Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Hangu

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Introduction

Hangu district is located between 33° 15Ꞌ to 33° 35Ꞌ north latitudes and 70° 29Ꞌ to 71° 14Ꞌ east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by Orakzai Agency (now a District in KP), on the east and southeast by Kohat district, on the south by Karak district, on the southwest by Tribal Areas adjoining Bannu district and North Waziristan Agency, and on the northwest by Kurram Agency (now a District in KP)

District at a Glance

Name of District Hangu District
Headquarters Hangu Town
Population[1] 518,798 persons
Area[2] 1,097 km2
Population Density[3] 375.9 persons / km2
Growth Rate[4] 2.7%
Male Population[5] 48.1 %
Female Population[6] 51.9%
Urban Population[7] 19.7%
Tehsils/ Talukas 02 Tehsils:

1.    Hangu Tehsil

2.    Thall Tehsil

Main Towns Hangu, Thall, Togh Serai, Dallan, Juazara, Samana, Doaba, Darsamand, Sarozai, Naryab, Darband, and Kotkay
Literacy Rate[8] 43.0%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 71.0%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 17.0%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 46.7%
Manufacturing 1.8%
Construction 7.7%
Wholesale/Retail, Hotel /Restaurant 11.4%
Transport, Storage & Communication 7.3%
Community, Social & Personal Service 23.8%
Others 1.3%
Main Crops Wheat, bajra, barley, maize, rice, groundnut, sugarcane, moong, rapeseed, mustard, and canola
Major Fruits Citrus, guava, apricot, peach, pears, plums, apple, nuts, loquat, and fig
Major Vegetables Onions, coriander, garlic, okra, spinach, cabbage, brinjal, tinda, and potato
Forest (Area)[12] 73,509 HA[13]
Total Black Topped Roads[14] 375.5 km
Shingle Roads[15] 139.5 km
Electricity[16] Supplied by Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO)
Telephone Exchanges[17] 13 Telephone Exchanges with 6,835 connections
Industrial Zones[18] No industrial Estates; there are 04 Industrial Units registered and running in the District.
Major Industry[19] 04 Flour Mills
Household Size[20] 10.4 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water[21] 23.6%
Houses with Electricity[22] 91.4%

Table 1.1 Hangu District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

[12] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics report 9,891 HA area under Forests.

[14] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistoric/Heritage Sites and Tourist Attractions

Brief History

There are two historical accounts for the origins of the name Hangu; according to the first account, Hangu is a derivation of the Pashtu word “Hangu-lee” which means “dogs growling in grief.” It is said that stray dogs roamed freely in the area and, at night, howled, giving the area its name. The second account states that Hangu was the name of a Hindu merchant who lived in the area. According to popular legend, there was a long drought season in the area, and so the villagers collectively prayed for rain for 3 days without success. On the third day, they found that the Hindu merchant Hangu was not praying with them. They approached him and asked him to join them in their prayers. After a lengthy argument, he agreed to join in asking the Muslim God “Allah” for rains. As soon as “Ameen” was uttered at the end of the collective prayer, clouds appeared miraculously and it started raining. Out of gratitude, the town was named Hangu after the merchant.

The areas belonging to Hangu district were a Tehsil of Kohat district till 1996, when Hangu Tehsil was upgraded and made into a district. The early history is, thus, the same as that of Kohat district and has been recounted in the chapter on Kohat.

Hangu district consists of Miranzai Valley which is occupied by the Bangash tribe; a brief historical account of the areas now belonging to Hangu district and its main occupants—the Bangash tribe—is as follows.

The Bangash tribe claim descent from Hazrat Khalid Bin Walid Bin Mughaira, the famous Muslim General of Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) army. Hazrat Khalid Bin Walid’s descendants settled in Persia, from where they were ousted by Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire during his invasion of Persia in 1220. Mughaira’s descendants migrated to, and settled in, the Gardez region of Afghanistan. They were ousted in 1398 by the Chilzais, and headed towards the Kurram Valley through the Peiwar Pass.[1] In the beginning of the 15th century they moved down into the Miranzai Valley, where they became allies of the Khattaks, who invaded the Kohat areas from the south. Both these tribes pushed the Orakzais (original inhabitants) towards the Suleiman Mountains. The Khattaks then moved towards Kohat, and the Bangash became the main occupants of the Miranzai Valley (Hangu district).[2]

After this account, the history of the Miranzai Valley/Hangu and the Bangash tribe is obscure; the next mention of the tribe is in Emperor Babar’s[3] memoirs (Tuzk-e-Babri), who mentions Hangu and the Bangash tribe. He visited this area in 1505 AD and recounts that this tumman[4] (the Bangash) was entirely surrounded by hills. After plundering Kohat, Babar travelled towards the Bangash area. The tribe, in trying to resist being conquered, reached the top of a hill; Babur took this opportunity to besiege this hill and thus conquered the area, killing many, and taking a number of prisoners. He then marched towards Hangu but met with resistance (there are no further details in the memoir). There is no further mention of either Kohat or Hangu in Babar’s memoirs. Both Kohat and Hangu remained part of Mughal Empire, but both the Khattak and Bangash tribes were nearly independent and thus the history of the area is the history of these two tribes.[5]

The Chief of the Bangash tribe was given the title of “Khan” or “Raees-e-Hangu.” This title was first given by Mughal Emperor Shahjahan in 1632 AD. At this time, the Khan was given the lands of Marai and Kachai. Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb gave the Khan the lands of both Upper and Lower Miranzai in 1700 AD, and retained the title of “Khan”. These Khans continued to rule the area till the fall of the Durrani Empire (1893), when the Empire was divided among the brothers of Fateh Khan.

Kohat, including Hangu, had become a part of the Durrani Empire in 1747, but authority was exercised only through the Bangash and Khattak Chiefs. Most of the Durrani rule was spent in trying to suppress rebellions and insurgencies by the Pashtun tribes. After Mahmud Shah Durrani (1801-1803) was dethroned, Sardar Samad Khan[6] was made Governor of Kohat and Hangu. In 1834 the Sikh Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa conquered Peshawar and made it a part of the Sikh Empire. The Sikhs, however, could not make the mountain tribes like Bangash, Kakars, or the Khattaks pay any tribute and thus in 1836 Ranjit Singh granted Kohat, Hangu and Teri to Sultan Muhammad Khan[7] as his Jagir. After the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh war in 1849, the areas were annexed by the British and made part of Punjab.

In 1891, Samana (situated at a height of 2,073 m) was constructed as a military garrison, and fort Lockhart was constructed to organize British war efforts against the Miranzai/ Bangash tribe.

In 1901 when North West Frontier was formed into a separate province, Kohat along with Hangu became one of its districts. Hangu was established as a subdivision of Kohat district in 1903 and is one of the oldest Tehsils of the province. The limits of Hangu extended from Jozara to Toot Khas in Thall.

After Partition of India in 1947 the area became part of Pakistan. Hangu remained a Tehsil of Kohat district till 1996 when the tehsil was upgraded to a district.

Recently with the rise of the Taliban in the region, the Bangash of Miranzai Valley, and especially of Hangu city, have resisted Taliban fighters successfully. In 2009, the Taliban launched an attack on Hangu city, bringing fighters from Waziristan, Orakzai, Kurram and Khyber Agency, and the battle continued for 4 days. The Bangash succeeded in protecting every inch of their land, and in repelling the Taliban fighters.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Hangu district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 2

Under the Local Government Act District Hangu has 1 District Council constituted by general seats, seats reserved for women, peasants/workers, youth, and non-Muslims as prescribed under the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act 2013. Hangu District Council is composed of 19 general members, 7 women members, 1 peasants/worker members, 1 minority member, and 1 youth member.

Administrative Division

Total Area of the district is 1,097 km2 (1998 Census) and this is divided into 2 Tehsils as follows:

Hangu Tehsil 10 Union Councils
Thall Tehsil 07 Union councils

Table 1.2 Hangu Administrative Divisions

[1] Peiwar is a mountain pass in the Spin Ghar Mountains connecting Afghanistan and Kurram Valley in Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA)

[2] A Concise History of Afghanistan in 25 Volumes, by Hamid Wahed Alikuzai (v. 1, p. 340)

[3] Babur was the founder and first Mughal Emperor of India; the Mughal Dynasty was founded by him in 1526.

[4] Tumman means a tribe, tumandar is the head or chief of the tribe.

[5] Extracted from Report on Land Settlement Kohat District in the Panjab 1884

[6] Sardar Samad Khan was one of the brothers of Wazir Fateh Khan, the Chief of Barakzai tribe, who had helped in raising Mahmud Shah Durrani to the throne of Afghanistan. He was later murdered by Mahmud Shah, The Barakzai Tribe revolted, Mahmud Shah was dethroned, and his lands parceled among Fateh Khan’s brothers.

[7] Sultan Muhammad Khan was Chief of Barakzais and the Governor of Kohat when Sikhs took Peshawar.

Historic/Heritage Sites and Tourist Attractions

There are a number of historical forts in the district, but these are not protected under Government of Pakistan laws. They are:

  • Lockhart Fort, Samana: constructed in 1891 after the conclusion of the Miranzai Expedition by General Sir William Lockhart, the commander of the British Kohat Garrison. The fort was built as a military outpost to keep the Orakzai tribes from ambushing British residents
  • Fort Gulistan or Fort Cavagnari (Samana Hills): A post, namely Saragarhi, was also maintained in the Lockhart Fort. This post was used to convey and receive signals from a similar post at Fort Cavagnari (Fort Gulistan) in Kohat with the help of mirrors or lamps. After the Partition of the subcontinent, the Frontier Constabulary occupied the fort. During the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, an Air Defense Unit was deployed, to be later replaced by an Army Battle School
  • Thall Fort in Thall Tehsil: built by the British in 1909. It now serves as the headquarters for Thall Scouts, a Paramilitary unit of FC
  • Sarokai Fort, Sarokhail, Hangu: built by the British, it is now under use of FC
  • Saragarhi Fort: Built by the Sikhs

Other tourist attractions are Samana Hills, Jozara Stream, Shanwari Wildlife Reserve, and Naryab Dam.

Figure 1.5 The Ruins of Saragarhi Fort

 

Figure 1.6 Thall Fort

Topography

The district is surrounded by mountains and hills on all sides, and has a valley in the center, which stretches from southwest to northeast. The general elevation of the district is about 900 to 1,400 m above mean sea level. The Bangash and the Samana Garh mountain ranges are in the northeast, the Khattak Mountains in the south and the Nashpa Sar Range in the southwest. These are important mountain ranges, but do not attain great heights. The highest point is 1,495 m above sea level, near Thall. The hills are broken, with a general trend from east to west.

Hangu Valley lies between two branches of Koh-e-Sufed Range, that has heights varying from 914 to 2,061 m. The mountains are rugged and barren.

The following has been extracted from Imperial Gazetteer of India v.13 p.24:

Lower Miranzai slopes east towards Kohat and the River Indus. The valley is bounded on the north by the Samana Garh Range, which rises to a height of 2,033 m, separating it from Orakzai Tirah. On the south are the low hills of Kohat district of which Mir Khweli is the highest, at 1,372 m.

Upper Miranzai slopes west towards the Kurram and is drained into it. On the north of Upper Miranzai are the hills of Ali Khel Orakzai, the Mamuzai and the Zaimukhts, and on the south are the Khattak Hills.

In between the Bangash and Khattak ranges is the fertile valley of Lower and Upper Miranzai. Several streams and nullahs originate from the surrounding hills. Lower Miranzai Valley is a narrow strip of land surrounded by mountains on two sides. The broader parts of the Valley are often broken by outcrops of low hills running parallel for a short distance, dividing the valley into two parts.

The Upper Miranzai Valley occupies the western part of the district, and is situated at a much higher altitude. It starts near the village of Kahi about 19 km west of Hangu and stretches almost to Thall on the Kurram River.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The River Kurram separates the western boundary of the district from the Kurram Agency. The main source for the irrigation of the Upper Miranzai area is the Ishkali stream, which flows into the Kurram River. Kohat Toi and Hangu Toi are major sources of water for the Lower Miranzai area. The Hangu Toi originates in the hills north of Kahi, while the Kohat Toi flows from northwest of the Samana Hills towards east of the district. Both these streams combine at village Raisan and enter Kohat district.

Some of the other smaller streams originating from mountains are Shisham Algad, Shagga Khwar, Tabi China, and Jabi Toi.

Forests

The following table shows the status of forests in Hangu district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 181,645 A Resumed Land 26 A
Reserved Forests 11,404 A Communal Forests – A
Protected Forests 158 A Guzara Forests – A
Section 38 Forests[1] 5,453 A Private Plantation 106,054 A
Unclassed Forests[2] – A Miscellaneous 58,550 A
Linear Plantation – km

Table 1.3 Hangu Forests

Most of the forests of the district are Sub Tropical Broad-Leaved Scrub Forests. The main tree species are wild olive or Kahu (Olea ferruginea), phulai (Acacia modesta), Lahora (Tecoma undulate), Kangar (Pistacia integerrima), white sanatha (Dodonaea viscosa), ganger (Reptonia buxifolia), karir (Capparis aphylla), pataki (Gymnosporia royleana) and beri (Zizyphus spp).

Barabbas Khel Protected Forest is an important forest of the district. There are a number of Sub Tropical Scrub Forests that have been declared as wildlife sanctuaries, game reserves, and national parks. These have been listed in the section on Protected Areas.

Soils

The soils of the district are developed from re-deposited loess plain. They are very deep calcareous silty-clay and clay.

Figure 1.3 Mountains & Valley, Hangu District

Climate

The climate of the district is hot in summer and cold in winter. June is the hottest month, with mean maximum and minimum temperatures of 40 °C and 27 °C respectively. The winter is cold and severe due to the western wind known as Hangu Breeze. Temperature may go down to 0 °C. January is the coldest month, with mean maximum and minimum temperature of about 18 °C and 6 °C respectively.

Mean Average Annual rainfall in the district is about 550 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] Private Land voluntarily given to the Government

[2] Owned by Government

Population

The following table shows the population of the district as per 2017 Census:

District Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban % Growth Rate %
Hangu District 1,097 518,798 48.1 51.9 19.7 2.68
Hangu Tehsil 1,097 270,295
Thall Tehsil Part of Hangu Tehsil in 1998l 248,503

Table 1.4 Hangu Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.4%
Christians 0.2%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.3%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others 0.1%

Table 1.5 Hangu Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.2%
Punjabi 0.6%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 98.8%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.1%
Others 0.2%

Table 1.6 Hangu Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fisheries is the mainstay of the economy. The major industrial occupations in the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing (46.7%)
  • Manufacturing (1.8%)
  • Construction (7.7%)
  • Wholesale/Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant (11.4%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (7.3%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Service (23.8%)
  • Others (1.3%)

Land Use

The following table shows the major land use statistics of the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Area 109,700 HA Reported Area 132,265 HA
Total Cultivated Area 27,287 HA Net Sown 21,879 HA
Current Fallow 5,408 HA Uncultivated Area 104,978 HA
Culturable Waste 12,325 HA Forest Area 9,881 HA

Table 1.7 Hangu Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The area belongs to the Northern Dry Mountain Agro Ecological Zone of Pakistan, and hence is a barani area which means that most of the agriculture in the district depends on rainfall.

Wheat, bajra, barley, maize, rice, groundnut, sugarcane, moong, rapeseed, mustard, and canola are the crops of the district.

Citrus, guava, apricot, peach, pears, plums, apple, nuts, loquat, and fig are the fruits grown in the district.

Onions, coriander, garlic, okra, spinach, cabbage, and potato are the vegetables grown in the district.

Figure 1.4 Maize Crop; Hangu District

Livestock Breeding

Livestock farming is a dominant occupation of the farming community with more than 15 million animal heads, and about 22 million poultry birds in the province. However, this occupation is mostly to supplement family nutritional and cash requirement. The capitalist trend in this sector is still lacking, resulting in weak and non-descriptive breeds with low levels of milk and meat productivity.

The following table shows the livestock position in Hangu district as per Livestock Census 2006 (qtd. in KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 70,451 Heads Buffaloes 9,521 Heads Sheep 8,335 Heads
Goats 90,672 Heads Camels 312 Heads Horses – Heads
Mules 98 Heads Asses 9,728 Heads

Table 1.8 Hangu Livestock Statistics

Hashtnagr sheep, Balkhi sheep, and Rojhan cattle are all native breeds of Kohat district, as well as of Hangu.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) there are 29 poultry farms in the district.

Fishing

Fishing on a commercial basis is not carried out in the district, the reason being the rapid flow of streams in the district. Any fishing activity that is carried out in the district is for to meet local demand and consumption.

Bee Keeping

Honey is an important non-wood forest production Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The province offers ample opportunities for the promotion of bee keeping, and the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is providing training to its rural population in the art of apiculture and honey processing.

Minerals and Mining

At present, iron ore and marble are being mined in the district. There is strong evidence that coal is present in the upper formations of Hangu formation. Laterite is also present.

In addition, oil and gas is being explored in the district in the Tal Block.

Irrigation

Generally, the area belongs to the Northern Dry Mountain Agro Ecological Zone of Pakistan and agriculture is mostly based on rain. Sources of irrigation are mostly springs and tube wells.

A small water reservoir/ dam in Naryab town on a tributary of River Kurram provides irrigation and drinking water during droughts. The following table shows the area and mode of irrigation in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 5,479 HA Canal Irrigated (Govt) 26 HA
Tube Wells 528 HA Wells 760 HA
Others (Springs etc.) 4,165 HA Canal Irrigated (Private) – HA

Table 1.10 Hangu Irrigation Statistics

Industry

There are 04 Industrial units registered and running in the District; these industrial units are 04 flour mills.

Handicrafts

Handmade items of the district made of mazri palm are famous not only in the district but in other parts of Pakistan also. Other handicrafts include embroidery, handmade arms and ammunition, and leather goods.

Economic Infrastructure

Economic infrastructure consists of roads, highways, electricity, and gas. Roads account for over 91% of passenger and 96% of freight transport in KP.[1] There are two types of roads in KP: high type, which are black topped all weather roads, and low type. Black topped roads consist of National Highways, Motorways, and Provincial roads as well as urban area roads.

The economic infrastructure in Hangu district is reasonable and detailed as follows.

Roads

KP Development Statistics 2018-19 gives the road statistics of the district as:

High Type 375.5 km
Low Type 139.5 km
Total 515.0 km

Table 1.9 Hangu Road Statistics

Important roads of Hangu district include:

  • Kohat-Thall Road
  • Hangu-Kohat road
  • Hangu-Samana Road
  • Hangu-Shahukhel road
  • Hangu-Lachi Road
  • Togh-Sarai Road
  • Thall-Hangu Road

Figure 1.7 Thall-Hangu Road

Rail and Airways

There were 2 railway stations in the district: Hangu and Thall. However, both have been closed due to a shortage of railway engines, and now the nearest railway stations are the ones in Kohat district.

There is no airport, be it commercial or military, in the district. The nearest airport is the Peshawar International Airport.

Radio and Television

Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) does not have a radio station (AM or FM) in the district. There is no privately-owned radio station in the district either.

Even though there is no TV station in the district, TV can be viewed through cable.

Telecommunications

Telecommunication is one of the important components for communication. According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, there are 13 telephone exchanges in Hangu district, with 6,835 connections. Cellular phone service is also available.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 26 post offices in the district with 9 sub-post offices and 17 branch post offices in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19).

Banking/ Financial Institutions

According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, there are 31 branches of different banks in the district. Some of these banks are:

  • Bank Al Falah Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

According to List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan there are a total of 27 branches of different conventional banks and 04 branches of various Islamic banks in the District.

[1] Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Comprehensive Development Strategy 2010-2017 P&D, Govt. of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Electricity and Gas

PESCO looks after the distribution of electricity and transmission to all the districts of KP. PESCO networks own and maintain KP’s electricity distribution system via 132, 66, 33 KV sub-transmission lines and sub-stations and 11 KV and 440 V low tension lines with distribution transformers that deliver electricity to domestic and commercial users.

Education

The following table shows the number of Government Educational Institutions in the district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 195/106 Middle Schools 20/17
High Schools 27/09 Higher Secondary Schools 07/-
Mosque Schools Degree Colleges 02/02
Polytechnic Institutes Commerce Colleges/Institutes 01
Vocational Centers 01 Private Primary Schools 15
Private Schools (Middle to Higher Secondary) 87 Law schools
Medical Colleges Engineering Colleges
Homeopathic Colleges

Table 1.11 Hangu Educational Institutes

Figure 1.8 Government Primary School, Tora Wari, Hangu

Figure 1.9 Jamatul Askari Madresah, Hangu

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Hangu district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Hospitals 06/266 Dispensaries 02/-
Rural health Centers 01/10 Basic Health Units 14/-
Mother Child Health Centers 01/- Sub Health Centers 14/-
Leprosy Clinic TB Clinics 04/-
Private Hospitals[1] 03/55 Private Medical Practitioners 28

Table 1.12 Hangu Healthcare Institutes

Figure 1.10 District Hospital, Hangu

Policing

The District Police Officer (DPO) Hangu is in charge of policing Hangu district. The DPO reports to the Deputy Inspector General Police, who, in turn, reports to the District Co-ordination Officer. In Hangu district, there are 05[2] police stations.

Figure 1.11 A Steam Train on Kohat-Thall section (railway line has been closed since 1980s)

Figure 1.12 Wheat Crop, Hangu

[1] Official Website of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province; one of the two is a Maternity Home

[2] Table no. 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District.

Environment and Biodiversity

The district is free of air pollutants as it is devoid of industry.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Most common flora of the district includes gurgulla (Reptonis buxifolia), sanatha (Dodonaea viscosa), phulai or palosa (Acacia modesta), wild olives (Olea ferruginea), apples (Malus domestica), shaftalu or peach (Prunus persica), nuts, ber (Zizyphus spp), mulberry (Morus alba) sufaida or silver poplar (Populas alba), chinar (Platanus orientalis Linn), kikar (Acacia nilotica), khajur or date (Phoenix dactylifera), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), loquat (Eriobotrya japanica), lachi or blue gum (Eucalyptus lanceolatus), fig or injeer (Ficus carica), rubber plant (Ficus elastic), peepal (Ficus religiosa), Persian lilac or bakain (Melia azedarach), black mulberry (Morus nigra), chir pine (Pinus roxburghii), wild pistachios (Pistacia chinensis), chinar (Plantanus orientalis), and white marudah (Terminalia arjuna).

Some shrubs and herbs of the district are onion or piyaz (Allium cepa), aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis), karund or trailing amaranth (Amaranthus viridis), blue pimpernel or billi booti (Anagallis arvensis), marijuana or bhang (Cannabis sativa), chaungan (Caralluma tuberculata), devil’s hair or amer bail (Cuscuta reflexa), hop bush or sanatha (Dodonaea viscosa), mint or podeena (Mentha arvensis), jasmine or chambeli (Jasminum humile), fennel or saunf (Foeniculum vulgare), dwarf palm or mazri palm (Nannorrhops ritchiana).

Grasses in the district include saccharum spontaneum, cymbopogon jwarancusa, and withannia coagulans.

Different kinds of roses, bougainvillea, kashmalo, gul-e-nargis, gul-e-dawoodi, and other seasonal flowers are grown in the area.

Fauna

The common wildlife of the district includes hare, jackal, wildcat, urial, chinkara, hog deer, wild boar, striped hyena, grey wolf, palm squirrel, Indian crested porcupine, Indian desert jird, and common rats.

Avifauna includes chakor, black and grey partridges, parrots, nightingales, see-see partridges, common babbler, red-vented bulbul, white-cheeked bulbul, brown dove, house crow, common myna, Indian tree-pie, the blue rock pigeon, crested lark, and white wagtail.

Migrant birds include little cormorant, snake bird, rosy pelican, little and intermediate egret, purple heron, northern pintail, common teal, mallard, widgeon, bearded vulture, black winged kite, and night jar.

Reptiles and amphibians include monitor lizards, Indian monitor lizard, spiny-tailed lizard, Indian sandy boa, saw-scaled viper, and the cobra.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Wildlife

The following areas have been declared Wildlife Protected Areas:

  • Shawaki/Chuktoo Game Reserve
  • Balyamin Game Reserve
  • Shanawari Game Reserve
  • Kauri Cheema Game Reserve

These provide sanctuary to the striped hyena, grey wolf, black winged kite, night jar, sandy boa, and cobra. In addition, these areas provide sanctuary to partridges, chakor, bea-eater, raptors, foxes, hare, and jackal.

 

Endangered Wildlife of the district includes the striped hyena, grey wolf, hare, jackal, sandy boa, chakor, and partridges among others.