001 AD.[6]

During Mughal rule (1526-1857) the area remained turbulent, since Pathan tribes of the area did not succumb to the Mughals and the Mughals considered them a threat. The area comprising Charsadda remained peaceful through most of the time, however, as it was situated on the extreme north, separated from other areas by numerous water channels. While the British managed to control most of India with the downfall of Mughal rule, they were unable to make any inroads into this region as the Sikhs and the Durrani rulers of Afghanistan were also fighting to gain power over the region. In this struggle, the region changed hands from the Durrani (ruled by the Barakzai Sardars on behalf of the Durrani Kings) to the Sikhs to the British over time. The British took hold of the area in 1849 and took concrete steps for effective governance of the area. When the British took over, the area was being ruled by Gigiani clans and the Mohmands. The Charsadda town itself was held by the Mohammadzai Pathans.[7]

During British Rule, land settlement took place, for the first time, in 1870, and irrigation canals were dug. This ended the decades-long struggle for control, and brought peace to the region.

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (also known as Bacha Khan) was the founder of a movement called Anjumen-i-Islah-ul-Afghana [The society for the reformation of the Afghans] which was formed on April 1, 1921. The aims of this society/Anjuman was to try and eradicate social evils—illiteracy, blood feuds, crimes, the use of intoxicants, and factionalism—from Pushtoon society. To achieve this purpose, he launched an Educational Program and opened the first Azad Islamia Madrassa at Utmanzai, District Charsadda. On Dec 1, 1923 the Madrassa was affiliated with Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi. The Anjumen also began publishing their own monthly journal Pukhtoon covering the socio-political problems of the Pushtoons. In order to attract more people, another organization was formed in 1929, called the Khudai Khidmatgar Tehreek [Servants of God movement], which launched a non-violent movement against the British. After the Independence of Pakistan, this movement lost its original objectives, and became a political party that represented the political interests of the Pushtoons.

During British Rule Charsadda was part of Peshawar district as its Northwestern Tehsil. It was given the status of a district in July 1988, with Charsadda Town as its headquarters.

There are many archaeological remains represented by a group of imposing mounds in the district, due to which it is considered to be one of the most important ancient sites of Asia. Some of the more ancient mounds include the Sheikhan Dheri mound, Mounds of Bala Hisar, Prang, Shabqadar, Bibi Syeda Dheri, Shar-e-Napursan and Palatu Dheri.

Figure 1.3 A rock with engraved Buddha, Charsadda

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Charsadda district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 2
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 6

Under the Local Government Act District Charsadda has one District Council constituted by general seats, seats reserved for women, peasants/workers, youth, and non-Muslims as prescribed under the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act 2013. Charsadda District Council is composed of 49 general members, 17 women members, 3 peasants/worker members, 3 Minority members, and 3 youth members.

Administrative Divisions

The district has a total area of 996 km2 and is divided into 03 Tehsils as follows:

Charsadda Tehsil 25 Union Councils
Tangi Tehsil 12 Union Councils
Shabqadar Tehsil 12 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Charsadda Administrative Divisions

[1] The history has been recounted from Peshawar District Gazetteer 1907 and 1998 District Profile, Charsadda by GoPakistan

[2] Behistun Inscriptions are multilingual inscription and large rock reliefs on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran,

[3] 1998 District Profile Charsadda by GoPakistan.

[4] 1998 District Profile Charsadda by GoPakistan

[5] Extracted from Peshawar District Gazetteer 1907

[6] 1998 District Profile, Charsadda, by GoPakistan.

[7] Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 10, p. 180

Heritage Sites, Tourist Attractions, and Picnic Spots

The following historical mounds are being protected under Government of Pakistan Laws:

  • Bala Hisar mounds near River Jindi: Bala Hisar was excavated twice, first by Sir John Marshall, the head of theArchaeological Survey of India, in 1902, and then by Sir Mortimer Wheeler in 1958. Wheeler suggests that Bala Hisar was founded by the Persians in the sixth century BC as a colony on the eastern edge of their Empire
  • Bibi Syeda ki Dheri or Kaniza ki dheri: This mound is located north of Uzmail village in Charsadda tehsil. This mound is 18.3 m high, and is believed to be the site of the stupa, erected to commemorate the conversion of goddess Hariti (who used to devour children of their locality) by Lord Buddha. A famous shrine, that of Bibi Syeda, is located here. It is believed that a pinch of soil from the site is an effective medicine for smallpox.

Non-protected historical sites include

  • Shabqadar Fort: Constructed by the Sikhs, this area was called Shankargarh by Sikhs, which later became Shabqadar. This fort is part of a series of forts built along a line to forestall the attack of tribal people. The other forts are Balahisar, Mackeson, Saragarhi, Lockhart and Cavagnari Forts
  • Munda Headworks at Abazai and Munda Dam: Located in Mohmand Agency of FATA, the Munda Headworks remain an important site for Charsadda.
  • Sardaryab on the banks of River Kabul/River Jindi: This is a major tourist attraction and picnic spot, famous for its fish, both cooked and uncooked.
  • Hisar Dheri: The ruins at Hisar provide vital information about the pre-Islamic history of the region. The remains show that Charsadda was once the center of civilization and a seat of governance. The area was known as Pushkalavati, a Sanskrit word meaning lotus
  • Sheikhan ki Dheri: Located in Village Rajar Charsadda, east of Bala Hisar, this was founded by the Bactrian Greeks as the capital city of Pushkalaviti [city of lotus]
  • Shar-i-Napursan: Excavations have unearthed two distinct settlements of the Buddhist period, and two of the Muslim period. Coins of Manander, Hermaeous and Kanishka have been unearthed
  • Palatu Dheri: This is another archaeological site near Charsadda tehsil, located a mile from Shar-i-Napursan. This mound contains the remains of a stupa, which, according to Hieun Tsiang, was built by Deven. Some coins which connect them both to the first century AD have been unearthed. Other finds include the image of the goddess Kalika-devi. Three inscribed jars, which were presented by some laymen to “the Community of the Four Quarters,”[1] (pg. 2) are now displayed in the Peshawar Museum.

Other important areas to visit are Tangi town, famous for making gur (jaggeri); Serderi, famous for tobacco; Rajjar famous for a gur-based sweet, and handmade cloth called khaddar.

Figure 1.6 Sardaryab, Picnic Area

 

Figure 1.7 Munda Headworks Reservoir

[1] A Preliminary Survey of Fish Consumption at District Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan by Inam  Ul  Haq,  Ziagham  Hasan,  Ahsan  Khan, Muhammad  Latif,  Qaisar  Khan, Atiq Ur Rehman  (University of Peshawar)

Topography

Charsadda district is located in the northwestern part of the Peshawar valley. It is mostly a vast plain that has been divided into three:

  • The Doaba Plains: between Swat and Kabul Rivers
  • Hashtnagar plains: in the central and southeastern parts
  • Mohmand and Muhammadzai plains: in the north and northeast

Rivers, Lakes and Streams

There are 3 major rivers flowing in the district:

  • River Kabul: This River forms the boundary between Peshawar and Charsadda. It enters the district in its southwest and flows along the southern boundary, crossing it in the extreme southeastern corner. The last section of River Kabul, below the point where all its tributaries join it, is locally known as Landai River. This river flows into the River Indus near Attock
  • The Swat River: This river enters the district near Adazai village, and flows in the southeastern direction till it joins River Kabul. This river, after flowing for some distance in the district, bifurcates into Khiali and Jindi Rivers, both of which flow into River Kabul near Jungle and Chak Nisata, respectively
  • The Kalpani River: This river drains the Hashtnagar plains

Other smaller rivers flowing through the district are River Shalam and River Naguman. Some smaller tributaries of River Kabul flowing in the district are River Budhanai and Shah Alam.

Some of the minor streams or intermittent streams in the district are Hisara Nullah, Garo Khwar, Kand Khwar, Zag Khwar, Subhan Khwar, Pindiali Rud, and Ambahar River.

Some of the intermittent lakes/dhands of the district include Burhani Jor, and Nur Khan Jor.

Forestry

There are no designated Government-owned forests in the District, all forests are privately owned. The following table shows the area and type of forests in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 176,877 A Resumed Land 120 A
Reserved Forests – A Communal Forests[1] – A
Protected Forests – A Guzara Forests – A
Unclassed Forests[2] – A Private Plantation 176,757 A
Miscellaneous – A Linear Plantation 975 km

Table 1.3 Charsadda Forests

The private plantations are located on various farms; there is one major farm forest along River Jindi in Sardaryab.

Soils

The fertile plain of Charsadda consists of alluvial deposits.

Most of the plains are composed of light, porous sandy soil underneath which lies the sandy mixture of clay, often combined with beds of nodular limestone by gravel and sand.

Climate

The climate of Charsadda district is extreme. The summer season starts in May, and lasts till September. June is the hottest month, and is very dry. The average mean temperatures during this month are between 40 °C (maximum) and 26 °C (minimum). The months from July to September are the Monsoon months, when the relative humidity reaches 64%. From October to mid-November, the weather is cool and pleasant. Winter lasts from December to February, when the mean annual temperatures are 18 °C (maximum) and 4 °C (minimum). Spring is from February to April.

There are two rainy spells in the district—the winter rainy spell is caused by western disturbances, and reaches a high record in March and April. The summer rainfall is due to the Monsoons, with the highest amount of rainfall occurring in August. The average winter rainfall is higher than the summer. The mean annual rainfall in the district is 400 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] Sub-category of Guzara Forests

[2] Government Owned

Population

The following table shows the population of the district as per 2017 Census:

District Area

km2

Population Male % Female % Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Charsadda District 996 1,616,198 50.8 49.2 16.7 2.43
Charsadda Tehsil 669 804,194
Tangi Tehsil 347 428,239
Shabqadar Tehsil Created from Charsadda Tehsil in 2005 383,765

Table 1.4 Charsadda Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.6%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.4%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Charsadda Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.2%
Punjabi 0.1%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 99.4%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.2%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.6 Charsadda Languages

 

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released as yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released as yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The major industrial occupations in the district are as follows (1998 census):

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing (49.1%)
  • Construction (17.7%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (14.7%)
  • Wholesale and Retail Trade (9.1%)
  • Manufacturing (2.1%)
  • Transport (5.1%)

The economy of Charsadda district depends on agriculture due to its fertile soil as well as the three rivers flowing in the district which provide water for irrigation. The major industry is Cement-based manufacturing.

Land Use

The following table shows the land use statistics of the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Area 99,600 HA Reported Area 98,641 HA
Total Cultivated Area 73,319 HA Net Sown 57,579 HA
Current Fallows 15,740 HA Uncultivated Area 25,322 HA
Culturable Waste 6,174 HA Forest Area – HA

Table 1.7 Charsadda Land Use Statistics

Irrigation

Agriculture depends upon irrigation canals, both private and Government-owned. The following table shows the mode and area irrigated by it (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Cultivated Area 73,319 HA Canal Irrigated (Private) 3,321 HA
Tube Wells 205 HA Wells 931 HA
Lift Pumps 22 HA Canal Irrigated (Government) 60,693 HA
Others 1,364 HA Tanks – HA

Table 1.11 Charsadda Irrigation Statistics

There are four main canals in the district: Doaba Canal, which originates from River Swat at Munda Headworks; Sardar Garhi Canal, which originates from Doaba Canal near its origin; the Lower Swat Canal, starting from Munda Headworks in Mohmand Agency; and the Upper Swat Canal, that originates from Dargai in Malakand Agency. Some of the other smaller distributaries emanating from these major canals are Bahram Dheri Distributary, Khan Mahi Branch, Turangzai Distributary, Utman Zai Distributary, and Mardan Distributary.

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. About 49% of the population depends on agriculture for its sustenance. The major crops grown are tobacco, sugarcane, sugar beet, wheat, maize, sunflower, rice, barley, sesanum, and fodder.

Apricot, citrus, plum, strawberry, pears, melon, musk melon, banana, persimmon, mango, guavas, peach, grapes, pomegranates, and dates are the fruits grown in the district.

Potato, tomato, cabbage, brinjal, okra, lotus roots, chilies, onions, coriander, garlic, peas, and spinach are some of the vegetables grown in the district.

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the livestock population for the district as per Livestock Census 2006 (latest available; qtd. in KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 239,899 Heads Buffaloes 110,697 Heads Sheep 47,694 Heads
Goats 173,211 Heads Camels 451 Heads Horses 2,368 Head
Asses 18,358 Heads Mules 421 Heads

Table 1.8 Charsadda Livestock Statistics

There are no native breeds of livestock in the district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) there are 343 poultry farms in the district.

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in River Swat, River Kabul, River Jindi, River Shalam and River Naguman as well as in all the canals and their distributaries. Mahsher, Mali, China Carp, Khaga, Swati, Torki, and Sole are the main fish in these rivers.

Mining

Limestone is the only mineral being mined on a commercial basis in the district. Oil and gas are not being explored at present.

Industry and Manufacturing

There is one Small Industries Estate in the district and, according to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, there are 50 industrial units in the district out of which 44 units are running and rest are closed or sick. The following table shows the number and type of industrial units in the District:

Industry Number Industry Number
Cement Based 25 Flour Mills 11
Ice Factories 05 Marble & Chips 01
Biscuits and Sweets 01 Cigarettes 01

Table 1.9 Charsadda Industries

Trade (Import/Export)

The main trading items are agricultural produce, especially tobacco, leather footwear, and hand-woven cloth.

Handicrafts

Hand-woven cloth, especially Karandy fabric (which has the warmth of wool but is softer), hand-woven striped cloth called “toshak material” as well as handmade shoes known as Peshawari Chappals, and hand embroidery are the main handicrafts of the district. There are at least 500 cottage units making footwear in the district.[1] There is a “leather cluster” in the district, where not only leather footwear is made but also other small items made with leather. These items include leather belts, handbags, and other leather accessories. Other handicrafts include embroidery.

Figure 1.4 Hand Loom for the creation of Toshak Material

Figure 1.5 Artisans at Work Makinf Chappals (Sandals)

[1] District Profile Charsadda SMEDA

Economic Infrastructure

The district headquarter is connected to Tehsil headquarter Shabqadar through black topped roads. It is also connected to other parts of Pakistan via the Islamabad-Peshawar Motorway. A railway line from Charsadda city connects the district to other parts of Pakistan, but there is no air connection.

Roads

According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, the road statistics of the district are as follows:

Total Roads 411.3 km
High Type Roads 411.3 km
Low Type Roads – km

Table 1.10 Charsadda Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district include:

  • Charsadda-Peshawar Road
  • Charsadda-Cheena Road
  • Charsadda-Tangi Road
  • Charsadda-Mardan Road
  • Charsadda-Nowshera Road
  • Peshawar-Shabqadar Road
  • Michini-Shabqadar Road
  • Shabqadar-Kotozai Road
  • Kangra Hajizai-Battagram Road
  • Peshawar-Islamabad Motorway passes through the district.

Rail and Airways

There is a railway station in Charsadda town through which the district is linked by Pakistan Railway to Mardan. There is no airport in the district; the closest airport is the Peshawar International Airport.

Radio and Television

Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation does not broadcast from Charsadda district. There is one privately-owned radio channel in the district. The district has modern cable TV network.

Telecommunication

Charsadda is connected to other parts of Pakistan and the world via modern digital telephone exchange. There are 25 automatic telephone exchanges in the district, which provide 6,238 connections.[1] Cellular phone services, with considerable coverage in all major towns, are also available.

Post Offices

There are 87 offices of Pakistan Post in the district, with one Head Office, 15 sub-post offices and 71 branch offices in the District (KP Development Statistics 2018-19).

Electricity and Gas

There is no power generation in the district, but electricity is provided through the national grid. Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO) is responsible for supplying and transmitting electricity in the district. Natural gas is supplied through pipelines. Rural areas depend upon wood as fuel.

[1] KP Development Statistics 2018-19.

Banking/ Financial Services

There are 43 branches of various banks in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19).

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have branches in the district:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Falah Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Tarqiati Bank Ltd.

Some of these banks have ATM facilities as well. In all there are 35 branches of various conventional banks and 08 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Education

The literacy rate in the district is 50%. The following table shows the number of Government Educational Institutions in the district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 495/452 Middle Schools 46/52
High Schools 71/41 Higher Secondary Schools 18/10
Mosque Schools -/- Degree Colleges 03/05
Polytechnic Institutes 01 Commerce Colleges/ Institutes 01
Vocational Centers 04 Private Primary Schools 76
Private Schools (Middle + Secondary+Higher Secondary) 155 Post Graduate College 01
University[1] 01 Medical/ Engineering Colleges
Homeopathic Colleges 01 Law Schools

Table 1.12 Charsadda Educational Institutes

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Charsadda district as per KP Development Statistics 2013-14:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Hospitals 04/440 Dispensaries 07/-
Rural Health Centers 03/42 Basic Health Units 44/-
Mother Child Health Centres 01/- Sub-Health Centres -/-
Leprosy Clinic -/- TB Clinics 01/-
Private Hospitals Private Medical Practitioners 63

Table 1.13 Charsadda Health Institutes

Policing

The District Police Officer (DPO) is directly responsible to the Zila Nazim for public safety. The Police Department is headed by the Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP). The SSP supervises and controls the Police force in maintaining law and order, and investigation of cases of criminal nature. The Police Department operates under the Police Rules. There are 13 police stations[2] in Charsadda district.

Figure 1.9 Daddo Killi Canal, Charsadda

Figure 1.10 Charsadda Chowk

 

[1] Bacha Khan University

[2] Table no. 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District, by Federal Bureau of Statistics.

Environment and Biodiversity

The general physical environment of the district is clean, with air pollution generally low, since there are very few industries. Marble dust from marble factories, however, poses a threat to air quality; the liquid waste from these factories is drained, untreated, into the canals and rivers which then pollutes the water and thus poses a threat to the health of the residents.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The flora of the district includes wild rue (Pegamun harmala), jujube trees (Zizyphus sp.), farash (Tamarisk orientalis), phulai (Acacia modesta) prophet flower or sulemani gul (Arnebia echioides), mallow (Malva sp.), clover or trefoil (Trefoilium sp.), purslane (Portulaca sp.) elm (Ulmus sp.), oak (Quercus sp.), mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), ber (Zizyphus nummalaria), poplar (Populus spp.), eucalyptus, willow (Salix spp.), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), kikar (Prosopis juliflora), mulberry (Morus alba) and different species of acacia. The most common shrubs are athel pine (Tamarix articulate), aak (Calotropis procera), small red poppy (Papaver rhoeas), spera boti (Teucrium stocksianum), dhab grass (Cynodon dactylon), and chaulai (Amaranthus virdis). Orchards and home gardens with fruit trees of citrus, apricot, peach, guava, watermelon, musk melon, pear, persimmon, and loquat are common in the area.

Fauna

The most common fauna found in the district are jackals, mongoose, rat and mouse, and porcupines. Migratory birds pass through the district and make their homes on the river banks.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Fauna

There are no wildlife protected areas in Charsadda district.