Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Kurram

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Introduction

Kurram Tribal District (Agency of erstwhile FATA) is located between 33° 20Ꞌ and 34° 03Ꞌ north latitudes, and 69° 50′ and 70° 45Ꞌ east longitudes. It is bordered by Afghanistan in the west and north (the provinces of Paktya and Ningarhar respectively), Orakzai and Khyber Tribal Districts in the east, Hangu district in the southeast, and North Waziristan in the south.

 Tribal District at a Glance

Name of Tribal District Kurram Tribal District
District Headquarter Parachinar
Population[1] 615,372 persons
Area[2] 3380 km2
Population Density[3] 182.1 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 1.68%
Male Population[5] 49.9%
Female Population[6] 50.1%
Urban Population[7] 6,2%
Administrative Units 03 Subdivisions

1.    Upper Kurram (01 Tehsil: Upper Kurram/ Parachinar)

2.    Lower Kurram (01 Tehsil: Lower Kurram/ Sadda)

3.    Central Kurram (01 Tehsil: Central Kurram/ Baggan) (03 tehsils)

Main Towns Parachinar, Sadda, Alizai, Dogar, Kurram Valley, Pirqayoom, Sateen, Karman, Peiwar, Makhizai, Baggan, Bagzai, Tari Mangal, and Khunj Alizai
Literacy Rate[8] 40%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 63%.
Female Literacy Rate[10] 21.0%
Major Economic Activity[11] Economic Activity figures for former FATA are not available, but subsistence level agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing is the major employer. Other activities include small-scale businesses, as well as mining and elementary occupations. Immigration to other districts in search of jobs to send remittances home is a major economic activity
Main Crops Rice, maize, moong, masoor, red beans, soya bean, groundnut, wheat, barley, lentils (like maash), rapeseed, canola, and tobacco
Major Fruits Apple, pear, peach, plum, persimmon, apricot, pomegranate, walnuts, citrus, loquat, figs, and mulberry
Major Vegetables Tomatoes, potatoes, onions, turnips, cucumber, eggplants, cabbage, cauliflower, garlic, okra, chilies, radish, spinach, turnips, and peas
Forests (Area)[12] 13,120 HA[13]
Black Topped Roads[14] 607 km
Low Type[15] 340 km
No of Grid Stations Tribal Areas Electricity Supply Company (TAESCO) looks after the supply and distribution of electricity to the TD
No. of Tel. Exchanges[16] 08 Telephone Exchanges with 7,098 connections
Industrial Zones[17] No Industrial Estates, but there are 50 small and medium Industrial Units of which 24 are working in the TD
No. of Industrial Units and Major Industry[18] Sporting & light hunting arms, Plastic Goods, Candles 3 Units each
Box, Cards, Bricks, Cloth, Flour mills, Electrical goods, Furniture, Handicrafts, Gem cutting, Gypsum goods, Marble stone, Pots, Spare Parts, Stabilizer, Stone cutting, Veterinary Medicines, Wood Working 1 Unit each
Cement blocks, doors, Gates, Packaging 2 Units each
Coal extraction Food & Beverages 6 Units each
Ice factories 4 Units
Household Size[19] 10.6 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water[20] 17.2%
Houses with Electricity[21] 64.1%

Table 1.1 Kurram TD at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 2017 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2019-20

[9] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2019-20

[10] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2019-20

[11] FATA Sustainable Development Plan 2007-2015, Civil Secretariat FATA, Peshawar

[12] KP Development Statistics 2020-21

[13] According to Land Utilization Statistics; Forestry Statistics report 183513 A (Taken from FATA Development Statistics 2016-17) KP Development Statistics 2019-20 do not report these statistics)

[14] FATA Development Statistics 2016-17

[15] FATA Development Statistics 2016-17

[16] FATA Development Statistics 2016-17

[17] FATA Development Authority, Industries Survey Report, 2010 (latest available)

[18] FATA Development Authority, Industries Survey Report, 2010 (latest available)

[19] 1998 Census; 2017 data has not been made public yet.

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 data has not been made public yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistoric/ Heritage SitesRecreational Areas/ Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the TD

The name Kurram for the TD is derived from the River Kurram which flows along the valley. In the north it is surrounded by snow-covered or “white” mountains, the Sufaid Koh range, locally known as Spin Ghar, which also forms the natural border with Afghanistan. River Kurram is mentioned in the Rig Veda (one of the four sacred texts of Hinduism) as Krumu, one of the tributaries that join the Indus on its right bank.

In ancient times, the Kurram Valley offered the most direct route to Kabul and Gardez (Iran). The route crossed Piewar Pass¾3,439 m (11,283 ft.) high¾which is located just over 20 km west of modern Parachinar. This route is blocked by snow for several months of the year.

The ancient name of the Safaid Koh Range (that forms the border between the Kurram TD and Afghanistan) is Svethpatha. It is likely that that the rich and healthy uplands of the Kurram and Khost areas would always have been a place of habitation and agriculture.

According to legend,[1] the aborigines of Kurram were actually deos or demons who were ruled by their king, the Safed (white) Deo until the kingdom was overcome by two brothers, Shudai and Budani, from the north. Their descendants held sway in the region for many centuries in Kurram, until they were overwhelmed by invaders from the north.

Archeological ruins found in the region show that a Greek settlement was established in the area by the successors of Alexander the Great; this is verified by the inscriptions and coins found in the Sanchi stupas. In mountains of the Sufaid Koh, some coins found in Bagzai village have been identified as belonging to the Greeks, while other coins, of the horseman and ball type, found in the same place have been attributed to the Shahia dynasty that ruled over the territory between the Indus and Afghanistan in 10th century AD.

The authenticated history of the TD (Agency)(Present day Afghanistan) begins in 1148 AD. It is recorded that after his defeat by Saif-ud-din Ghori (founder of the Ghorid Dynasty), Behram Shah of Ghazni fled to Kurram, whence he returned and recovered Ghazni. In 1163, Ghiyath al-din Muhammad Ghori (who ruled from 1163 to 1206) made Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori (his brother) in charge of Istia and Kasri-Kajuran;(present day Afghanistan) in 1176-77 he conferred Sankuran (identified with present day Shalozan by the linguist, Henry George Raverty[2]) and Kirman on his slave commander, Tajuddin Yalduz[3].

Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori used to halt in Kirman every year while traveling to India. On his last expedition, while staying in Kirman, he conferred the black banner on Tajuddin, thereby designating him his successor. After Ghori’s assassination in 1206 near Jhelum, his body was taken back to Ghazni through the Kurram region. Tajuddin became the ruler of Ghazni, but he continued to recognize Ghorid authority. He made Kirman his capital and after his defeat by Kutbuddin Aibak[4] in 1206 he retreated to Kirman. In 1215, Tajuddin was driven out of Kirman by Sultan Muhammad Khwarizm Shah[5], who handed Ghor and Ghazni to his son Jalal uddin Mankbarni. A few years later(1218AD) the whole area was taken over by the Mongols.

From the time the Mangols took over until 1552, Kurram is not mentioned in historical records. It is known that in 1552, Mughal Emperor Humayun, who then held Kabul, occupied Kurram before his re-conquest of India. Under Akbar, the region formed part of the tom[6]an of Bangash or the Bangashat. It was known as Upper Bangash (Kurram Valley) to distinguish it from Lower Bangash (now Kohat district). The Afghans occupying this tract, called Karlarni Afghans, were disciples of Pir-e-Roshan[7] and known as Roshanias. They led the Afghan opposition to Mughal Rule, and Kurram formed one of their chief strongholds. Their uprising was suppressed under Jehangir’s rule, but the Mughals appear to have exercised very little control over Kurram, which was, instead, nominally governed, independently of Kabul, by the Faujdars of Bangash from Kohat. On the breakup of the Mughal Empire, Kurram became a part of the Kingdom of Afghanistan; in the meanwhile, the Afghan tribes of Bangash had been overcome by the Turis, a tribe of Turkish origin.

After the annexation of Kohat in 1849 by the British, the Turis, in league with other tribes, repeatedly attacked the Miranzai border (now Hangu district), attacking the Bangash and Khattak villages in Kohat. In 1854 the British signed an agreement with the Turis but the treaty did not help stop the raids, which, instead, increased in frequency and force. In 1856 a force under Brigadier-General Neville Chamberlain entered the valley. After a short battle, an agreement was signed between the British and the Turis.

The area remained a part of the Kingdom of Afghanistan till the Second Anglo-Afghan War in 1878-79. The Turis continuously resented and resisted the Afghan domination. During the Second Afghan War, they assisted Lord Roberts, who entered Kurram from Thal and occupied the Kurram Fort in November 1878. In December, the British defeated the Afghans at Peiwar Kotal, and a British force marched from Kurram to Khost. A Peace Treaty was signed in May 1879, and the British held Kurram till 1880, when they evacuated the region, and the tribes became independent. Over time, internal feuds broke out, and the British again took over the valley in 1892. During the Great Pathan uprising of 1897-98, the inhabitants of the Kurram Valley, chiefly the Massozai section of the Orakzai clan (tribe) attacked the British camp at Sadda and other posts. A force of 14,230 British troops was sent to Kurram Valley and the tribesmen were overpowered and severely punished. After Lord Curzon reorganized the frontier in 1900-1901, the British troops were withdrawn from the forts in the Kurram Valley, the valley was recognized as a Tribal Agency and a Political Agent was assigned. The British force was replaced by the Kurram militia, reorganized in two battalions, and chiefly drawn from the Turi tribe.

In 1947 the Agency became part of Pakistan. The region became a stronghold of the Tahrik-Taliban Pakistan and remained so till 2008, when the Pakistan Army ordered a military operation in the Agency to flush out the militants. The military offensive, named Operation Koh-e-Sufaid, ended in 2011 with the Lower and Upper Subdivisions of the former Agency falling back into Pakistani control.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Kurram Tribal district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 2
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 2

Under the Local Government Act, the Tribal District has 81 Councils, which include 67 Village and 14 neighbourhood Councils.

[1] The following part of the history of Kurram Agency has been extracted from Provincial Gazetteer of the North West Frontier Province 1908, pgs 238-240

[2] Henry George Raverty was an officer and linguist in the British Army

[3] Tajuddin Yaldiz (also spelled Yalaz) was a Turkic slave commander of the Ghorids

[4] Qutb or Kutbuddin Aibak (Aybak) (1150-1210) was the founder of the Mamluk dynasty and the first sultan of the Delhi Sultanate

[5] Sultan Muhammad Khwarizm Shah was a Shah of the Khwarizm Empire from 1200-1220

[6] Toman means a single “Unit” could be a tehsil or district.

[7] Pir Ba Yazid Khan, commonly called Pir Roshan (1525-1585) was an Afghan warrior, poet, sufi and freedom fighter who was opposed to Mughal rule

Administrative Divisions

The TD has a total area of 3,380 km2 and is divided into 03 Subdivisions and 03 tehsils as follows

Upper Kurram 01 Tehsil Upper Kurram/ Parachinar
Lower Kurram 01 Tehsil Lower Kurram/ Sadda
Central Kurram 01 Tehsil Central Kurram/ Baggan

Table 1.2 Kurram TD Administrative Divisions

Historic/ Heritage Sites

There are no protected heritage buildings/sites[1] in the TD. The following buildings are important historical buildings of the TD:

  • Shrine of Saint Iranay Agha in Parachinar. The oldest and biggest Imam Bargah of Pakistan
  • Malitia Fort, Parachinar
  • Shrine of Saint Fakhr-e-Alam Baba, Kirman
  • Shrine of Mast Baba, Zairan. An annual urs is held at the shrine
  • Shrine of Imam Raza, Shalozan, with trees planted by Syed Imam Raza and Fatima Jinnah
  • Shrine of Syed Hassan Wali
  • Khar Lachi Fort. This fort was built by the British near the Pak-Afghan border. It is controlled by the Frontier Corps (FC). The site has the shrine of a famous saint: Lala Gul Baba
  • A Rest house built by the British in Chapri called Chapri Rest House
  • Remains of a garden built by Shahjahan, the Mughal Emperor

Recreational Areas/ Tourist Attractions 

  • Parachinar, the headquarters of the TD, is a beautiful and scenic valley. It contains the biggest and the one of the oldest Imam Bargahs of Pakistan, the Shrine of Saint Iranay Agha. The name, Parachinar, is attributed to an ancient Chinar tree, under the canopy of jirgah-type gatherings took place, and important decisions were taken. Parachinar has a Militia Fort which is now under the control of Pakistan Army
  • Kirman is another beautiful and scenic recreational area. The shrine of the Sufi saint Fakhr-e-Alam Baba, located in Kirman, has historic value
  • Zairan, a scenic village which contains the grave of Mast Baba and the hand imprint of Hazrat Ali (RA), hosts celebrations, which are held annually on 21 March
  • Shalozan, a town, which has the Robert Garden, where a tree was planted by Fatima Jinnah. The shrines of Imam Raza and Syed Hasan Wali are located here. The shrine of Syed Hassan Wali has a spring whose waters are used for curing various diseases. Junglea named Pree Samawat and a garden called Bagh-e-Laila are also located here. There is a dam called Shalozan Dam the site of which is used as a picnic area
  • Khar Lachi Fort built by the British. This fort is now controlled by the FC
  • Chappri is the western entry point to the Kurram TD. The area is surrounded by thick forests full of wildlife. It has been developed as a ski resort
  • Terimangal Pass near the Pak-Afghan border
  • Safed Koh is a scenic, adventurous attraction; an important wild and plant life habitat. Semi-precious stones are also being mined there.
  • Sadda; second largest town in Kurram TD, and also a trade market
  • Dogar Third largest town and is the main market area

[1] Study on Tourism Potential of FATA, FATA Development Authority

Topography

The principal mountain range in the TD is the Sufaid Koh or Spin Ghar Mountains, which forms the natural boundary with Afghanistan. It also forms the watershed between Afghanistan and the TD. The highest peak called the Sikharam Sar (4,728 meters high) forms the extreme northwest corner of the TD. From here, the range runs due east, descending in altitude to 4,328 meters at Badni Sar (the peak at Zeran) and to 3,585 meters at the Agam Pass. It rises again to 3,962 meters at the peak above Khanrai in the northeastern corner of the TD.

From Sikharam, a lower range, whose crest forms the western border of the TD and is crowned by the Peiwar Kotal Pass, runs southwards, abutting on the Kurram River. On the south lies a lower and more irregular range whose crest forms the boundary with Khost (Afghanistan). The highest peak of this range is at a height of 2,602 meters and is called Khost Khoram. The average elevation of this range is 1,524 meters. From this range, a spur descends, through the extremity of which, the Kurram River has cut a passage opposite Sadda. This divides the valley into Upper and Lower Kurram. Upper Kurram is, thus, almost completely enclosed by hills of varying heights except where the Kurram River enters and leaves it.

Apart from the high mountains, the other important feature is the Kurram Valley. The valley starts from Thal in Hangu district towards the northwest up to Peiwar Kotal on the Pak-Afghan border. It can be divided into two parts: the Lower Kurram and the Upper Kurram.

Lower Kurram extends from Thal in Hangu district to Sadda. It is a narrow valley of comparatively low elevation, though it widens to the southeast of Balyamin village.

Upper Kurram is encircled by hills of varying sizes except where the Kurram River enters and leaves it. It is a wide open valley, mostly comprised in the sloping plain formed by the debris from the southern face of the Sufaid Koh, which descends to the Kurram River and is intersected by numerous streams. In this plain/ plateau are located the towns of Parachinar (the headquarters of the TD), Shalozan, Kirman, and most of the principal villages of the TD. The Parachinar plain at its south/southeast portion has an altitude of around 1,500 meters, rising to an elevation of 1,745 meters at Parachinar, and 2,000 meters at Peiwar Kotal in the northwest portion of the plateau. The Upper Kurram Valley, from Sadda to Peiwar Kotal, is bounded by high mountains on all sides.

Other important alluvial plains in the TD include the Satin plain, Chulam Chakmani on the right bank of the River Kurram (both in Lower Kurram), and the area of Khoidad Khel in Central Kurram.

Important mountain ranges of the TD include:[1]

  • The Mandher Mountains in the west of the TD, running south of the Peiwar Kotal (2,743-3,048 meters high)
  • Marmora Mountains, in Central Kurram
  • Khwaja Kurram Range which borders Paktia

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The River Kurram is the principal river of the TD. It receives the waters of intermittent streams and at Sadda, the river is joined by the Khurmana River. It crosses over to Thal to enter North Waziristan.

Numerous streams and springs originate in the mountains and flow through the valley, most of which are intermittent, but some are perennial. The streams that drain the plains of Parachinar include the Peiwar Stream, Shalozan Stream, Shian, Zeran, Kirman, Kurmana, Sarkalla, Minawar, Taoda Shiga, and Daradar.

Some of the intermittent streams include Shakardarra Khwar, Mandara Shaga, Dama Khwar, Yaqubi Toi, Ghurio Tang, Babar Kander, Wuch Gabdar, Pir Rahyum Khwar, Gaodar, and Dargai China.

Malana Dam Reservoir, Zeran Dam Reservoir, Maidani Small Dam, and the Kot Ragha Dam (Malikhel) Reservoir form beautiful lakes; there are other scenic lakes nestled in the mountains as well.

Forests

There are three types of forests found in the TD. These are dry subtropical forests (found in the southern parts) and the dry temperate forests and subalpine scrub forests (found in the northern parts). The following table shows the status of forests as per FATA Development Statistics 2016-17 (KP Development Statistics 2020-21 do not report these statistics):

Total Forest Area 181,315 A Man Made Plantation 61,113 A
Natural Forests 119,271 A Linear Plantation 931 km

Table 1.3 Kurram TD Forests

The dominant tree species are fir (Abies pindrow), spruce (Picea smithiana), and chilghoza pine (Pinus jerardiana) on the upper elevations, while varieties of oak (quercus sp) are found on the lower reaches of Sufaid Koh. The major shrub type is juniperus communis which dominates subalpine scrub forests of the range. Bela utilis is also found in the subalpine regions. Grass species found include the cenchrus cilliaris, and cynodon dachtylon.

Soils

The plains of Parachinar have hard and rocky soil, with a large component of grit and gravel. Terraced piedmont alluvium soils are medium and fine textured (loam and clay loam), deep calcareous, well drained, and slightly eroded.

Climate

Most of the northern part of the TD has a temperate climate¾cold and snowy in winter and warm in summer. In the south and southeast the altitude drops, and thus, in the Lower Kurram tehsil, the summers are hot and winters are cold. In the eastern parts of the TD the summers are dry and hot, and the winters are dry and cold. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures for June, the hottest month, are 31 °C and 18.4 °C. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures for January, the coldest month, are 10 °C and ‑1.6 °C

The annual rainfall recorded at Parachinar is about 750 mm.

File:Parachinar in winter.jpg - Wikimedia Commons

Figure 1.4 Parachinar in Winter

Seismic Activity

The TD belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] The names of the mountains have been taken from socio-Economic Profile of Kurram Agency 1993, by USAID

Population

The following table shows the population of the TD and its tehsils as per the 2017 Census:

District Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban % Growth Rate%
Kurram TD 3,380 615,372 49.9 50.1 6.18 1.68
Central Kurram 1,470 229,007 50.3 49.7 0 1.23
Lower Kurram 940 133,929 49.7 50.3 24.3 2.66
Upper Kurram 970 252,436 49.5 50.5 2.18 1.63

Table 1.4 Kurram TD Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.5%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus Negligible %
Qadianis 0.2%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others 0.1%

Table 1.5 Kurram TD Religions

Languages[2]

 

Urdu 0.2%
Punjabi 0.3%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 98.6%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki Negligible %
Others[3] 0.9%

Table 1.6 Kurram TD Languages

[1] 1998 Census ; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[3] Other languages include Brahvi, Darri etc.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Data regarding the employed labor force in former FATA is not available, but it is known that subsistence level farming with its allied livestock breeding and fishing is the main source of employment.

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of Kurram TD as per KP Development Statistics 2020-21:

Total Area 338,000 HA Reported Area 338,061 HA
Total Cultivated Area 26,591HA Net Sown 13,812 HA
Current Fallow 12,779 HA Total Uncultivated Area 311,470 HA
Culturable Waste 3,345 HA Forest Area 13,120 HA

Table 1.7 Kurram TD Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

Agriculture[1] with its allied livestock breeding and fishing is the most important economic activity of the TD. The crops grown in the TD are rice, maize, moong, masoor, red beans, soya bean, groundnut, wheat, barley, lentils (like maash etc.), rapeseed, canola, and tobacco.

Major fruits grown in the district include apple, pear, peach, plum, persimmon, apricot, pomegranate, walnuts, citrus, loquat, figs, mulberry, and pecans.

Major vegetables are tomatoes, potatoes, onions, turnips, cucumber, eggplants, cabbage, cauliflower, garlic, okra, chilies, radish, spinach, turnips, and peas.

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the total population of livestock in the TD as per FATA Development Statistics 2016-17: (KP Development Statistics do not report these statistics)

Cattle 125,865 Heads Buffaloes 3,286 Heads Sheep 79462 Heads
Goats 117,711 Heads Camels 48 Heads Asses 3,966 Heads
Mules 901 Heads Horses 673 Heads

Table 1.8 Kurram TD Livestock Statistics

The balki sheep is the only indigenous breed of livestock in the TD.

Poultry

There are 08 poultry farms[2] in the district.

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in the River Kurram and its various distributaries in the TD. Most of this fish is consumed locally.

Bee Keeping

Commercial bee keeping is carried out in various forests and farms in the TD.

Minerals and Mining

Chromate, soapstone, and coal are being commercially mined in the TD. There is every indication that, if exploited, marble would be a lucrative mineral as well.

Irrigation

Tube wells as well as privately-owned and dug canals are the main sources of irrigation in the erstwhile Agency. The following table shows the modes of irrigation and area irrigated by each mode as per KP Development Statistics 2020-21:

Total Irrigated Area 15,423 HA Government Canal Irrigated 30 HA
Tube Wells 346 HA Private Canals Irrigated 14,613 HA
Wells 17 HA Others/ Lift Pumps etc. 357 HA

Table 1.11 Kurram Agency Irrigation Statistics

Kurram Agency has a few water reservoirs locally called Dams. These are water supply schemes for domestic purposes. No hydroelectric power is generated in these constructions, nor are they used for irrigation purpose. These dams are Malana Dam, Zeran Dam, Maidani Small Dam, and Kot Ragha Dam, Malikhel.

Industry

There is no industrial estates in the TD, but there are 50 registered industrial units, of which 24 units are working. The following table shows the total registered units[3] in the Agency.

Industry No. Industry No.
Sporting & Light Hunting Arms 03 Box 01
Bricks 01 Candles 03
Cards 01 Cement blocks 02
Food & Beverages 06 Cloth 01
Coal Extraction 06 Doors 02
Electrical Goods 01 Flour Mills 01
Furniture 02 Handicrafts 01
Ice Factories 04 Gem Cutting 01
Gypsum goods 01 Marble stone 01
Packaging 02 Plastic Goods 03
Pots 01 Spare parts 01
Stabilizers 01 Stone and Stone Cutting 02
Veterinary Medicines 01 Wood Working 01

Table 1.9 Kurram Agency Industries

Handicrafts

The traditional crafts of the TD are household items made with the leaves of the Mazri palm, as well as wood-based products like furniture and other household items, breeding and raising of silk cocoons, and small-scale sheet metal working among others.

[1] Data on agro-ecological zoning in FATA is not available.

[2] Table 17, Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock

[3] Data on number and type of closed industry is not available

Economic Infrastructure

The TD headquarters i.e. Parachinar is connected with other parts of TD and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa through back topped road. Abput 63% of all roads of the Agency are high type all weather roads.

Roads

There are two types of roads in Kurram TD: High type and Low type roads. The following table shows the road statistics as per KP Development Statistics 202-21:

High Type 607 km
Low Type 340 km
Total 947 km

Table 1.10 Kurram TD Road Statistics

Some important roads of the TD are:

  • Kohat-Thal-Parachinar Road
  • Parachinar-Kirman Road
  • Bypass road connecting Thal-Parachinar Road to Zeran-Malana Road
  • Parachinar-Karakhela Road
  • Alizai-Gharbina Road
  • Luqmankhel Road

 

Figure 1.4 Main Road connecting Parachinar with Afghanistan

Figure 1.5 A high type Malana-Parachinar Road

Rail and Airways

There is no railway station in the TD, and the nearest railway station is in Hangu.

There is an airport in Parachinar called Parachinar. It is the only airport in the newly formed tribal districts.

Radio and Television

There is no data available on location or availability of radio stations in the TD. Cable TV can be viewed throughout the region.

Telecommunications

There are 07 telephone exchanges[1] operating in the TD. These provide 4,149 connections. Nearly all of the major cellular companies also operate in the Agency.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There 11 offices[2] of Pakistan Post in the TD. These consist of 03 sub-post offices and 08 branch offices. Nearly all the courier services of Pakistan provide their services in the TD.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

In all, there are 07 branches of various banks in the Agency. According to the KP Development Statistics 2020-21 there are 20 branches of different banks in Kurram TD as follows:

  • National Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank
  • Bank Al Habib
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Metropolitan
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber
  • The Bank of Punjab
  • United Bank Ltd.

Electricity and Gas

Tribal Agency Electric Supply Company (TAESCO) looks after the supply of electricity in the Agency. No other data is available.

[1] KP Development Statistics 2020-21.

[2] KP Development Statistics 2020-21.

Education

The following table shows the number of educational institutes in the Agency as per KP Development Statistics 2020-21:

Facility Boys/Girls Facility boys/girls
Primary Schools 297/270 Middle Schools 30/34
High Schools 31/07 Higher Secondary 03/02
Colleges 03/01 Community Schools
Mosque Schools 09 Technical Schools 02
Commercial Training 01 Vocational Training
University Medical Colleges
Engineering Colleges

Table 1.12 Kurram TD Educational Institutes: Government

Figure 1.6 A Boys School in Parachinar

Health

The following table shows the number of government-owned Health Care institutions in the Agency as per KP Development Statistics 2020-21:

Facility Number/bed Facility Number/beds
Hospitals 04/472 Dispensaries 47/-
Rural Health Centers -/- Basic Health Units 22/-
T.B. Clinics 03/- Child Health Centers 01/-
Mother Child Health Centers 01/- Leprosy Clinics

Table 1.14 Kurram TD Health Institutes

There are 114 Private Medical Practitioners working in the TD.

Policing

The District Police Officer (DPO) is directly responsible to the District Mayor for public safety. The Police Department is headed by the Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP). The SSP supervises and controls the police force in maintaining law and order, and investigation of cases of a criminal nature. The Police Department operates under the Police Rules. There are no Police Stations in the District. (KP Development Statistics 2020-21).

The Levy Force, Khassadars and the Scout Troops operating in the erstwhile Kurram Agency have been absorbed into the KP Police as per the KP Levies Force Bill 2019

Figure 1.7 Kurram TD being guarded by the FC

Environment and Biodiversity

The ambient air quality in the TD is excellent due to minimal sources of air emissions. The only source of impact on the quality of the ambient air is the rare vehicular traffic on the roads, which causes some dust emissions. The main pollutants from vehicle exhaust are lead, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. These emissions temporarily affect the air quality in the immediate vicinity of the roads.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The most common flora of the TD includes dwarf palm or mazri palm (Nannorhops ritchieana), mulberry (Morus alba), poplar (Populus sp), willow (Salix sp), tree of heaven or ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), plane tree (Platinus sp), walnut (Juglans regia), kaner (oleander), oak (Quercus sp), pistachio (Pistacia vera), cedar pine (Cedrus deodara), deodar (Deodara), partal (Abies pindrow), maiden hair fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris), wormwood (Artemisia), and Indian berberry (Berberis lyceum).

There are many plants, and bushes that are used in medicines. Some of these are qamargul or pigsqueak (Bergenia ciliata), kharak or European nettle tree (Celtis australis), mushk bala or Indian valerin (Valeriana jatamansi), balloon vine or kanphata (Cardiospermum halicacabum L), burna (Cratagus sonagarica), banafsha (voila canescens), gulab or rose (Rosa indica), and small knotweed (Polygonum plebeum).

Fauna

Ibex, urial, hog deer, markhor, jackals, rabbits, hare, porcupines, wild cats, and bats are the mammals found in the TD. The avifauna consist of monal pheasants, woodcock, grey and black partridges, red-legged partridge or chakor, see-see partridge, and seasonal migratory birds such as varieties of water fowls, and Siberian cranes including the endangered Siberian White Crane.

Data regarding the reptilian and amphibian fauna is not available.

Protected Areas

There are no wildlife protected areas in any agency of former FATA. The endangered wildlife includes nearly all the mammals and birds; a critically endangered bird is the Siberian White Crane.