Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Nowshera

Share now

Introduction

Nowshera district, called “Now-khaar” by the locals, is located between 33° 41′ to 34° 10′ north latitudes, and from 71° 39′ to 72° 16′ east longitudes. It is bounded on the east by Attock district (Punjab), on the west and northwest by Peshawar and Charsadda districts, on the north by Mardan and Swabi districts, and on the south by Kohat district. FR (Federal Region) Kohat’s boundary—at Darra Adam Khel—also touches the borders of Nizampur and Cherat areas of Nowhsera district.

District at a Glance

Name of District Nowshera District
District Headquarter Nowshera City
Population[1] 1,518,540 persons
Area[2] 1,748 km2
Population Density[3] 868.7 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.9%
Male Population[5] 51.5%
Female Population[6] 48.5%
Urban Population[7] 22.3%
Tehsils/ Talukas 03 Tehsils and 03 Military Cantonments

1.    Nowshera Tehsil

2.    Pabbi Tehsil

3.    Jahangira Tehsil

The three cantonments are:

1.    Risalpur

2.    Cherat

3.    Nowshera

Main Towns Nowshera Kalan, Risalpur Cantonment, Nowshera Cantonment, Pabbi, Jehangira, Amangarh, Akora Khattak, Cherat Cantonment, Akbarpura, Badrashi, Kheshgi, Rashakai, Shaidu, Khairabad, Nizampur, Pir Sabaq, Jalozai, Shahkot, Ziarat Kaka Sahib, Khairabad, Mughalki, Bara Banda, and Nawan Killi
Literacy Rate[8] 56.0%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 71.0%
Female Literacy Rate 41.0%
Major Economic Activity[10] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 25.1%
Construction 23.5%
Community, Social And Personal Service 25.2%
Wholesale, Retail & Hotel/Restaurant 13.3%
Manufacturing 3.1%
Transport, Communication & Storage 7.5%
Others 2.3%
Main Crops Wheat, maize, tobacco, sunflower, rice, barley, sugarcane, gram, cotton, rapeseed and mustard, groundnut, sugarcane, moong, and canola
Major Fruits Citrus, mango, banana, apple, guava, apricot, peach, pears, plums, grapes, pomegranate, dates, loquat, mulberry, ber, lychee, watermelon, and musk melon
Major Vegetables Chilies, onions, potatoes, coriander, garlic, cauliflower, turnip, cucumber, tinda, okra, eggplant, cabbage, tomatoes, garlic, pumpkin, bitter gourd, and arum
Forests (Area)[11] 9,120 HA[12]
Total Metalled Road[13] 463.5 km
Shingle Roads[14] 57.1 km
No. of Grid Stations Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO) looks after distribution and transmission of Electricity in the district
No. of Tel. Exchanges[15] 26 Telephone Exchanges, with 8,136 connections
Industrial Zones[16] 02 Industrial Estate:

1.    Special Industrial Zone; Risalpur

2.    Export Processing Zone; Risalpur

There are a total of 219 registered industrial units, out of which 187 units are running.

Major Industry[17] Marble & Chips 82 Units
Cement Based 33 Units
Ice Factories 10 Units
Flour Mills 10 Units
Pharmacy 10 Units
Household Size[18] 7.7 persons per house
Houses (Piped Water Inside)[19] 33.9%
Houses with Electricity[20] 90.5%

Table 1.1 Nowshera District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data uses spatial data

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[11] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[12] Forestry Statistics reports 72,092 HA

[13] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[14] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] KP Development Statistics 2018-19; for a detailed list, please refer to section on Industry

[18] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[19] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistorical/ Heritage Sites; Tourist Attractions; Picnic Spots

Brief History [1]

The word Nowshera is a combination of two words “Now-Sher”, which means New City. This is a Persian word which, through the passage of time, has become Nowshera.

Nowshera district (Akora Khattak) is the birthplace of the great sufi saint, poet, writer, and chief of the Khattak tribe, Khushal Khan Khattak. Other prominent/ historically important people include Malik Ako, the first Khattak Chief, Nawab Sir Khwaja Muhammad Khan Khattak, and Biland Khan of Khushal Garh.

The areas belonging to Nowshera district were part of Afghanistan as “Now-khaar” province till it was annexed as part of India by the British via the Durand Line Agreement (12 November, 1893). It is part of Peshawar Valley, which was an integral part of the Gandhara Civilization. The ancient capital of this civilization was “Pushkalavati” or present-day Charsadda.[2] At present, the Peshawar Valley includes the administrative districts of Peshawar, Nowshera, Swabi, Charsadda, and Mardan, and is a direct link to Central Asia and India. Nowshera district (also spelled Naushahra) was part of Peshawar district as Nowshera Tehsil till 1988, when it was upgraded to a district level. Most of the early history of Nowshera is thus the same as that of Peshawar district, and has been recounted in the chapter on Peshawar.

In 997 AD, after the death of his father Subaktagin (also spelled Sebuktigin), Mahmud of Ghazna succeeded as the Governor of Khorasan, and by 999 AD, after overthrowing the nominal allegiance to the Samani princes,[3] Mahmud declared himself the Sultan. One of the earliest wars he fought was on the maira plains (flat lands or plain area) between Nowshera and the Indus, in the year 1001, against the Hindu King Jaipal. Mahmud was successful in this war, and King Jaipal was captured. Jaipal’s Pathan tribes then converted to Islam and became staunch supporters of the Ghaznavids who ruled for almost a hundred years before being overthrown by the Ghorids led by Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori.

According to the Peshawar District Gazetteer:

Peshawar continued to be a province of Ghaznavi Empire. Greater part of the plain country certainly the whole of Yusafzai to the north of Kabul, was at this time and, for many years ensuing, but thinly, developed. The invasions of Mahmud had left it a “deserted wilderness, the haunt of the tigers and rhinoceros” (Bellew, p. 59-60), and only occasionally visited for the sake of pastures by the shepherd tribes. (p. 52; original citation)

These shepherd tribes slowly and gradually peopled the Peshawar Valley area (including Nowshera) again. One of the first tribes to inhabit this area was the Dalazak tribe which settled in the Suleiman Mountains near the eastern border of Afghanistan and western borders of what is now Pakistan. By the 11th century the Dalazaks had possession of the plain of Peshawar, as well as Chach Hazaro (Attock district) and the Jhelum. In 1204 Shab-ud-din Ghori, after defeating the Ghaznavid rulers, became the Sultan, and settled many Afghan tribes in the mountains around Peshawar Valley. During the invasions of Amir Timur (Tamerlane) in 1397 the Pathan tribes were not disturbed; Timur marched from Kabul to Bannu where he crossed the River Indus. In 1470 the Yousafzai tribe was expelled from Kabul by Mirza Ulugh Beg;[4] they first tried to take control of Bajaur Agency, failing which they came to Peshawar Valley and settled in the region, after getting some lands from the Dalazaks. They were gradually joined by other Pathan tribes. Later, a great battle was fought among the Dalazaks, the Swatis, and the Yusufzais on the north side of Swat River in which the Dalazaks were routed and expelled to Hazara.

During the greater part of the 15th century, the Pathan tribes remained unmolested and did not pay even a nominal allegiance to any foreign power.

The first Mughal Emperor Babar became ruler of Kabul in 1504. Between 1504 and 1519, he was occupied in quelling rebellions in his provinces, specifically the areas controlled by the Yousafzai tribe. Ultimately, in order to subdue this tribe, he took the daughter of Shah Mansoor Yousafzai, the then leader of Yousafzais, as his wife. Through this marriage, Babar established peace, and the tribe kept their freedom.

Following the death of Babar, Kamran his younger son, proclaimed himself ruler of the region as far as the Indus, but conflict with his elder brother, Humayun (1508-1556), led to the weakening of the Mughal power and afforded Sher Shah Suri (d. 1545), a Pathan, the opportunity to capture the empire easily. Sher Shah Suri ruled for only a few years, but he bequeathed a number of administrative reforms which continue to this day. These reforms included the land revenue system. He also established a sound security system which ensured the safety of travellers and traders along the highways including the Grand Trunk Road[5] that he had constructed. After Sher Shah Suri’s death, Humayun, the exiled Mughal Emperor, reclaimed his throne, and the Mughal Empire was re-established.

The Peshawar Valley (including Nowshera) remained under the Mughal Empire until a national insurrection by the Pathan tribes was successful in freeing them from Mughal supremacy. The Mughal Emperor at that time was Aurangzeb. In 1738 the Peshawar district along with the then Nowshera Tehsil, was conquered by Nader Shah. Under his successor—Ahmad Shah Abdali (founder of the Durrani Empire)—the region became the seat of the Durrani Empire. On the death of Timur Shah Durrani (second ruler of the Durrani Empire) in 1793, Peshawar became disorganized; the Sikhs took advantage of this, and started advancing in the Valley. In 1818, under the command of Ranjit Singh, the Sikhs conquered the entire country up to the foot of the Hills. In 1823 Azeem Khan Barakzai, the then governor of Kashmir under the Durranis, made an attempt to check the advancing Sikhs. He called for jihad against the Sikhs and took an army to Nowshera, where Muhammad Zaman Khan, his vizier (chief minister), successfully destroyed the bridge at Attock, effectively trapping the Sikh garrisons west of the Indus. However, Ranjit Singh had already reinforced his forces in Nowshera under the leadership of General Hari Singh Nalwa. A battle known as the Battle of Nowshera was fought between the forces of Azeem Khan and Ranjit Singh in which Ranjit Singh was victorious. After securing Nowshera, the forces of Ranjit Singh proceeded to Peshawar and thence to Jamrud, thus effectively destroying the Durrani power in the region.

In 1848 after the end of Second Anglo-Sikh War, the area came under British authority. During the 1857 War of Independence, the armies stationed in Peshawar were disarmed by the British without putting up much resistance in May, but the 55th Native Infantry stationed at Nowshera and Hoti Mardan openly rebelled and marched towards the Swat Hills. An army led by Nicholson pursued them, and succeeded in scattering the unit. 120 people were killed, and the rest of the infantry fled towards the hills, where they either died of hunger or were captured and killed by the British.

During British rule, Nowshera was a town and cantonment as well as Tehsil of Peshawar district (later Peshawar Division). The town was on the route of the North-Western Railway.

The district now contains 3 cantonments: Nowshera Cantonment, Cherat Cantonment, and Risalpur Cantonment. These cantonments house the Army School of Artillery, Army Services Corps (ASC), ASC Center, Armour Center, and School of Armour of Pakistan Army.

Nowshera district remained a Tehsil of Peshawar district till 1988, when it was upgraded as a district.

Taj Building of Nowshera losing its splendour - Pakistan - DAWN.COM

Figure 1.3 A British Colonial Era Building Nowshera

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Nowshera district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 2
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 6

Under the Local Government Act, District Nowshera has 1 District Council constituted by general seats, seats reserved for women, peasants/ workers, youth, and non-Muslims as prescribed under the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act 2013. Nowshera District Council is composed of 47 general members, 16 women members, 3 peasants/worker members, 3 minority members, and 3 youth members.

Administrative Divisions

The district has a total area of 3,164 km2 and is divided into 2 tehsils as follows:

Nowshera Tehsil 31 Union Councils
Pabbi Tehsil 16 Union Councils (created in 2008)
Jehangira Tehsil NA

Table 1.2 Nowshera Administrative Divisions

[1] The history of Nowshera has been extracted mostly from the Peshawar District Gazetteer 1907 as well as various sources available online.

[2] The ancient history of Peshawar Valley has been recounted in the chapters on Peshawar and Charsadda districts.

[3] The Samanids ruled Persia from 819 AD to 999 AD.

[4] Details included in chapters on Malakand and Mardan districts

[5] The Grand Trunk Road or GT Road is the longest and oldest road covering a distance of 2,500 km (1,600 miles). Constructed during the reign of Sher Shah Suri, it links Colcutta (India) to Kabul (Afghanistan) via Lahore and Islamabad. This road from Lahore to Peshawar is now part of the National Highway N-5 of Pakistan.

Historical/ Heritage Sites; Tourist Attractions; Picnic Spots

The only historical place being protected under the Laws of the Government of Pakistan are the Black Rocks on River Indus, Moderay, Nowshera.[1]

Non-Protected, but important, historical sites in the district are:

  • Mazar Khushal Khan Baba: Khushal Khan Khattak was the chief of the Khattak tribe. He was a writer, poet, and a patriot. His tomb is located in Akora Khattak. He has left a legacy of poems
  • Mazar Hazrat Kaka Sahib: located on hills north of Nowshera, the place is also called Ziarat Kaka Sahib. A religious festival is held each year to commemorate Hazrat Kaka Sahib’s death anniversary. This festival lasts from 8 to10 days
  • A Hindu temple called Balmick Mandir
  • Tomb of Seljuki Sufi Master and Aalim Sheikh Akhund Adyan: this is situated near Landai river. Akhund Adyan Baba died in 1074 AH. He was a close friend of Khushal Khan Khattak, and teacher of Hazrat Kaka Sahib
  • Rung Mahal constructed during the Mughal era, situated near Meera Akora
  • Shrine of Malik Akora Khan
  • Shrine of Shahbaaz Khan, on the lawn of Shrine Sheikh Akhund Adyan Seljuki Baba
  • Taj Building constructed in the 1920s by Khan Bahadur Taj Mohammad Khan of Badrashi Village, Nowshera. He was a famous colonial era contractor and landlord
  • Railway Bridge on Kabul River near Nowshera on Nowshera-Mardan Section of the railway line.This bridge replaced the Boat Bridge

Following are some of the tourist spots in the district:

  • Cherat Hill Station and Sanatorium: the height of this hill station is 1,372 m above sea level. This station has pleasant weather even during the hottest months in the district. This is a cantonment, and most of the population is of military personnel
  • Aza Khel Park, situated on the main GT (Grand Trunk) Road (now National Highway N-5): this is an amusement park
  • National Park Khairabad (Kund), or Kund Wildlife Park
  • Manglot Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Jinnah Park
  • Company Bagh

Other picnic spots include the banks of River Kabul especially Kund which is the confluence of River Kabul and Indus.

Figure 1.10 Shrine of Kaka Sahib

Taj building, Nowshera | nowshera. Org

Figure 1.11 Taj Building, Nowshera c1940

Figure 1.12 Shrine of Khushal Khan Khattak

 

Figure 1.13 Bridge on River Kabul

Figure 1.14 Tomb of Khushal Khan Khattak

Figure 1.15 Rung Mahal, Akora Khattak, Nowshera

[1] Guidelines for Critical and Sensitive Areas Pakistan, Government of Pakistan 1997

Topography

The district is situated on the southern margin of the Peshawar basin and contains sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks of the lesser Himalayas. The area from north to south is divided into Nowshera Hills, Attock-Cherat Range, and a part of the Kala Chitta Range.

The district can be divided into 3 distinct topographical features:

  • Khattak Highlands (also called Attock-Cherat Range)
  • Piedmont Plains
  • Riverine Area

Khattak Highlands (Attock-Cherat Range)

These run from southwest to southeast, and form the boundary of Nowshera with FR Kohat, FR Peshawar, and Peshawar district. This range attains a height of 914-1,524 m; Cherat Hill Station is situated on this range of mountains at an average height of 1,372 m. The highest peak of this range of mountains is the Ghaibana Sir, the height of which is 1,565 m.[1]

Piedmont Plains

These plains lie on both sides of the Khattak Range, and are mostly barren, with a few pockets of agricultural lands dependent on rain.

Riverine Area

This area stretches along both sides of River Kabul and River Indus, and is prone to flooding.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

River Indus and River Kabul are the major rivers flowing through the district. River Kabul enters the district at its western side and runs through the plains to join River Indus at Kund near Khairabad. River Kalapani, carrying the drainage of the hills, joins River Kabul just east of Nowshera Cantonment.

There are a large number of hill torrents which join the major rivers at various points. The chief of these streams is the Chipla Khwar; this stream, along with its numerous affluents, carries the drainage of Cherat hills. The names of the various streams change according to the village through which they flow.

Some streams flowing down from the mountains and through the district include Wattar, Urmandai Khwar, Wuch, Warmando Khwar, and Shah Kalim Khwar. Some of the intermittent streams are Tangi Khwar, Palosin Khwar, Nur Gul Baba Khwar, Jindai Khwar, and Banda Khwar.

Mughal Emperor Akbar built a Boat Bridge over River Kabul. This was later replaced by the British with a steel bridge.

Figure 1.4 River Kabul, near Nowshera

Figure 1.5 Boat Bridge over River Kabul, Nowshera

Forests

Following table shows the area and type of forests in Nowshera district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 178,142 A Resumed Land – A
Reserved Forests 12,936 A Communal Forests 800 A
Protected Forests – A Guzara Forests – A
Un-classed Forests[2] – A Private Plantation 159.081 A
Miscellaneous 5,325 A Linear Plantation 317 km

Table 1.3 Nowshera Forests

The forests of the district are mostly Sub Tropical Scrub Forests. Paloosa or phulai (Acacia modesta), ber (Zizyphus nummalaria), wild olives or khoona (Olea cuspidate), hopbush or sanatha (Dodonaea viscosa), gurgura (Monothica buxifolia), kikar (Acacia nilotica), falsa (Grewia sp), lovarr or gangu (Grewia tenax), peepal (Ficus religeosa), karir (Capparis aphylla), and tylophora (Tylophora hirsuta) are the common trees of these forests. Most of the forested plantation is privately-owned.

The Manglot Wildlife Park houses the Khwara Reserved Forest. Another reserve forest of the district is Zira Reserve Forest.

Soils

The seasonal streams, together with their small tributaries, have excavated deep valleys in their mountain courses and the material so eroded has been deposited in the form of alluvial fans in front of the mountains. The soils of Nowshera district consist of loamy and some sandy stratified soils of young flood plains and loamy, clayey, part saline soils of piedmont plains. The cultivation tract consists of rich, light and porous soil, composed of a mixture of seed and clay.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to moderate damage due to an earthquake.

Climate

The climate of Nowshera district is semi-arid, with hot summers and cool winters. The summer months are May to September. May and June are extremely hot and dry months, while Monsoon season is July to September, due to which the months of July and August are hot and humid. The temperature begins to rise rapidly in April and peaks in late May or early June. June is the hottest month, when mean annual temperatures stay between 42 °C and 25 °C maximum and minimum respectively. Winter months are December, January, and February, with February being the coldest month. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures in February are 18 °C and 2 °C. The mean annual rainfall in the district is 600 mm.

[1] Peshawar District Gazetteer 1907

[2] Un-classed, Communal, and Guzara forests are owned by the Government

Population

The following table shows the population statistics of the district as per 2017 Census:

District Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Nowshera District 1,748 1,520,995 51.5 48.5 22.3 2.95
Nowshera Tehsil 679 728,815
Pabbi Tehsil 351 438,416
Jehangira Tehsil 718 353,764

Table 1.4 Nowshera Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.0%
Christians 0.5%
Hindus 0.1%
Ahmadis 0.3%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Nowshera Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 1.3%
Punjabi 3.7%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 91.0%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.3%
Others 3.7%

Table 1.6 Nowshera Languages

Other languages that are spoken in the district include Jandali/ Hindko, which is a dialect of Punjabi.

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The economy[1] of the district is dominated by agriculture with its allied livestock breeding & Fishing (25.1%). Other industrial occupations include:

  • Construction (23.5%)
  • Community, Social and Personal Service (25.2%)
  • Wholesale, Retail & Hotel/ Restaurant (13.3%)
  • Manufacturing (3.1%)
  • Transport (7.5%)
  • Others (2.3%)

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Land Use

The total geographical area of the district is 174,800 HA. The following table gives the land use statistics of the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Area 174,800 HA Reported Area 178,070 HA
Total Cultivated Area 52,528 HA Net Sown 33,039 HA
Current Fallow 19,489 HA Uncultivated Area 125,542 HA
Culturable Waste 49,995 HA Forest Area 9,120 HA

Table 1.7 Nowshera Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Nowshera, on account of its rough terrain, is comparatively poor in agriculture.

The crops of the district include wheat, maize, tobacco, sunflower, rice, barley, sugarcane, gram, cotton, rapeseed and mustard, and ground nut. Fruits grown in the district are citrus, mango, banana, apple, guava, apricot, peach, pears, plums, grapes, pomegranate, dates, loquat, mulberry, ber, and lychee. The vegetables of the district include chilies, onions, potatoes, coriander, garlic, cauliflower, turnip, cucumber, tinda, okra, eggplant, and cabbage.

Figure 1.6 Tobacco Fields, Nowshera

Figure 1.7 Green Fields, Misri Village, Nowshera

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the statistics of livestock according to the 2006 Livestock Census for the district (qtd in KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 190,669 Heads Buffalo 106,892 Heads Sheep 70,046 Heads
Goats 197,442 Heads Camels 729 Heads Horses 5,131 Heads
Mules 955 Heads Asses 14,804 Heads

Table 1.8 Nowshera Livestock Statistics

Hashtnagri and balkhi breed of sheep are the native breeds of livestock in the district, but other breeds are found and bred as well. Mixed breeds are thus common.

Poultry

According to table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock), there are 90 poultry farms in Nowshera district.

Bee Keeping

Honey is an important non-wood forest production for KP. The province offers ample opportunities for the promotion of bee keeping, and the provincial government is providing training to its rural population in the art of apiculture and honey processing.

There are many types of honey being produced in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa but Sedar (ber in Urdu) and acacia modesta (Phulai in Urdu) honey are produced in the highest quantities. The total numbers of bee keeper entrepreneurs (farm) in KP is about 3,800, and the direct employment in these farms is of 17,500 people.[1]

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in River Kabul and River Indus, and all the canals and their branches. There are trout fish hatcheries in the district.

Mining

Nowshera hills are dominated by dolomite, argillite quartzite, limestone, and marble, but at present, only marble and silica sand are being mined in the district. Oil and gas are not being explored in the district.

Irrigation

The following table shows the mode and area irrigated by each mode (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 24,893 HA Canal Irrigated (Private) 62 HA
Tube Wells 2,210 HA Canal Irrigated (Govt.) 20,564 HA
Wells 1,701 HA Lift Pumps/Others 356 HA

Table 1.11 Nowshera Irrigation Statistics

The main canal providing irrigation water to the district is Warsak Minor Canal off-taking from Warsak Dam, as well as Lift Irrigation Scheme Kheshgi, Kandar Murdara Scheme, and tube wells. Other canals are the Kabul River Canal and its branches like Kurvi Branch, Wazir Garhi Minor, Pabbi Minor, Warsak Gravity Canal, and Pabbi Minor, Nisata Branch, and Dab Canal.

Industry and Manufacturing

There 02 Industrial Estates in the District, and 187 industrial units (running). The following table shows the number and type of industrial units in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Industry Number Industry Number
Beverages 01 Biscuits & Sweets 02
Paper & Board 01 Cement 02
Cement Based 33 Ceramics 02
Chemicals 01 Cigarettes 01
Daal Processing 01 Electrical Goods 05
Engineering 02 Flour Mills 10
Furniture 02 Cold Storage 04
Ice Factories 10 Marble & Chips 82
Safety Matches 02 Mining 02
Pet Lube 01 Packages 02
Metal Work 01 Pharmacy 10
Plastic & Rubber 03 Poultry Feed 01
Soaps & Detergents 01 Woollen 01
Vegetable Ghee/Oil 01 Printing Press 01
Textile loom sect. 01 Poultry Farm 01
Cotton 01

Table 1.9 Nowshera Industries

Trade (Import/ Export)

Industrial products and agricultural products like groundnut, and citrus are trading items in the district. Jehangira is the transit center for agricultural goods. In addition, Pabbi, Nowshera Kallan, and Pir Sabaq are major trading centers of the district.

Handicrafts

The handicrafts of the district are embroidery on clothes, and leather items.

[1] Small Medium Enterprise Development Authority (SMEDA), Honey Processing & Packaging Common Facility Center – Mingora Swat

Economic Infrastructure

The district has a network of both black topped and shingle roads. The district headquarter Nowshera is connected with its Tehsil headquarter and other parts of Pakistan through all‑weather black topped roads like National Highway N-5 and Islamabad-Peshawar Motorway M-1. The district is also connected via railway, but there is no commercial airport

Roads

According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, the road statistics of the district are as follows:

Total Roads 520.6 km
High Type Roads 463.5 km
Low Type Roads 57.1 km

Table 1.10 Nowshera Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district include:

  • Nowshera Catonment–Tarnab
  • Khairabad-Nizampur Road
  • Nizampur-Kohat Road
  • Nowshera-Ziarat Kaka Sahib Road
  • Nowshera-Rashakai Road
  • Pabbi-Cherat Road
  • Taru-Akbarpura Road
  • National Highway N-5 Aza Khel–Cherat Cement Factory
  • Risalpur-Jehangira Road
  • Nowshera-Charsadda Road
  • Pabbi-Cherat–Kotli Kalan
  • Taru-Amankot-Pabbi Road
  • Islamabad-Peshawar Motorway M-1

Rail and Airways

The district is well-linked by railway to other parts of Pakistan. There are a number of railway stations in the district. Some of them are Nowshera Railway Station, Khushalkot Railway Station, Pir Pai Railway Station, and Akora Khattak Railway Station.

There is no commercial airport in the district. Nearest international airport is at Attock and Peshawar. There is a military airbase at Risalpur.

Radio and Television

Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) does not have its broadcasting station in the district nor are there any privately-owned radio stations. The district has modern cable TV network.

Telecommunications

There are 26 telephone exchanges in the district which provide 8,136 connections (KP Development Statistics 2018-19). Cellular phone services, with considerable coverage in all major towns/ villages are also available.

Post Offices

There are 72 offices of Pakistan Post in the district with 1 Head Office, 31 Sub Post Offices and 40 Branch Offices in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19).

Electricity and Gas

Electricity is supplied by Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO).

Banking/ Financial Services

In all, there are 77 bank branches in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19).

Following banks have their branches in the district:

  • Al Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Falah Ltd.
  • Al Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Islami Pakistan.
  • Bank of Punjab
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Metropolitan Bank
  • JS Bank
  • Meezan Bank
  • The Bank of Khyber.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Sindh Bank
  • Soneri Bank Ltd
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

According to “List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019; by State Bank of Pakistan” in all there are 58 branches of various conventional banks and 20 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Education

Nowhsera district has a literacy rate of 56% as per Pakistan Social & Living Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2018-19. The following table shows the number of Government Education Institutions in the district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 412/355 Middle Schools 47/49
High Schools 71/35 Higher Secondary Schools 17/20
Mosque Schools 04 Degree Colleges 04/05
Polytechnic Institutes 01 Commerce Colleges/Institutes 02
Vocational Centers 02 Private Primary Schools 151
Private Schools (Middle to Higher Secondary) 224 Post Graduate College 01
Medical Colleges Engineering Colleges/University
Military Institutes[1] 03 Universities[2] 01
Law Schools 01 Homeopathic Colleges 01

Table 1.12 Nowshera Education Statistics

Figure 1.16 National Institute of Technology, Nowshera

Khushal Khan Khattak Memorial Library | nowshera. Org

Figure 1.17 Khushal Khan Khattak Library

Figure 1.18 Darul Uloom Haqqania

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Nowshera district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Hospitals 08/824 Dispensaries 16/12
Rural Health Centers 07/98 Basic Health Units 28/-
Mother Child Health Centers 02/- Sub Health Centers 01/-
Leprosy Clinic -/- TB Clinics 01/-
Private Hospitals[3] 01/20 Private Medical Practitioners 125

Table 1.13 Nowshera Health Statistics

Policing

The District Police Officer (DPO) is directly responsible to the Zila Nazim for public safety. The Police Department is headed by the Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP). The SSP supervises and controls the police force in maintaining law and order, and the investigation of cases of criminal nature. The Police Department operates under the Police Rules. The DPO is in charge of policing the district. There are 09 police stations[4] in the district including women police stations.

 

[1] Military College of Engineering, College of Aeronautical Engineering, and College of Flying Training

[2] Northern University (private)

[3] Bilal Memorial Hospital

 

[4] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

Environment and Biodiversity

Generally, the environment of the district is clean. Industrial emissions, especially from the marble factories are the major air polluting factors. Another source of air pollution is vehicular emissions. The ground water quality is considered good.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The common flora of the district is paloosa or phulai (Acacia modesta), ber (Zizyphus nummalaria), wild olives or khoona (Olea cuspidate), hopbush or sanatha (Dodonaea viscosa), and gurgura (Monothica buxifolia), kikar (Acacia nilotica), falsa (Grewia sp), lovarr or gangu (Grewia tenax), peepal (Ficus religeosa), karir (Capparis aphylla), tylophora (Tylophora hirsuta).

Some of the medicinal plants of the district are putkhanda (Achyranthus aspera Linn.), karund (Amaranthus hybridus L.), hiran khari (Convolvulus arvensis L.), pohli or kandiari (Carthamus oxycantha M.B.), khabal or talla (Cynodon  dactylon L.), and gukhru (Tribulus terrestris).

Fauna

Some mammals found in the district include red monkeys, foxes, jackals, porcupines, wild boars, wolves, grey gorals, common leopards, leopard cats, Himalayan lynx, pallas cat, Afghan ibex, straight-horned Kabul markhor, chinkara gazelle, spotted deer, hog deer, and black buck.

Among birds, many species of partridges and chakor are commonly found in the area. Some transitory birds such as waterfowl, sakar falcons, peregrine falcons, and houbara bustards are also found in early winter and late spring. Reptiles and amphibians include monitor lizard and other types of lizards, common toads, and turtles.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Fauna

The following are wildlife protected areas in the district:

  • Manglot Wildlife Park and Sanctuary: the park comprises of Khwara Reserved Forest which has smaller forests within it. These are Swery beet, Maroba beet, and Piran beet. The Khwara Reserved Forest has a total area of 6,456 acres. The tract is mostly mountainous, and houses and protects chinkara, urial, grey goral, chakor partridge, grey partridge, hare, fox, monitor lizard, common leopard, chinkara gazelle, spotted deer, hog deer, black buck, golden pheasant, silver pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, kalij pheasant, cheer pheasant, Lady Amherst, blue peacock, white peacock, black shoulder peacock, ruddy shelduck, barheaded geese, cranes, and partridges. All the above mentioned fauna is endangered, especially the chinkara, urial, and goral, which are nearly extinct
  • Kund National Park: this park houses a bear center. This center houses confiscated bears, and provides them an opportunity to breed to help increase the bear population

Government-owned game reserves are:

  • Nizampur Sub Tropical Scrub Forest, Game Reserve: this provides sanctuary to grey partridge, chakor partridge, see-see partridge, and hare
  • Shamshtoo Sub Tropical Scrub Forest, Game Reserve: this provides sanctuary to chakor partridge, black partridge, see-see partridge, and grey partridge
  • Maroba Sub Tropical Scrub Forest, Game Reserve: this provides sanctuary to black partridge, grey partridge, see-see partridge, chakor partridge, and hare
  • Mohib Banda is a community-owned and protected Game Reserve

Figure 1.8 A view of Manglot Wildlife Sanctuary

Figure 1.9 Endangered Grey Goral