Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Mardan

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Introduction

The district lies from 34° 05’ to 34° 32’ north latitudes and 71″ 48’ to 72° 25’ east longitudes. It is bounded on the north and west by Malakand Agency/ district, on the north and east by Buner district, on the east by Swabi district, on the south by Nowshera district, and on the west by Charsadda district. The total area of the district is 1,632 km2.

The district is named after its headquarter town Mardan, which, in turn, was named after Pir Syed Ali Mardan Shah, a religious saint nicknamed Madai Baba (11th to 12th century AD).

District at a Glance

Name of District Mardan District
District Headquarter Mardan City
Population[1] 2,373,061 persons
Area[2] 1,632 km2
Population Density[3] 1,448 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.6%
Male Population[5] 50.6%
Female Population[6] 49.4%
Urban Population[7] 18.5%
Tehsils/Talukas 03 Tehsils:

1.    Mardan Tehsil

2.    Takht Bahi Tehsil (also Takht-e-Bahai, or Takht Bhai)

3.    Katlang Tehsil

Main Towns Mardan, Takht Bahi, Mardan Cantonment, Lund Khwar, Gumbat Village, Gujar Garhi, Mardan Khas, Charguli, Jamal Garhi, Rashkai, and Katlang
Literacy Rate[8] 52.0%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 71.0%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 34.0%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 41.6%
Community, Social & Personal Services 21.9%
Construction 15.5%
Transport 5.1%
Wholesale, Retail & Hotel/ Restaurant 8.2%
Manufacturing 2.6%
Others 5.1%
Main Crops Sugarcane, tobacco, wheat, maize, rice, rapeseed & mustard, barley, jowar, masoor, groundnut, and sesanum
Major Fruits Citrus, plum, peach, apricot, mangos, apples, banana, guavas, dates, melon, musk melon, watermelon, strawberry, lychee, ber, mulberry, persimmon, and cherry
Major Vegetables Chilies, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, coriander, garlic, okra, eggplant, squash, bitter gourd, purslane, cabbage, bottle gourd, cauliflower, carrots, lettuce, radish, spinach, sweet pepper, and cucumber
Forests (Area)[12] 7,920 HA[13]
Black Topped Roads[14] 770.6 km
Shingle Roads[15] 10.2 km
No. of Grid Stations PESCO looks after distribution and transmission of Electricity in the district
No. of Tel. Exchanges[16] 37 Telephone Exchanges with 14,380 connections
Industrial Zones[17] ·         1 Small Industries Estate

·         1 Agricultural Light Engineering Program Estate (SIE)

·         1 Carpet Center

Total Registered and running industrial units is 185

Major Industry[18] Cement Based 25 Units
Flour Mills 23 Units
Marble & Chips 115 Units
Household Size 8.4 persons per house
Houses (Piped Water Inside)[19] 18%
Houses with Electricity[20] 83.5%

Table 1.1 Mardan District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census uses spatial data

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Forestry Statistics report 37,122 HA of forests

[14] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] KP Development Statistics 2018-19; please see section on Industry for a detailed list

[19] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage/ Cultural Sites; Tourist Attractions

Brief History

The areas constituting Mardan district were[1] part of Peshawar Valley, which was part of the Gandhara Civilization from the middle of the 1st millennium BC to the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. Gandhara consisted of various dynasties that were spread across the same region, linked together by their adoption of Buddhism as a religion, and the Indo-Greek artistic tradition as their cultural identity. The territories of Gandhara included Taxila, Peshawar, Mardan, Swat, Dir, Malakand, and Buner districts, as well as Bajaur Agency of present-day FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas), all of which are now part of Pakistan.

The ruins of these cities still exist. The famous archaeological sites of Takht-e-Bahai (Throne of Origins), Jamal Garhi, and Sawal Dher all belong to the Buddhist era or the Gandhara Civilization.[2]

Alexander the Great reached this area through Kunar, Afghanistan in 326 BC. After Alexander’s departure, the area came under the rule of Chandragupta Maurya, who ruled the valley from 297 to 321 BC; Chandragupta Maurya defeated Alexander the Great’s successors and brought most of present-day India under his rule. His grandson, Ashoka, was one of the greatest Indian rulers, and embraced Buddism, actively promoting this religion in his empire. He built many stupas in his empire including in Mardan. Soon after Ashoka’s death, the Mauryan Empire started declining, and the valley saw the revival of Brahmanism when the Greeks took over during the reign of King Mehandra Maurya (Ashoka’s son). The Scythians and Indians followed, and retained control of the valley till the 7th century AD.

Before the end of the 7th century, the Afghans appeared in the valley. At that time, Peshawar Valley was under the control of the rulers at Lahore. The Afghans joined the Gakkhars, who held the country between the Indus and the Jhelum Rivers; they conquered the hill country west of the Indus and south of the Kabul River, which included Mardan. In the 10th century, the Peshawar Valley area (including Mardan) came under the control of Sultan Sebuktigin who defeated Raja Jaipal, the Hindu ruler of Lahore.  Sebuktigin’s son, Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, made this area the rallying point for his numerous raids into the interior of India. In the 15th century, the Pathans of Ghor led by Shahab-ud-Din Ghori overthrew the Ghaznavids and took over. In 1505 the Mughal Emperor Babar invaded the area through the Khyber Pass. It remained under the rule of the Mughal emperors up to the time of Aurangzeb. During Aurangzeb’s regime, the Pathan tribes revolted, and Aurangzeb himself led his army to re-establish his authority, but after a long and hard struggle which lasted for 2 years (1673-75) he was compelled to agree to the terms, which left the Pathans practically independent. In 1738 the Mughals surrendered Peshawar and all the territory west of the Indus, which included present-day Mardan district to Nadir Shah (Shah of Iran, founder of the Afsharid Dynasty).

Ranjit Singh conquered Attock in 1814 and Peshawar in 1818. He left Hari Singh Nalwa in command and withdrew to Lahore. This valley remained under the control of the Sikhs up to 1849. The Sikhs were defeated by the British Army in the Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49). Major Lawrence was appointed as the first Deputy Commissioner of Peshawar by the British government. From that date, Peshawar became an administrative district under the Punjab Government. At that time present-day Mardan was a Tehsil of Peshawar district. In 1901 North West Frontier Province (NWFP) was constituted, with Peshawar as its headquarters. In 1937, Peshawar district was bifurcated into Peshawar and Mardan districts.

Mardan City was founded by a Muslim Saint, Ali Mardan Shah (nickname Madai Baba), between the 11th and 12th centuries AD. His shrine is at Jalala (Takht-e-Bahai) which was constructed in the 1980s. His son, Zamin Shah Baba, was also a saint, and was buried in Mardan Cantonment.[3]

Mardan is the second largest city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Mardan district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 3
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 8

Under the Local Government Act, District Mardan has 1 District Council constituted by general seats, seats reserved for women, peasants/ workers, youth, and non-Muslims as prescribed under the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act 2013. Mardan District Council is composed of 75 general members, 25 women members, 4 peasants/worker members, 4 minority members, and 4 youth members.

Administrative Divisions

The district has a total area of 1632 sq. km and is divided into 3 tehsils as follows:

Mardan Tehsil 43 Union Councils
Takht Bahi Tehsil 18 Union Councils
Katlang Tehsil 13 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Mardan Administrative Divisions

Mardan Tehsil has been further bifurcated into Mardan and Katlang Tehsils in 2010.

[1] The history of Mardan district has been drawn from Mardan District Profile by IUCN Pakistan

[2] Youlin Magazine, a monthly publication of Pakistan China Institute

[3] Official Website Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Mardan District

Heritage/ Cultural Sites; Tourist Attractions

There are a large number of historical sites, and most of them belong to the Buddhist era. Some of the relics from these sites are displayed in museums of the country, but Mardan also has a museum in which the relics of Gandhara Civilization excavated from the historical sites are displayed.

The following historical sites are being protected and preserved under Government of Pakistan Rules/Laws:

  • Shahbaz Garhi Monastery: 14 rock edicts found in this monastery are written in the Kharoshti language. These edicts were recorded by Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, who ruled from 268-232 BC
  • Kashmir Ghar Samast Babuzai, Mardan: a Monastery near the walls of which are broken sculptures, showing that it was a Hindu place of worship. There is a swimming pool which is surmised to have been intended for ashnaan (cleansing)
  • Sawal Dhera: A Buddhist monastery in Jamal Garhi. Most of the sculptures of this monastery are displayed in the Lahore Museum
  • Jamal Garhi: Buddhist monastery. Inscriptions in the Kharoshti language were discovered. These are displayed in the Peshawar Museum
  • Takht Bahi Monastery: Situated at a height of 1,067 m (3,500 ft) from surrounding land. Kharoshti inscriptions and coins have been discovered here
  • Seri Behlol Monastery: A large number of sculptures from this monastery are displayed at the Peshawar Museum
  • Ruined Fort Wall, Hund, Mardan
  • Maida Dheri or Maida Ghundai, Shahbaz Garhi, Mardan
  • Hussai Dheri, Shahbaz Garhi, Mardan
  • Adina Dheri near Garyiala, Mardan
  • Chargul Dheri, Mardan
  • Chichar Dheri, Jamal Garhi, Mardan
  • Turlandi Ghundai, Mardan

Other places of interest for family outings are the various parks, and amusement parks.

There is a Historical Monument built in the center of Mardan City. This was built by the British in 1892 in memory of the soldiers who died while defending the Queen’s Residency at Kabul.

Figure 1.5 Monastery at Takht Bahi

Figure 1.6 Mardan Sports Complex

File:Guides Memorial, Mardan - panoramio (6).jpg - Wikimedia Commons

Figure 1.7 Guides Monument Mardan

 

Figure 1.8 Sehri Bahlol Monastery, Mardan

 

Figure 1.9 Kuzkandi Jamia Masjid, Mardan

Figure 1.10 Topo Chowk, Mardan

Topography and Soils

Mardan district[1] can broadly be divided into 2 parts:

  • Northeastern hilly areas
  • Southwestern plain

Northeastern Hilly Area

The entire northern side of the district is bounded by hills. The Karamar Hills are located in the northeast of Hoti Mardan[2] and rise to a height of 1,061 m above sea level. Another and smaller hill range is the Panjpir, which rises to a height of 649 m above sea level. This hill range separates the district from Swabi and skirts the village of Mian Khan in Katlang Tehsil. It is called Panjpir because at the top there is a heap of stones[3] or dheris considered sacred by both Muslim and Hindu residents. They are dedicated to 5 Muslim saints by Muslims; however, Hindus believe that these are dedicated to the 5 Pandu Brothers of the Mahabharata. This hill range contains the highest peaks of the district called Pajja or Sakra (2,056 m), and Garo or Pato (1,816 m). Other smaller mountain ranges include Madho Garhi, Gila Kandao, Husi Ghundai, and Kats Sar.

Southwestern Plain

The southwestern half of the district is mostly composed of a fertile plain with low hills strewn across it. It is generally accepted that this plain once formed the bed of a lake which was gradually filled up by the deposits of the rivers/ hill torrents flowing into it from the surrounding hills. From the foothills, the plain runs down at first with a steep slope which carries the rain water to the lower levels, and ultimately to the Kabul River.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

Generally, the streams flow north to south in the district. These streams originate in the mountains and drain into River Kabul. Kalpani River/ stream is one of the more important streams of the district; it rises in the Baizai, flowing southwards to join River Kabul. This river is the lifeline of Mardan and Nowshera districts, and passes through the main Mardan City. The river is formed by the confluence of Kalpani Minor Nullah (Malakand Agency) and Landi Khwar (Chanchokhat, Mardan district) This river has a number of tributaries which originate in the mountain and join the river at different places. Some of the important tributaries of the River Kalpani are Bagyari Khwar, Muqam Nullah, and Naranji Khwar.

Other smaller streams flowing through the district are Wattar, Shagai Nullah, and Pirano Khwar. There are no lakes in the district.

Forests

The following table shows the area and type of forests in Mardan district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 91,729 A Resumed Land 3,351 A
Reserved Forests – A Communal Forests – A
Protected Forests – A Guzara Forests – A
Unclassed Forests[4] – A Private Plantation 88,378 A
Miscellaneous – A Linear Plantation 741 km

Table 1.3 Mardan Forests

Most of the trees in the forests are scrub type, mainly dominated by ber (Zizyphus Mauritania), varieties of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.), sheesham (Dilbergia sissoo), kikar (Acacia modesta), shahtoot or mulberry (Morus alba), and wild olives (Oleo cuspidate). The mazri palm grows all over the district.

Sori Malandri, Garyalla Karmar, Kohi Barmool, Mahal Kalau, Guru Amankot, and Kohi Darra are community-owned and protected Game Reserves in the district. Sudham Game Reserve is government-owned and protected. Lalmi Gul and Sharqi Baizai Mian Khan are privately-owned and protected Game Reserves in Mardan district.

Soils

The soils of the plains of the district consist of fine alluvial deposit, the composition and depth of which is spatially variable. The Mardan basin has been filled by sub-recent sediments derived from soils in the loess plains.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which will cause minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

Climate

Mardan district is situated 270 m above sea level. The area has a hot subtropical continental climate. The summer is extremely hot with May and June being the hottest months. During these months, dust storms are frequent. The temperatures reach their maximum in June, when the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 42 °C and 25 °C. Due to the presence of a number of irrigation canals, the tract is humid, and thus the heat is more oppressive. However, a rapid fall of temperatures has been recorded from October onwards. The coldest months are December and January, with January being the coldest month, when the mean maximum and minimum temperatures reach 18 °C and 2 °C.

Most of the rainfall occurs in the months of July, August, December, and January. Towards the end of the cold weather, there are occasional thunder and hail storms. The mean average rainfall in the district has been recorded at 600 mm.

[1] Extracted from 1998 District profile Mardan (Government of Pakistan) and Peshawar District Gazetteer 1907

[2] Hoti Mardan is a Union Council of Mardan tehsil

[3] District Gazetteer Peshawar 1897-98

[4] Unclassed Forests are owned by the Government

Population

The following table shows the population of the district as per the 2017 Census:

District Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Mardan District 11,632 2,373,061 50.6 49.4 18.5 2.6
Mardan Tehsil 1,311[1] 1,403,394
Takht Bahi Tehsil 321 626,523
Katlang Tehsil 343,144

Table 1.4 Mardan Population Statistics

Religions[2]

Muslims 99.5%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.3%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Mardan Religions

Languages[3]

Urdu 0.3%
Punjabi 0.5%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 98.4%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki Negligible %
Others 0.7%

Table 1.6 Mardan Languages

[1] Includes area for Katlang Tehsil

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public.

[3] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The economy of the district is dominated by agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing; a total of 41.6% of the population is engaged in this activity. Other economic occupations of the district include:

  • Community, Social and Personal Services (21.9%)
  • Construction (15.5%)
  • Transport (5.1%)
  • Wholesale, Retail & Hotel/ Restaurant (8.2%)
  • Manufacturing (2.6%)
  • Others (5.1%)

Land Use

The total geographical area of Mardan district is 163,200 HA. The following table shows the land use statistics of the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Area 163,200 HA Reported Area 162,100 HA
Total Cultivated Area 99,841 HA Net Sown 81,673 HA
Current Fallow 18,168 HA Uncultivated Area 62,259 HA
Culturable Waste 5,182 HA Forest Area 7,920 HA

Table 1.7 Mardan Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture here is entirely dependent upon canals, lift pumps, and tube wells.

The crops of the district include sugarcane, tobacco, wheat, maize, rice, rapeseed & mustard, barley, jowar, masoor, groundnut, and sesanum. Fruits grown in the district include citrus, plum, peach, apricot, mangos, apples, banana, guavas, dates, melon, musk melon, watermelon, strawberry, lychee, ber, mulberry, persimmon, and cherries. The vegetable produce of the district includes chilies, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, coriander, garlic, okra, eggplant, squash, bitter gourd, purslane, cabbage, bottle gourd, cauliflower, carrots, lettuce, radish, spinach, sweet pepper, and cucumber.

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the statistics of livestock for Mardan district according to the 2006 Censusof Livestock (qtd. in KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 247,445 Heads Buffalo 115,841 Heads Sheep 51,595 Heads
Goats 201,333 Heads Camels 2,436 Heads Horses 1,595 Heads
Mules 1,166 Heads Asses 14,288 Heads

Table 1.8 Mardan Livestock Statistics

Hashtnagri sheep is the native breed of livestock in the district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) there are 223 poultry farms in the district.

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in River Kalpani and the canals which contributes to the economy of the district. There is a Carp Hatchery in Charbanda, Mardan.

Bee Keeping

Honey is an important non-wood forest production of KP. The government offers ample opportunities for the promotion of bee keeping, as well as training to its rural population in the art of apiculture and honey processing.

There are many types of honey being produced in KP but Sedar (ber in Urdu) and acacia modesta (Phulai in Urdu) honey are produced in the highest quantities.

The Honey Cluster of KP is spread over different districts of the province. The belts of Swat, Naran, Kaghan, and the southern districts like Peshawar, Mardan, Karak, Kohat, Haripur, FATA, and other adjoining areas have tremendous potential for fostering the honey industry. The total number of the bee keepers (farm) in KP is about 3,500 and the direct employment in these farms is of 17,500 people.[1]

Mining

At present, barites, dolomite, fullers earth, granite, limestone, marble, silica sand, and slate stone are being commercially mined in Mardan district. Oil and gas are not being mined nor explored in the district.

Irrigation

Canals are the main source of irrigation in Mardan district. The Upper and Lower Swat Canals are the main canals. The Lower Swat Canal irrigates the southwestern part of the district, whereas the rest of the district gets irrigation water from Upper Swat Canal. Other smaller irrigation channels include Koragh Branch, Maho Dheri Minor, and Kalpani Disty.

The following table shows the mode and area irrigated by each mode in Mardan district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 73,965 HA Canal Irrigated (Private) – HA
Tube Wells 1,564 HA Canal Irrigated (Govt.) 66,067 HA
Wells 4,362 HA Lift Pumps 979 HA
Others 993 HA

Table 1.11 Mardan Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.12 An Irrigation Channel, Baizai, Mardan

Industry

There is 1 Small Industries Estate, 1 Industrial Light Engineering Program Estate, and 1 Carpet Center in Mardan district.

According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, there are 185 manufacturing units in the District. Following table shows the number and type of running industrial units in the District:

Industry Number Industry Number
Cement Based 25 Cigarettes 04
Flour Mills 23 Cold Storage 03
Furniture 01 Gases 01
Ice Factories 02 Marble & Chips 115
Matches 01 Packages 02
Plastic & Rubber 02 Sugar 01
Soaps 02 Metal Work 01
Beverages 01 Cotton 01

Table 1.9 Mardan Industries

Trade (Import/ Export)

Honey, handicrafts, industrial products, and agricultural produce as well as tobacco and cigarettes are the major export items of the district. 90% of all marble tiles manufactured[2] in the district are exported to other parts of Pakistan. Small and Medium Development Authority (SMEDA) has proposed a Marble Mosaic Manufacturing Unit to be set up in Mardan.

Handicrafts

Handicrafts include household items made with the leaves of the mazri palm, hand-embroidered clothing items (specially gent’s waistcoats), woolen caps, handmade wooden furniture, carpets, and hand-embroidered shoes among others.

Figure 1.3 Handicrafts made with Mazri Palm, Mardan

Figure 1.4 Mosaic Marble Tile

[1] District Profile Mardan, by SMEDA

Economic Infrastructure

There is a good network of roads in the district. The district and tehsil headquarters, and all important areas are connected with roads. Pakistan railway also serves some parts of the district.

Roads

According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19 the road statistics of the district are as follows:

Total Roads 780.8 km
High Type Roads 770.6 km
Low Type Roads 10.2 km

Table 1.10 Mardan Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district include:

  • Mardan Ring Road
  • The National Highway N-45 (Nowshera-Chitral) passes through the district
  • Mardan-Swabi Road
  • Malakand–Mardan Road
  • Nisata Road
  • N-45 Bypass Road
  • Islamabad-Peshawar Motorway M-1

Rail and Airways

There is 1 Railway Station/Junction at Mardan. There is no commercial or military airport and the nearest airport is Bacha Khan International Airport, Peshawar.

Figure 1.11 Mardan Railway Station

Radio and Television

Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) does not have its broadcasting station in the district. There is 1 privately-owned FM radio station in Mardan district. The district has a modern cable TV network.

Telecommunications

There are 37 telephone exchanges with 14,380 connections[1] in Mardan district. Cellular phone services, with considerable coverage in all major towns, are also available.

Post Offices

There are 110 offices[2] of Pakistan Post in the district with 1 Head Office, 30 Sub-Post Offices, and 79 Branch Offices in the district.

Electricity and Gas

Electricity is supplied by Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO). Gas for domestic use is available in Mardan City.

[1] KP Development Statistics 2018-19.

[2] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

 

[2] District Profile by SMEDA

Banking/ Financial Services

There are 102 bank branches[1] in Mardan district. Following banks have bank branches in the district:

  • Al Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • First Women Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Metropolitan Bank Ltd.
  • Khyber Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Silk Bank Ltd.
  • Sindh Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Summit Bank
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.
  • J S Bank Ltd.

Education

Mardan district has a literacy rate of 52%. The following table shows the number of Government Educational Institutions in the district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 802/615 Middle Schools 80/94
High Schools 87/80 Higher Secondary Schools 37/30
Mosque Schools 41 Degree Colleges 09/08
Polytechnic Institutes 02 Commerce Colleges/Institutes 03
Vocational Centers 05 Private Primary Schools 170
Private Schools (Middle to Higher Secondary) 187 Post Graduate College 01
Medical Colleges[2] 01 Engineering Colleges/ University[3] 01

Table 1.12 Mardan Educational Institutes

Figure 1.13 Government High School, Mardan

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Mardan district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Hospitals 08/752 Dispensaries 18/-
Rural health Centers 04/74 Basic Health Units 49/-
Mother Child Health Centers 02/- Sub-Health Centers -/-
Leprosy Clinic 01/- TB Clinics 01/-
Private Hospitals 02/- Private Medical Practitioners 356

Table 1.13 Mardan Health Institutes

Figure 1.14 Mardan Medical Complex

Policing

The police department is headed by the District Police Officer (DPO) Mardan who supervises and controls the police force in maintaining the law and order situation in the district. The DPO also controls and supervises the investigation of criminal cases. This DPO is assisted by SubDivisional Police Officers on the sub-division level. In all, there are 18 police stations[4] in the district.

[1] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[2] Bacha Khan Medical College

[3] University of Engineering & Technology Peshawar, Mardan Campus

[4] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

Environment and Biodiversity

The district’s environment is compromised by the dust and emissions from the marble crushing factories. The surface water resources are polluted by untreated industrial effluent which is being discharged into the rivers and streams.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The most common flora of the district includes mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), ber (Zizyphus), karir (Capparis decidua), vann (Salvadora oleoides), babul (Acacia nilotica), jand (Prosopis cineraria), and palosa (Acacia modesta). The most common shrubs[1] are tarmarix articulata, spands, aak, small red poppy, spera, pueghambrigul, drab grass, eamelthorl, and pohli chaulai.

Some of the medicinal herbs and plants of the district include alsi or desert madwort (Alyssum desertorum Stapf), bambesa or shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris L.), charg botay or bitter cress (Cardamine hirsuta Linn), hoary cress (Cardaria draba), tara mira or water cress (Nasturtium officinale), jangli mooli or wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum), and aloe vera (Aloe vera).

Fauna

Common fauna of the district include leopard, black bear, brown monkey, jackal, wild goat, wolf, and hare. Avifauna includes black and grey partridges, chakor partridge, see-see partridge, and falcons.

Protected Areas and Endangered Fauna

Government-owned and protected Game Reserves include:

  • Sudham Game Reserve

Community-owned and protected Game Reserves of the district are:

  • Kohi Burmool Game Reserve
  • Sori Malandari Game Reserve
  • Garyala Karmar Game Reserve
  • Mahal Kalu Game Reserve
  • Guru Amankot Game Reserve
  • Kohi Dara Game Reserve
  • Nakhtar Banda Game Reserve
  • Naqi Dara Game Reserve

These sanctuaries provide protection to chakor partridge, black partridge, see-see partridge, wolf, hare, leopard, brown bear, brown monkey, jackals, and wild goats.

[1] District Profile Mardan by Government of Pakistan 1998.