Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Haripur

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Introduction

Haripur district is located at 33° 44′ to 34° 22′ north latitudes and 72° 35′ to 73° 15′ east longitudes and about 610 m above mean sea level. The district is bounded by Mardan district on the northwest, Abbottabad district on the northeast, Margalla Hills Range on the southeast, Swat Valley in the northwest, and Buner and Swabi districts on the west of Haripur. Islamabad is in the south of the district.

District at a Glance

Name of District Haripur District
District Headquarter Haripur town
Population[1] 1,003,031 persons
Area[2] 1725 km2
Population Density[3] 520.5 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.0%
Male Population[5] 49.7%
Female Population[6] 50.3%
Urban Population[7] 12.6%
Tehsils/Talukas 3 Tehsils:

1.    Haripur Tehsil

2.    Ghazi Tehsil

3.    Tehsil Khanpur (created in 2009)

Main Towns Haripur, Ghazi, Rehana Village (hometown of Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan), Khanpur, Tarbela, Tofkian, Qazipur, Sirikot, and Sarai Saleh
Literacy Rate[8] 69.0%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 81.0%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 59.0%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 32.1%

 

Construction 18%
Community, Social & Personal Services 20.1%
Manufacturing 4.4%
Transport, Storage & Communication 8.4%
Wholesale/Retail, Trade/Hotels 12.6%
Others 4.4%
Main Crops Maize, wheat, jowar, gram, barley, bajra, sugarcane, mustard, maash, masoor, moong, groundnut, and sesanum
Major Fruits Citrus, mango, banana, apples, guava, apricot, peach, pears, plums, pomegranates, loquat, leechee, jack fruits, and various kinds of berries including ber, and mulberry
Major Vegetables Chilies, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, coriander, garlic, peas, chickpeas, okra, turnip, pumpkin, tori, spinach, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, brinjal, and beetal leaf
Forests (Area)[12] 74,571 HA[13]
Total Metalled Road[14] 480.0 km
Shingle Roads[15] 600.0 km
No. of Grid Stations Peshawar Electric Supply Corporation (PESCO) supplies electricity to the district.
No. of Tel. Exchanges[16] 44 Telephone Exchanges, with 16,439 connections
Industrial Zones[17] There are 2 Industrial Estates:

·         Hattar Industrial Estate

·         Small Industrial Estate Kalabat

There are 184 manufacturing units in the district out of which 150 are running and 34 are closed for various reasons.

Major Industry[18] Engineering 16 Units
Biscuits & Sweets 5 Units
Cement Based 5 Units
Chemicals 6 Units
Flour Mills 10 Units
Mining 10 Units
Packages 3 Units
Pharmacy 16 Units
Plastic & Rubber 8 Units
Wood 6 Units
Household Size[19] 6.6% persons house
Houses with Piped Water[20] 49.6%
Houses with Electricity[21] 76.3%

Table 1.1 Haripur District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics report 15,033 HA under forests.

[14] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] KP Development Statistics 2018-19; for a detailed list, please see section on Industry

[19] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsArchaeological/Historical Sites and Tourist Attractions

Brief History

Haripur was part of Hazara Region in the northeastern part of Pakistan. During British Rule, Hazara was one district, and consisted of Abottabad, Haripur, and Mansehra Tehsils, and the Tanawal and Phulra areas. After Partition of India, the tehsils were upgraded to district level in different years (as recounted in the history section of individual districts). The Tanawal area was an independent Princely State called Amb, ruled by the Chief of the Tanoli or Tanawal tribe. Phulra was another small semi-independent Princely State located east of Amb State. Its rulers were related to Tanawal Tribe.

The following history of Haripur Hazara has mostly been paraphrased from Hazara District Gazetteer 1907.

The ancient name of the areas now referred to as Hazara was Urasha; this name is still used in the Orash or Rash Plain, and is most likely the location referred to as Uraga in the Mahabharata (p.118).

The Greeks called it Abisara, which is derived from the name of Abisares, the chief of the mountain people living in the region. During Buddhist rule under the Mauryan Empire, Hazara formed a part of the Taxila province. Ashoka the Great (died 232 BC) was its governor at one time. He became the greatest ruler of the Mauryan Empire. During his rule he made Buddhism the State Religion and inscribed his edicts on rocks near the base of Bareri Hills in Mansehra.[1]

Little is known of the history of the region after Ashoka’s period; the next known historical mention of the regionis by the Chinese Pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang who visited the area in the 7th century AD. He describes the area to be a dependency of Kashmir. It is known that the region was under Hindu dominion after that.

The next historical record relates to the invasion of Tamerlane, who, while returning from his invasions of India in 1399, gave the Hazara areas to the Karlugh Turks. By this time, the Hindu rulers had been ousted, and Muslim conquerors had taken over, making Islam the dominant religion. The name “Hazara” is associated with the Turks. Hazara means thousand, which is the translation of the Turkish word ming meaning a regiment of thousand men, thus Hazara can be translated as the country of Turki’s ming or regiment.

It is known that the area became a part of Mughal Empire, since it is mentioned in the Ain-e-Akbari (Akbar’s Constitution) by Abul Fazal, and also in the history of Mughal Emperor Jahangir. During Mughal rule, the Hazara plain formed a part of the Attock Governorship and was known as Pakhli Sarkar. Most of the inhabitants of Pakhli Sarkar in the early days of the Mughal Empire were Turks.

When the hold of the Mughal Empire started declining in the region in the 18th century, the areas became an easy target for the Afghans. The main reason for this instability in the region was the decline of the old Turkish families and increasing aggressiveness of the Pathan families. The most notable was the attack on Pakhli Sarkar by the Swatis in 1703, under Sayyed Jalal Baba, who was the son-in-law of the last ruler of the Turkic dynasty, Sultan Mehmud Khurd. By 1752 Hazara was completely taken over by the forces of Ahmad Shah Durrani. The Durranis did not interfere in the internal affairs of Hazara, but kept a strong hold over it, since it provided an easy route to Kashmir and also provided recruits for their forces. By the beginning of the 19th century the Durranis’ hold over the region had grown weak and Sikh power had gained strength. Ranjit Singh annexed Hazara Region in 1818, but in 1820, his Generals were defeated; the Sikhs were again defeated in 1821. Ranjit Singh then sent Hari Singh Nalwa, the Governor of Kashmir to this region, and he was able to conquer Hazara and was made its governor. He was also given the areas of Pakhli Sarkar and Damtour.[2] He remained Governor of Hazara till his death in 1837.

Hari Singh built a fort near the village of Sikandar Garh, and named it Harkishangarh. He also laid the foundations of a town around it and called it Haripur. The town was the only planned town in the area till Abbottabad was built by the British in 1853. In 1823, he punished the Tanolis, Swatis and Jaduns (the tribes who had offered the toughest resistance to him) severely; people were burned, women and children taken prisoner, and the headquarters of the Tanoli chiefs was burned down as well.

The Harkishangarh fort still exists and is surrounded by a trench. After undergoing renovations, the fort now accommodates a police station (Saddar), the court of the Tehsildar, and District Accounts Offices.

After Hari Singh’s death, and until the final annexation of the areas by the British, Hazara remained under various Sikh governors. After the end of the First Anglo Sikh war in 1846, the disturbances in the region increased and in March 1846 Muslim tribes[3] under the leadership of their chiefs attacked Haripur town. The Sikhs were defeated. The Muslim tribes then established themselves in Haripur town and its adjoining villages. The Sikh Governor Mulraj Khan left the fort for Hassan Abdal (Abbottabad district) with all his troops. After signing a Peace Deal with the British in 1846 (the end of First Anglo Sikh war), the Sikh Raja Gulab Singh was allotted Kashmir and its dependencies. In 1847 Raja Gulab Singh attempted to give Hazara back to Lahore in exchange for lands near Jammu, but the people of Hazara resisted, prompting the British to send Major James Abbott to settle this issue. The Major successfully pacified the people of Hazara and peace was restored.

During the Second Anglo Sikh war (1848-49), Major James Abbott retained his hold over the Hazara Region and at the end of this war, the area became a part of British territory. Major Abbott was able to maintain peace in the area during the 1857 War of Independence as well.

Major Abbott was the first Deputy Commissioner of Hazara district. He raised the status of Haripur from town to Tehsil in 1849. At that time, Hazara was a district of Punjab with Haripur as its headquarter, but when the new province, North West Frontier Province (NWFP) was formed in 1901, this district was made part of the NWFP. Haripur remained the capital of Hazara till 1853 when the new planned town Abbottabad was built, and took its place as the capital of Hazara. Till then, Haripur had been officially known[4] as Haripur Hazara.

The Princely States of Amb and Phulra (Tanawal Area), situated north of Haripur and Mansehra Tehsils, partly belonged to the Nawab of Amb (Sir Muhammad Akram Khan Knight Commander Star India; KCSI) and partly to the Khan of Phulra (Ata Muhammad Khan; brother of Nawab of Amb). During British Rule (after the annexation of Hazara in 1849), the administration of the Tanawal Area remained in the hands of these two chiefs who were both Tanawalis and descendants of Haibat Khan, the founder of the state of Amb. Muhammad Akram Khan was awarded the title of KCSI for his services during the Hazara expedition of 1868[5] and the War of Independence in 1857 by the British.

The people of Hazara district joined the All India Muslim League. In 1947 Hazara became part of Pakistan along with NWFP. In 1954, West Pakistan became a province with the implementation of the One Unit policy and was divided into divisions. Hazara was a district of Peshawar division, and remained as such till it achieved the status of a division in 1976, comprising of Mansehra and Abbottabad districts. Haripur became a Tehsil of district Abbottabad and remained so till it was made into a district in July 1991. The Princely States of Amb and Phulra, which were ruled by Nawab Sir Muhammad Farid Khan and Abdul Latif respectively, had opted for Pakistan. Amb remained independent till 1969, during which year the Princely State was abolished, and the areas belonging to the state were incorporated into Mansehra, Abbottabad, and Haripur districts. In 1972 the Nawab’s royal status was taken from him. Phulra State was abolished in 1950, on the death of its last Nawab, Abdul Latif. The territories of Phulra State are now a Union Council of Mansehra Tehsil.

When a number of silver coins of the Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian Kings (2nd and 1st century BC) were discovered accidently at the site of Pir Mankrai on the east bank of River Daur (Haripur district), a number of surveys and excavations were carried out (since 1993) on the east bank of River Daur. In 1997, excavations were started under the leadership of Professor F.A. Durrani and Mir Shah Nazara, and in 1998, a much bigger expedition was launched under the leadership of Professor Dr. Saif-ur-Rehman. As a result of these excavations, a large ancient city was uncovered. Remains of a number of spacious houses, a medium sized fort, with a major temple complex inside and another smaller temple with a female deity have been found. According to the estimates of experts, the town was founded in the 2nd century BC, but was abandoned in the 3rd and 4th centuries.

The first Military Ruler of Pakistan, Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan, was born in Rehana, a village in Haripur district. He remained the President of Pakistan from 1958 to 1969.

Figure 1.3 Hari Singh Nalwa (Founder of Haripur)

Figure 1.4 Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan

Battle of Jamrud (1837)

Figure 1.5 Jamrud Fort

Figure 1.6 A Hindu Temple Haripur Hazara, c1865

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Haripur district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 6

Under the Local Government Act District Haripur has 1 District Council constituted by general seats, seats reserved for women, peasants/workers, youth, and non-Muslims as prescribed under the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act 2013. Haripur District Council is composed of 45 general members, 15 women members, 3 peasants/worker members, 3 minority members, and 3 youth members.

Administrative Divisions

The district has a total area of 1725 sq. km and is divided into 3 tehsils as follows:

Haripur Tehsil 39 Union Councils
Ghazi Tehsil 08 Union Councils
Khanpur Tehsil Created from Haripur Tehsil in 2009

Table 1.2 Haripur Adminstrative Units

[1] These monuments are described in more detail in the chapter on Mansehra district.

[2] Pakhli is the original name of areas now comprising Hazara Region; Damtour was a district of the province of Pakhli Sarkar.

[3] The Muslim tribes were the Swatis, Jaduns, Tanawal, Ghakkars, Tarins, Dhunds etc.

[4] Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Official Website. The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Tribune, extracted 2017

[5] 1868 British Expedition was against the tribes (Yousafzai tribe and its various clans) of the Black Mountains or Torghar Mountains. After 1868, other expeditions in the same region were launched in 1888 and 1891,

Archaeological/Historical Sites and Tourist Attractions

The main tourist areas in the district include:

  • Tarbela Dam: The World’s largest earth-filled dam
  • Khanpur Dam: It is the venue for Sarhad Tourism Corporation’s annual airborne and waterborne sports festival. Boating facility is there for visitors and school trips
  • Bhuttri Dam
  • Chajian Kumawan Waterfall
  • Jaulian: This houses the first Buddhist schools and Montessori
  • Bhamala Stupa near Khanpur Dam site: The Stupa is different from other stupas found in Gandhara, and dates back to 4th century CE. The stupa is cross-shaped and looks like an Aztec Pyramid. It is also known asBhamala Buddhist Complex
  • Badalpur Buddhist stupa and monastery, Badalpur, Haripur
  • Lal Chak stupa and monastery, Garhian, Haripur
  • Sirsukh, Marchabad, Haripur: The city of Sirsukh was founded by theKushan king Kanishka after 80 CE, and is the last of the great ancient cities of Taxila
  • Piplan site, Jaulian, Haripur
  • Pind Ghakhran mound, Pind Ghakhran, Haripur
  • Chitti site and Tarnawa-Chitti site A & B, Tarnawa, Haripur
  • Burj or Tuma site, Garamthun, Haripur
  • Bhari Dheri, Kutehra, Haripur
  • Dana Wali, Kutehra, Haripur
  • Tope Site, Kamalpur, Haripur
  • Haripur Fort: Constructed by Hari Singh Nalwa. The fort is surrounded by a wall which is 4 yards (3.7 m) thick and 16 yards (15 m) high, and had only 4 openings. That fort later became the City Police Station

In addition the Banks of River Daur also provide beautiful spots for recreation and enjoyment. The historical sites are not protected under Pakistan Laws.

Figure 1.9 Bab-i-Hazara (Gate to Hazara)

 

Figure 1.10 Bhutry Dam Lake

Figure 1.11 Spring Gala at Khanpur Lake; Haripur

Topography

Most of the district consists of a plain with elevation ranging from 457 m to 915 m, and comprises of lush green plains surrounded by mountains with a number of water resources. Its topography can be divided into 3 plain areas and a mountainous region:

  • Maidan-e-Hazara: consists of the plain area of Haripur district, which is surrounded by the mountains of Tanawal in the north, Koh-e-Gandgar in the west, and Khanpur hills in the south. Haripur city and a majority of the villages of the district are situated in this region
  • Khanpur Punjkahta region: this is a well-watered plain lying in the southeastern corner of the district. River Haro emerges from the Khanpur Hills
  • Chhach (Maidan-e-Khari) region in the west of Haripur city: this region is now submerged under the reservoir of Tarbela Dam

The mountainous region is the Tanawal Region, which is subdivided into Upper and Lower Tanawal areas. The Tanawal Region lies in the north of Maidan-e-Hazara. A major part of Lower Tanawal is sandwiched between Maidan-e-Hazara and Upper Tanawal.

The Tanawal Range consists of a maze of hills through which the River Siran passes. The highest peaks are the Bhingra (2,591 m) and Biliana (2,107 m).[1] This is a remote part of the district and is linked with Haripur by Chapper Road which is also known as Shahrah-e-Tanawal.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The important rivers of the district are River Indus, River Siran, River Daur (also spelled as Dor) and River Harro.

River Indus enters the district in the northwest and flows along the western boundary of the district. Tarbela Dam, the biggest earth-filled dam of the world, has been constructed on River Indus in Haripur district. This river is the main source of water for the Tarbela Reservoir.

River Siran is a tributary of River Indus and joins it at the Tarbela Reservoir. River Daur is a tributary of River Siran and irrigates a large area of the district. It joins River Siran 8 km above Tarbela. River Harro emanates from the southern end of Dunga Gali Range, where it has two branches: the eastern branch is known as Dhund, and the western as Karral Haro. Both these streams flow into the Khanpur Panjkatha. The Khanpur Dam is located on River Harro in Haripur.

In addition to the above mentioned perennial rivers, a large number of streams originate from the mountains during rainy season; some of these are Lahoria Kas, Chalhra Kas, Seth, and Kas Jabbi Spring.

Tarbela Dam Reservoir and Khanpur Dam Reservoir are the 2 major lakes of the district.

Forests

Dry sub-tropical broad leaved forests are the dominant forest type of the district. The dominant species are olive (Olea cuspitada) and phulai (Acacia modesta). Shrub genera include hopbush (Dodonaea), spike thorn (Gymnosporia), gur gura (Monotheca) and natal plum (Carrisa). Among grass, the genera of Cryposogon, Cymbopogon, and Heteropogon are common.

The following table shows the area and type of forests in Haripur district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 184,271 A Resumed Land 841 A
Reserved Forests 34,394 A Communal Forests – A
Protected Forests – A Guzara Forests 59,960 A
Un-classed Forests[2] – A Private Plantation 88,378 A
Section 38 Forests[3] 349 A Miscellaneous 349 A
Linear Plantation 224 km

Table 1.3 Haripur Forests

Bagra, Kalinjar, Mang, Pind Hashim Khan, and Rakh Sardaran are some wildlife sanctuaries of the district. Manakrai Reserved Forest is an important forested area of the district.

Soils

The soil of the district is dissected loess plain or dissected piedmont plains having silty loam, and silty clay loam texture.

Climate

The climate of the district is mildly hot in summer and very cold in winter. Hottest months are June and July, when the mean average maximum and minimum temperatures recorded are 32 °C and 19 °C respectively, while December and January are the coldest months with mean average maximum and minimum temperatures being 12 °C and 1 °C.

Annual rainfall is recorded at 1,366 mm with July and August having most of the summer rainfall, and February and March in the winter.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] The names of the peaks and their height have been taken from Hazara District Gazetteer 1907

[2] Un-classed Forests are owned by the Government

[3] Section 38 forests are private lands handed over to government

Population

The following table shows the population of the district as per the 2017 Census:

District Area

Km2

Population Male % Female % Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Haripur District 1,725 1,003,031 49.7 50.3 12.6 1.97
Ghazi Tehsil NA 145,367
Haripur Tehsil NA 857,664
Khanpur Tehsil Not Available

Table 1.4 Haripur Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.6%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.1%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others 0.2%

Table 1.5 Haripur Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.5%
Punjabi 1.8%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 8.9%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.2%
Others 88.5%

Table 1.6 Haripur Languages

The major language spoken in the district is Chhachi/Hindko, which is the predominant language of the district.

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The economy of Haripur district is mainly based on agriculture. The main economic occupations of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing (32.1%)
  • Construction (18%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (20.1%)
  • Manufacturing (4.4%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (8.4%)
  • Wholesale, Retail/Trade, Hotels (12.6%)
  • Others (4.4%)

Haripur district has the highest Index of Human Development in KP. According to the Human Development Index[1] developed for districts of Pakistan worked out in 2003, Haripur was the 3rd most developed district in Pakistan, topping the list in KP.

[1] District Profile Haripur, South Asian Partnership, Pakistan.

Land Use

The total area of the district is 1,725 km2. The following table shows the land use statistics of the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Area 172,500 HA Reported Area 192,134 HA
Total Cultivated Area 68,945 HA Net Sown 63,847 HA
Current Fallow 5,098 HA Uncultivated Area 123,189 HA
Culturable Waste 38,715 HA Forest Area 15,033 HA

Table 1.7 Haripur Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Wet Mountains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan.

Haripur’s specialty in agriculture is peas (mutter), while in fruits it produces the red blood malta of Khanpur as well as the loquat. The major crops grown are maize, wheat, jowar, gram, barley, bajra, sugarcane, mustard, maash, masoor, moong, groundnut, and sesanum.

Citrus, mango, banana, apples, guava, apricot, peach, pears, plums, pomegranates, loquat, leechee, jack fruits, and various kinds of berries including ber, and mulberry are the major fruits grown in the district. Chilies, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, coriander, garlic, peas, chickpeas, okra, turnip, pumpkin, tori, spinach, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, and brinjal are some of the vegetables grown in the district.

The district is ranked as the 10th highest producer of vegetables in the province.[1]

Figure 1.7 Mustard Fields, Haripur

Figure 1.8 Citrus Orchard, Khanpur

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding plays an important role in the economy of the district. The following table shows the statistics of livestock for the district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Cattle 130,215 Heads Buffaloes 106,911 Heads Sheep 6,804 Heads
Goats 215,598 Heads Camels 845 Heads Horses 894 Heads
Mules 235 Heads Asses 20,454 Heads

Table 1.8 Haripur Livestock Statistics

The hashtnagri sheep are the indigenous breed of livestock in the district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) there are 299 poultry farms in the district.

Fishing

Fishing is a substantial economic activity in the district and is chiefly carried out in both the Tarbela Dam and Khanpur Dam reservoirs. In addition, all the rivers and nullahs of the district provide good fishing areas. The fish is exported to other parts of Pakistan.

Bee Keeping

Honey is an important non-wood forest production of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The province offers ample opportunities for the promotion of bee keeping and the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is providing training to its rural population in the art of apiculture and honey processing.

Mining

At present, barites, dolomites, granite, iron ore, laterite, limestone, marble, red oxide, sandstone, shale clay, slate stone, and soap stone are being commercially mined in the district.

Licenses have been awarded for oil and gas exploration in the Margala area, which includes Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Abbottabad, and Haripur districts.

Irrigation

The following table shows the mode and area irrigated by each mode (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 10,456 HA Canal Irrigated (Private) 1,623 HA
Tube Wells 4,224 HA Canal Irrigated (Govt) 3,450 HA
Wells 260 HA Lift Pumps 70 HA
Others – HA Tanks 829 HA

Table 1.11 Haripur Irrigation Statistics

Rivers Siran and Daur irrigate substantial areas but River Haro passes through mountainous land and hence, even though it has ample water, it irrigates a small area.

Ichhar Canal takes off from Ichhar Nullah (mostly in Mansehra district). The head regulator of the canal is located in village Serai Saleh (Union Council in Haripur). This canal also provides irrigation water. Water from River Daur is collected in a reservoir known as Rangeela; this water is then distributed through 9 water channels for irrigation of land in the villages around the city.

Other canals in the district are Punjkatha Canal, which takes off from the Haro River near Khanpur Dam; and 2 canals called Khanpur Right Bank Canal and Khanpur Left Bank Canal, both of which originate from Khanpur Dam.

Apart from Tarbela and Khanpur, there are 3 other small dams in the district, namely Khal Dam, Mang Dam, and Bhutry Dam, all built for irrigation purposes.

Figure 1.12 Tarbela Dam

Industry and Manufacturing

Hattar Industrial Estate located in the district, was established in 1985-86. It is one of the largest estates in the province. In addition, there is a Small Industry Estate in Khalabat, Haripur.

According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, there are 184 industrial units in the district. Of these, 150 units are working, and the rest are closed for various reasons. The following table shows the number and type of industrial units in the district:

Industry Number Industry Number
Beverages 08 Biscuits And Sweets 05
Feed 04 Carpets 03
Cement 03 Cement Based 05
Ceramics 03 Chemicals 06
Daal Processing Detonators 02
Electrical Goods 02 Engineering 16
Fertilizer 02 Fiber Glass 02
Flour Mills 10 Glass 02
Gasses 02 Hosiery 01
Ice Factories 03 Marble & Chips 04
Safety Matches 02 Woolen 01
Mining 10 Car Batteries 02
Packages 03 Paper & Board 05
Pharmacy 16 Plastic & Rubber 08
Textile Mills 01 Vegetable Ghee & Oil 05
Soaps & Detergents 01 Telecommunication 02
Textile Looms 05 Wood 06

Table 1.9 Haripur Industries

Telecom Enterprises, based in Haripur, importers of Telecommunication Cables & amp Equipment provide a wide variety of IT and telecommunication services.

Handicrafts

The district trades in industrial goods and agricultural produce, especially vegetables. Handicrafts of the district include embroidery, hand-knotted carpets, and wood working. Justi Embroidery is a special kind of silk embroidery on shawls, and chadors. It consists of mostly flowers embroidered in silk, and is also known as Phulkari. In Hazara Region, this Phulkari work can be traced to the times of the Greeks.

[1] District Profile Haripur, South Asian Partnership, Pakistan

Economic Infrastructure

According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19 the road statistics of the district are as follows:

Total Roads 1,080.0 km
High Type Roads 480.0 km
Low Type Roads 600.0 km

Table 1.10 Haripur Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district include

  • Shahrah-e-Hazara: connects with National Highway N-35
  • Khanpur Road
  • Haripur-Hattar Road
  • Ghazi-Serikot Road
  • Soha Road

Rails and Airways

The district is well-linked to the rest of Pakistan by rail; there is a railway station at Pandak (near Haripur city). There is no airport in the district and the nearest international airport is at Abbottabad.

Radio and Television

Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation does not have its broadcasting station in the district. There are 2 privately-owned FM radio stations in the district. The district has modern cable TV network.

Telecommunications

There are 44 automatic telephone exchanges in the district. These exchanges provide 16,439 connections (KP Development Statistics 2018-19). Cellular phone services, with considerable coverage in all major towns, are also available.

Post Offices

There are 94 offices of Pakistan Post in the district, with 1 head office, 29 sub-post offices and 64 branch offices in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19).

Electricity and Gas

Electricity to the district is supplied and transmitted by Peshawar Electric Supply Co. (PESCO). Tarbela Power House generates 3,478 MW of power for the country. Gas for domestic use is not available.

Banking/Financial Services

Most of the major banks of Pakistan have branches in Haripur; some have ATM facilities as well. In all, there are 78 bank branches in the district.[1]

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks (among others) have branches in the district:

  • Al-Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Alfalah Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Khyber Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank

In all there are 67 branches of various scheduled banks and 11 branches of different Islamic banks in the District[2].

Education

Haripur district has a literacy rate of 69.0%%. The following table shows the number of Government Educational Institutions in the district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 500/354 Middle Schools 66/62
High Schools 66/55 Higher Secondary Schools 17/10
Mosque Schools 46 Degree Colleges 03/07
Polytechnic Institutes 01 Commerce Colleges/Institutes 01
Vocational Centers 03 Private Primary Schools 116
Private Schools (Middle + Secondary) 225 Post Graduate College 02
Medical Colleges Engineering Colleges/University
Military Institutes Universities[3] 02
Homeopathic College Law Schools 02

Table 1.12 Haripur Educational Institutes

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Haripur district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Hospitals 10/715 Dispensaries 11/-
Rural health Centers 05/60 Basic Health Units 40/-
Mother Child Health Centers 02/- Sub-Health Centers 06/-
Leprosy Clinic 01/- TB Clinics 01/-
Private Hospitals Private Medical Practitioners 284

Table 1.13 Haripur Health Institutes

Policing

The District Police Officer (DPO) is directly responsible to the Zila Nazim for public safety. The Police Department is headed by the Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP). The SSP supervises and controls the police force in maintaining law and order and investigation of cases of criminal nature. The Police Department operates under the Police Rules. The DPO is in-charge of policing the district. There are 11 police stations[4] in the district including women’s police stations.

Figure 1.13 Motor Jet Boats in Khanpur Dam Reservoir

Figure 1.14 Tarbela Dam Spillway

Figure 1.15 Paragliding, Haripur

 

Figure 1.16 University of Haripur

 

Figure 1.17  Khanpur Dam Spillway

 

[1] Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Development Statistics 2018-19

[2] List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan.

[3] University of Hazara, Haripur; and University of Haripur

[4] Table no. 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District By Federal Bureau of Statistics.

Environment and Biodiversity

The district has the highest Human Development Index as calculated by the Government of Pakistan in 2003 in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (based on the latest available survey).

The major environment-related problem is the high rate of deforestation. The industries at Hattar Industrial Estate discharge untreated waste into the rivers of the district, creating water pollution.

Flora and Fauna

The flora of the area consists of 211 species of 170 genera, distributed among 66 families.[1] Nearly 33% of the total area of the district is under forests. These forests provide shelter to wildlife.

Flora

The most common flora of the district includes shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), toot or mulberry (Morus alba), phulai (Acacia modesta), ber (Zizyphus jujuba), kikar (Acacia arabica), banyan or bargad (Ficus benghlensis), aak (Calotropis procera), sanatha (Dodonea viscosa), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), dhman (Grevia spp.), kao or wild olives (Olea ferrogina), chir (Pinus roxburghii), pataki (Gymnosporia royleana), awami booti (Otostegia limbata), grinda (Carissa opaca), bhekar or malabar nut (Adhatoda vasica),Indian barberry or kashmal, (Berberis lyceum), jangli toot or paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera), jungle podina or wild mint (mentha longifolia), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), wild sugarcane (Saccharum spontaneum), wild onion (Allium jaquemontii), oat/jungle jai (Avena sativa), chulai (Amaranthus viridis), stinking chamomile (Anthemis cotula), field marigold/ziargullay (Calendula arvensis), milk thistle/kandiari (Silybum marianum), sarkanda (Saccharum arundinaceum), bhang (Cannabis sativa), and gandi buti (Euphorbia helioscopia).

The most common grasses are buffel grass or dhaman (Cenchrus ciliaris), needle grass (Aristida adscensionis) and Hindi grass (Dicanthium annulatum).

The most famous flowers are rose, jasmine, gul-e-dawoodi, and gul-e-nargis.

Fauna

The mammalian fauna of the district includes hare, fox, wild boars, barking deer, grey goral, wildcat, jackals, monkeys, Asiatic leopard, black bear, yellow-throated marten, Kashmir hill fox, red flying squirrel, Himalayan palm civet, masked civet, and rhesus macaque. Among reptiles, fresh water turtles, snakes, and the Indian monitor lizard are common.

Golden eagle, griffon vulture, honey buzzard, peregrine falcon, kestrel, Indian sparrow hawk, hill pigeon, spotted dove, collared dove, Eurasian blackbird, blue whistling thrush, desert wheatear, common rose finch, bank myna, varieties of wagtail, varieties of babblers, golden orioles, crested lark, king fishers, black kite, common kestrel, black and grey frankolins, common hoopoe, mallards, pond heron, and common snipe are the common avifauna of the district.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Fauna

The game reserves that are being maintained and protected by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Wildlife Department in Haripur are:

  • Bagra: this is a sub-tropical thorn forest and provides sanctuary to grey and black partridge, fox, and hare
  • Kalinjar: a sub-tropical thorn forest providing sanctuary to chakor partridge, see-see partridge, grey partridge, and hare
  • Mang: a sub-tropical thorn forest providing sanctuary to black and grey partridge, chakor partridge, and see-see partridge
  • Pind Hashim Khan: a sub-tropical thorn forest providing sanctuary to black and grey partridge, chakor partridge, see-see partridge, and hare
  • Rakh Sardaran: this provides sanctuary to grey and black partridge, hare, and jackal

The following game reserves are privately-owned:

  • Rakh Tiyal
  • Rakh Saeed Taj Mohammad
  • Rakh Raja Gustasap Khan
  • Rakh Sultan Muhammad Khan
  • Rakh Syed Ali Shah
  • Rakh Malak Banaras Khan
  • Rakh Nadir Khan
  • Rakh Rafaquat Shah

These sanctuaries provide shelter to barking deer, monkeys, grey goral, wild cat, griffon vulture, Asiatic leopard, black bear, yellow-throated martin, Kashmir hill fox, flying squirrel, and the civets. Birds can only be hunted after procuring a license from the Government of KP.

In addition, Tarbela Dam Lake/Reservoir has been designated as a Ramsar Site of International importance; this lake provides a wintering and staging ground for a large number of water fowls including little grebe, mallards, Eurasian coot, brown-headed gulls, pied kingfishers, and common kingfisher. Mammals found in the area are Asiatic jackal, red fox, and Indian hare.

[1] A Checklist of Phanerogamic Flora of Haripur Hazara, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, by Hina Fazal, Nisar Ahmad, Abdur Rashid, and Shahid Farooq of PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Peshawar, Department of Biotechnology, and Microbiology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, and Department of Botany, University of Peshawar.