Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-NW TD

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Introduction

The North Waziristan Tribal District (TD) is located between 32° 35Ꞌ to 33° 22Ꞌ north latitudes and 69° 22Ꞌ to 70° 38Ꞌ east longitudes. It is bordered by Afghanistan, Kurram TD and Hangu district on the north, the Bannu district and Karak district on the east, South Waziristan TD on the south, and Afghanistan on the west.

Tribal District (TD) at a Glance

Name of Tribal District North Waziristan
District Headquarter Miranshah
Population[1] 361,246 persons
Area[2] 4,707 km2
Population Density[3] 115 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.17%
Male Population[5] 51.6%
Female Population[6] 48.4%
Urban Population[7] 0.80%
Administrative Units 09 Tehsils:

1.    Datta Khel Tehsil

2.    Dossali Tehsil

3.    Gharyum Tehsil

4.    Ghulam Khan Tehsil

5.    Mir Ali Tehsil

6.    Miran Shah Tehsil

7.    Razmak Tehsil

8.    Shewa Tehsil

9.    Spinwam Tehsil

Main Towns Miranshah, Ilaqa Shawal, Razmak, Mir Ali, Khajurai, Gurweikht, Ipi Village, Tochi Valley, Kaitu Valley, Lower Kurram Valley, Khaisora Valley, Boya Village, Eidak Village, Maizar, and Daur Valley
Literacy Rate[8] 44%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 71%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 6%
Major Economic Activity[11] Subsistence level agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing, remittances from abroad, enlisting in the militia and army, elementary occupations
Main Crops Maize, rice, sugarcane, wheat, barley, rice, moong, red poppy, tobacco, soya bean, and fodder
Major Fruits Apricot, apples, peaches, grapes, dates, loquat, plums, walnuts, pears, citrus, mulberry, ber, jaamun, persimmon, pomegranate, and guava
Major Vegetables Onions, turnip, carrots, spinach, tomato, cauliflower, peas, radish, okra, tinda, brinjal, pumpkin, bitter gourd, tomatoes, bottle gourd, potatoes, and cucumbers
Forests (Area)[12] 361 HA[13]
Black Topped Roads[14] 609.0 km
Low Type[15] 225.0 km
No. of Grid Stations Tribal Areas Electricity Supply Company (TAESCO) looks after the supply and distribution of electricity to the TD
No. of Tel. Exchanges[16] 10 Telephone Exchanges with 5,774 connections
Industrial Zones[17] No Industrial Estate, but the TD has 26 registered industrial units, of which 17 units are working in the TD
No. of Industrial Units[18] Sporting & Light Hunting Arms, Biscuits, Cold Drinks, Goods, Knives, Pipes, Plastic Goods, Plastic Shoes, Soaps 1 Unit ea.
Chips, Ice Factories 5 Units ea.
Flour Mills 3 Units
Old Tires, Salt 2 Units ea.
Household Size[19] 9.1 persons per house
Houses With Piped Water[20] 45.5%
Houses With Electricity[21] 59.8%

Table 1.1 North Waziristan TD (NWTD) at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 2017 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey (PSLM) 2019-20

[9] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey (PSLM) 2019-20

[10] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey (PSLM) 2019-20

[11] 2017 Census Data has not been made public

[12] KP Development statistics 2020-21. These statistics do not report Forestry Statistics for the Tribal Districts.

[13] FATA Development Statistics 2016-17 Forestry Statistics report 68,246 HA

[14] KP Development Statistics 2020-21

[15] KP Development Statistics 2020-21

[16] KP Development Statistics 2020-21

[17] FATA Industries Survey 2010 (Latest available) KP Development Statistics do not record data for TD

[18] FATA Industries Survey 2010 (Latest available) KP Development Statistics do not record data for TD

[19] 1998 Census ; 2017 Census Data has not been made Public yet.

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made Public yet.

[21] 1998 Census ; 2017 Census Data has not been made Public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistoric/ Heritage Sites; Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the Tribal District

Waziristan TD takes its name from the Wazir tribe that inhabits it. The main clan of Wazir tribe that live in North Waziristan TD (NWTD) are the Utmanzai Wazirs; another major tribe of NWA is the Daur (also spelled as Dawar). The Wazir tribe lives mostly along the border, while the Daur are spread from Miranshah to Bannu district. Compared to other Pashtun tribes, the Wazirs have historically been able to evolve a system due to which internal feuds have been dramatically reduced. Long standing blood fueds, triggered by retaliatory murders are common among most Pashtuns, but the Wazir tribe punishes a murder directly stopping blood fueds before they are launched

According to the tribal historical data, the Wazir are the descendants of Karlanr. Some historians believe that Wazirs are descended from Suleiman, a famous Pakhtun Sardar who had a son named Wazir. The Wazir tribe is believed to be his descendants through his two sons, resulting in two clans: the Ahmadzai Wazirs and Atmanzai Wazirs (also spelled Utmanzai). The Ahmadzai Wazirs settled in South Waziristan, and the Utmanzai Wazirs settled in North Waziristan.

The early history of Waziristan is obscure, but it is known that during Mughal rule, Waziristan was a part of the Mughal Empire, and Bahadur Shah Zafar, son of Aurangzeb Alamgir, is known to have visited this area, receiving a tribute from the Wazirs and Daurs.[1] During the declining years of the Mughal Empire, both tribes¾Wazirs and Daurs¾accepted the influence of the Durrani Kings (1747-1826)  who counted on them as a solid army always in readiness to help them in their forays against any exigency. When the British annexed Punjab in 1849, the tribes of North Waziristan were under the sovereignty of the Kabul government. Since the Wazirs and Daurs were engaged in a long-standing feud, the Daurs invited the British to enter their territory, hoping that the British forces would provide protection from the Wazirs. The British, therefore, entered North Waziristan in 1894 under an agreement with the tribes.

In 1910, North Waziristan was given the status of an Agency. In 1935-36, when a Hindu girl of Bannu married a Muslim, Hindu-Muslim clashes occurred leading to disturbances in Waziristan, and the tribesmen rallied round Mirzali Khan, a Tori Khel Wazir, who was later given the title of the Faqir of Ipi. He declared Jihad against the British, and thus, the Faqir of Ipi with his Lashkar (force) remained at war with the British till 1947, when the British withdrew from the subcontinent. He was categorically opposed to the founding of Pakistan, and opposed an allegiance of Waziristan with the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, but the Jirgas in Waziristan decided in favor of joining Pakistan at the time of Partition. The Faqir of Ipi died in 1960.

Figure 1.3 Faqir of Ipi

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, North Waziristan tribal district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 2

Under the Local Government Act, the Tribal District has 81 Councils, which include 75 Village and 06 Neighbourhood Councils.

[1] 1998 District Census Report North Waziristan Agency

Administrative Divisions

The Tibal District has a total area of 4,707 km2 and is divided into 9 Tehsils as follows:

  • Datta Khel Tehsil
  • Dossali Tehsil
  • Gharyum Tehsil
  • Ghulam Khan Tehsil
  • Mir Ali Tehsil
  • Miran Shah Tehsil
  • Razmak Tehsil
  • Shewa Tehsil
  • Spinwam Tehsil

Historic/ Heritage Sites; Tourist Attractions

There are no protected heritage buildings/ sites in the TD but there are some forts and shrines of historical value which need to be given the status of Protected by the Government of Pakistan. These are:

  • Miranshah Fort/ Alexandria Fort: This for was constructed by the British in 1905 near Razmak, and is also called Tochi Fort. It is now occupied by the Tochi Scouts
  • Shrine of Faqir of Ipi: This shrine is located in Gurweikt

Tourist Attractions

  • Razmak: This is a scenic town place with hiking and mountaineering aspects. Razmak Cadet College is located here
  • Miranshah: This is the TDs headquarters and offers mountaineering prospects
  • Shawal: It is famous for its natural beauty, with fishing and hunting prospects
  • Alexandria Fort: Located near Razmak, the fort is named after the British General Alexander
  • Gurweikht: This town is famous because it is both the place of birth and death of the Faqir of Ipi
  • Datta Khel: A scenic town
  • Ghulam Khan: A town village located near Durand Line

Figure 1.5 Miranshah Fort, NWA

Creative demonstration: Waziri tribesmen stage 'dancing protest'

Figure 1.7 The Waziri Dance

 

Topography[1]

Geographically, the entire region of Waziristan is a single unit. However, for administrative convenience, it has been split into 2 Agencies: North and South Waziristan. The highland area of North and South Waziristan together takes the shape of a somewhat irregular parallelogram that is 258 km long and 97 km wide. The elevation rises gradually, moving to the west, until peaks of 3,048 m (10,000 feet) are found at the Afghan border. There are no regular mountain alignments, and hills appear to zigzag in every direction. The northern and southern boundaries are formed by the Kurram River and the Gomal River respectively.

The 2 Agencies are divided by a mountain range which terminates in the Ghalimighar Mountains. The mountains of North Waziristan are geographically separate from the larger mountain system of the Koh-e-Sufaid (Sufaid Koh) in the north, and the Suleiman range in the south.

The Waziristan hills were subject to igneous activity during the late Cretaceous period. The highly mineralized zone of Razmak is connected with it. The mountains and hills form a rampart between Pakistan and Afghanistan. The average height of the Waziristan hills is about 1,500 to 2,500 meters above sea level. The important ranges in the Waziristan hills are Derwesta, Laran, Vezda, Ingame, Shoidar, Shawal, Eblunkai, Alexandra, Muzdak and Zakha. The highest mountain in the TD is the Shoider, which peaks at 3,353 meters, to the west of Khaisora Valley.

The fertile valleys of North Waziristan TD include the Lower Kurram River Valley, the Tochi Valley, Kaitu River Valley and the Khaisora Valley in the south. The Tochi Valley is surrounded by the Wazir Hills, the highest peak of which reaches 2,340 meters.

The main plain areas between the fertile valleys of the TD are Sheratullah, between Kaitu and Tochi/ Gambila River; Dande, north of Miranshah; Spereragha between Kaitu and Kurram rivers; Spinwam in the north; and Mir Ali Plain between Tochi River Valley and Shin Algad.

The main mountain passes in the TD are Tochi Pass (this pass connects Ghazni, Afghanistan and Bannu), Shina Khwar Narai Pass (at an elevation of 957 meters), Wulai Narai Pass, and Gugurai Narai Pass.

Figure 1.4 The Shawal Valley, NWA

Rivers, Streams and Lakes

There are 5 notable rivers of the tribal district: Tochi/ Gambila, Kaitu, Kurram, Khaisora and Shaktue. Other minor streams/ rivers include Khoni Algad, Chashma Algad, Saidgi Algad, Kanungo Algad, Sagga Algad, Shewa Algad, Tanda China Algad, Damoma Algad, Tarkhobi Algad, and Suedar Algad.

Some intermittent streams of the TD are Shina Khwar Algad, Gurgawi Algad, Spinkhora Algad, Gara Algad, and Kishai Algad.

Baran Dam Lake is an important lake of the TD.

Forests

The TD is home to Montane Temperate Forests which include the dry temperate coniferous forests with dry steppe vegetation, and arid and semi-arid subtropical type of forests. The following table shows the status of forests as per FATA Development Statistics 2016-17: (KP Development Statistics 2020-21 do not record forestry statistics for TDs)

 

Total Forest Area 159,169 A Man Made Plantation 31,174 A
Natural Forests 127,400 A Linear Plantation 595 km

Table 1.3 North Waziristan Forests

The dominant tree species are oak (quercus), Mazri (Nannorhops ritchieana), phulai (Acacia modesta), ber (Zizyphus sp), kikar (Prosopis juliflora), chil ghoza (Pinus gerardiana), kail or blue pine (Pinus waalichiana), walnut (Juglans sp), deodar (Cedrus deodara), eucalyptus, sanatha (Dodonaea viscosa), jaamun or black plum (Syzygium cumini), bottle brush (Callistemon citrinus), mor pankh (Araucaria heterophylla), saru/sarin (Saccharum sponteunum), locust tree or false kikar (Robbinia pseudo acacia), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), tree of heaven (Ailanthus), bakain (Melia azarderach), ash (Fraxinus), toot or mulberry (Morus alba), and poplar (Populus sp).

Shawal in Dattakhel Tehsil, Miranshah Tehsil, Mir Ali Tehsil and Razmak Tehsil are the main areas that have the major forests.

Soils

The soils of the TD are variable, and consist of clay, clay loam, clay gravel, and loam soil. The Tochi/ Gambila River valley is composed of rich alluvial soil and is very productive.

Climate

The TD has an arid climate with warm summers and very cold winters. Summer season starts from May and continues till September. June is generally the hottest month. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this month are 31 °C and 18 °C respectively. The winter begins in October and continues till April. December, January, and February are the colder months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during January, the coldest month, are 10 °C and -2 °C.

The TD is situated outside the Monsoon zone, yet, at higher altitudes, a fair amount of rainfall is received. Waziristan has an arid climate for the most part, and receives little precipitation generally. The Razmak area is an exception where rainfall is slightly higher. According to the Socio-Economic Profile of North Waziristan TD developed for USAID in 1990, the TD receives between 10 and 15 inches[2] of rainfall annually.

Seismic Activity

The TD belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to

moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] Extracted from Socio Economic Profile of N Waziristan Agency by USAID 1990

[2] Rainfall data has been extracted from rainfall records at Miranshah which range from 1961 to 1971

Population

Most of the population of the TD is Sunni Muslim and are staunch followers of Islam. There is joint family system in North Waziristan, as there is a strong interconnection of people with each other. The Waziri tribes usually run businesses whereas the Dawar/Daur tribes try to get employment with the government.

The Dawars/Daurs live in houses close together in a compact area mostly near plains and rivers. Large joint Waziri families live either in one house called ket or kot or in houses adjacent to one another, but separated from the houses of the other families. A walled enclosure of mud or mud and stones 3 to 5 meters (16.4 ft) high is called a kot. Most kots have a fort-like structure, with a tower in the center, which is used as a strategic point for fighting with the enemy when hostilities break out. Every section in a village has a Masjid and a common sitting place. One or more households have a private guest house hujra attached to the house. In a house, there may be one or several rooms. Wazirs people mostly live near mountainous areas and they have a generally different lifestyle from the Dawar tribes,

On ceremonial occasions like weddings etc. a special dance called the Waziri Dance is very popular. Cricket, football, polo and bukushi are favorite sports of the people.

 

The following table shows the population of the Tribal District and its Tehsils as per 2017 Census:

Tehsil/Taluka Area

Km2

Population Male% Female% Urban % Growth Rate%
North Waziristan TD 4,707 540,546 51.4 48.6 0.81 2.14
Datta Khel Tehsil 1,807 75,003 49.8 50.2 0 -1.99
Dossali Tehsil 250 39,945 52.0 48.0 0 3.57
Gharyum Tehsil 320 11,811 53.7 46.3 0 5.97
Ghulam Khan Tehsil 191 27,015 52.7 47.3 0 3.81
Mir Ali Tehsil 605 184,986 51.0 49.0 0 3,63
Miranshah Tehsil 402 100,644 51.5 48.5 4.34 2.12
Razmak Tehsil 191 15,681 52.5 47.5 0 5.43
Shewa Tehsil 393 39,290 50.9 49.1 0 2.86
Spinwam Tehsil 548 46,171 52.9 47.1 0 3.61

Table 1.4 North Waziristan Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.7%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.2%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 NWTD Religions

Languages[2]

 

Urdu 0.2%
Punjabi 0.2%
Sindhi Negligible%
Pushto 99.6%
Balochi Negligible%
Seraiki Negligible%
Others Negligible%

Table 1.6 NW TD Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Data regarding the employed labour force in former FATA is not available, but subsistence level farming with its allied livestock breeding and fishing is the main source of employment, and remittances from other regions (both from within Pakistan and the Middle East) and the transport business are the main economic contributors.

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of NWA as per KP Development Statistics 2020-21

Total Area 470,700 HA Reported Area 470,696 HA
Total Cultivated Area 17,425 HA Net Sown 15,135 HA
Current Fallow 2,290 HA Total Uncultivated Area 453,271 HA
Culturable Waste 110 HA Forest Area 361 HA

Table 1.7 North Waziristan Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

Data on Agro-Ecological Zoning in former FATA is not available. Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing is the most important economic activity of the TD. The crops grown in the district are maize, rice, sugarcane, wheat, barley, rice, moong, red poppy, tobacco, soya bean, and fodder.

Major fruits grown in the district are apricot, apples, peaches, grapes, dates, loquat, plums, walnuts, pears, citrus, mulberry, ber, jaamun, persimmon, pomegranate, and guava.

Major vegetables are onions, turnip, carrots, spinach, tomato, cauliflower, peas, radish, okra, tinda, brinjal, pumpkin, bitter gourd, tomatoes, bottle gourd, potatoes, and cucumbers.

Most of this agricultural produce is for local use, and very little is traded or exported to other parts of Pakistan.

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the total population of livestock in the TD as per FATA Development Statistics 2016-17: (KP Development Statistics do not record this data for the TDs)

Cattle 218,120 Heads Buffaloes 19,395 Heads Sheep 242,039 Heads
Goats 273,561 Heads Camels 2,845 Heads Asses 16,826 Heads
Mules 436 Heads Horses 1,080 Heads

Table 1.8 North Waziristan Livestock Statistics

Balki sheep is the only indigenous breed of livestock in the tribal District.

Poultry

Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) does not include data on number of poultry farms in the TD.

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in the rivers and streams in the TD, but most of this fish is consumed locally.

Bee Keeping

Commercial bee keeping is carried out in various forests and farms in the TD.

Minerals and Mining

Marble, chromate, coal, manganese, and soapstone are being commercially mined in the TD. Deposits of copper have been discovered but, at present, it is not being mined.

Irrigation

The rivers and streams (both intermittent and perennial) are used for irrigating the lands. The following table shows the modes of irrigation and area irrigated by each mode as per KP Development Statistics 2020-21:

Total Irrigated Area 15,009 HA Government Canal Irrigated 103 HA
Tube Wells 1,537 HA Private Canals Irrigated 8,135 HA
Wells 2,697 HA Others + Lift Pumps 1,526 HA

Table 1.11 North Waziristan Irrigation

The Government of Pakistan is constructing a number of small dams to help with irrigation and increase agriculture in the TDs. These include the Dandi Small Dam (construction is complete) and Kand Small Dam Project (expected completion: December 2013). These 2 small dams will help irrigate a large area.

Industry

There is no industrial estate in the TD, but there are 26 registered industrial units out of which 17 units are working in the TD. The following table shows the type and number of industries registered in the TD (according to FATA Industries Survey 2010; Latest available)[1]:

Industry No. Industry No.
Sporting & Light Hunting Arms 01 Biscuits 01
Chips 05 Cold Drinks 01
Other Goods O1 Flour Mills 03
Ice Factories 05 Knives 01
Old Tires 02 Pipes 01
Plastic Goods 01 Plastic Shoes 01
Salt 02 Soaps 01

Table 1.9 North Waziristan Industries

Handicrafts

The traditional crafts of the TD are household items made with the leaves of the mazri palm, wood-based products like furniture and other household items, the raising of silk cocoons, and small scale sheet metal working.

[1] KP Development Statistics 2020-21 do not record data for former FATA Agencies

Economic Infrastructure

The TD Headquarters Miranshah is connected with Afghanistan and Bannu (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) with blacktopped road. The TD headquarters is also connected to other major towns via black topped roads.  The TD is not connected through rail or air.

Roads

There are two types of roads in NW TD: High type and Low type. The following table shows the road statistics as per KP Development Statistics 2020-21:

High Type 609.0 km
Low Type 225.0 km
Total 834.0 km

Table 1.10 NWA Road Statistics

Some important roads of the TD are:

  • Bannu-Miranshah Road
  • Isha-Razmak Road
  • Razmak-Tuda China Road
  • Mir Ali Road
  • Miranshah-Dattakhel Road
  • Bannu Ishakhel road-village Haiderkhel Road
  • Miranshah-Ghulam Khan road
  • Spinwam-Hassankhel Road

Rail and Airways

There is no railway station in the TD, nor is there any airport in the TD. The nearest airport is at Bannu.

Radio and Television

There is no data available on location or availability of radio stations in the TD. Cable TV can be viewed throughout the district.

Telecommunications

There are 10 automatic telephone exchanges[1] operating in the TD. These provide 5,774 connections. Nearly all of the major cellular companies also operate in the TD.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 13 post offices[2] in the tribal district, this includes 06 sub-post offices and 07 branch offices. Nearly all the courier services of Pakistan provide their services in the district.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are 10[3] branches of various banks in the TD. The following banks have their branches in the TD:

  • Allied Bank of Pakistan
  • Muslim Commercial Bank
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber
  • United Bank Ltd.

Energy Sources

Tribal Agency Electric Supply Company (TAESCO) looks after supply of electricity in the tribal district. No other data is available.

[1] KP Development Statistics 2020-21

[2] KP Development Statistics 2020-21

[3] KP development Statistics 2020-21

Education

The following table shows the number of educational institutes in the TD as per KP Development Statistics 2020-21:

Facility Boys/Girls Facility boys/girls
Primary Schools 406/375 Middle Schools 50/35
High Schools 31/11 Higher Secondary 01/-
Degree Colleges 01/01 Community Schools 132
Govt. Elementary College 01 (at Mir Ali) Mosque Schools 27
Technical Schools 03 Commercial Training 01
Vocational Training -/- Medical Colleges
Engineering Colleges University
Cadet College 01/

Table 1.12 North Waziristan Educational Institutes: Government

Figure 1.8 Darul Uloom Haqqania, NWA

Figure 1.9 A Madrassah in N WA

Figure 1.10 Cadet College, Razmak

Health

The following table shows the number of government-owned health institutions in the TD as per KP Development Statistics 2020-21:

Facility No./Bed Facility No./Beds
Hospitals 09/390 Dispensaries 191/-
Rural Health Centers 01/06 Basic Health Units 16/-
T.B. Clinics 05/- Child Health Centers 43/-
Mother Child Health Centers 79/- Leprosy Clinics -/-

Table 1.14 North Waziristan Health Institutes

In addition, there are 87 Private Medical Practitioners working in the TD (KP Development Statistics 2020-21). 

Policing

The District Police Officer (DPO) is directly responsible to the District Mayor for public safety. The Police Department is headed by the Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP). The SSP supervises and controls the police force in maintaining law and order, and investigation of cases of a criminal nature. The Police Department operates under the Police Rules. There are no Police Stations in the District. (KP Development Statistics 2020-21).

The Levy Force, Khassadars and the Scout Troops operating in the erstwhile North Waziristan Agency have been absorbed into the KP Police as per the KP Levies Force Bill 2019

Environment and Biodiversity

The ambient air quality in the TD is excellent due to minimal sources of air emissions. The only source of impact on the quality of the ambient air is the rare vehicular traffic on the roads, which causes some dust emissions whose effect is localized. The main pollutants from vehicle exhaust are lead, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. These emissions temporarily affect the air quality in the immediate vicinity of the roads.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The most common flora of the TD include oak (Quercus), mazri (Nannorhops ritchieana), phulai (Acacia modesta), ber (Zizyphus sp), kikar (Prosopis juliflora), chil ghoza (Pinus gerardiana), kail/blue pine (Pinus walichiana), walnut (Juglans sp), deodar (Cedrus deodara), eucalyptus, sanatha (Dodonaea viscosa), jaamun/black plum (Syzygium cumini), bottle brush (Callistemon citrinus), mor pankh (Araucaria heterophylla), saru/sarin (Saccharum sponteunum), locust tree/false kikar (Robbinia pseudo acacia), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), tree of heaven (Ailanthus), bakain (Melia azarderach), ash (Fraxinus), toot/mulberry (Morus alba), poplar (Populus sp), white cedar (Thuja occidentalis). Common grasses are kans grass (Saccharum spontanium), sargara (Cymbopogon), kachnar (Bauhinia variegate) and (Chrysopogan sp.).

Many of the plants, and bushes are used in medicines. Some of these are tandah/camel thorn (Alhaji maurorum), ranzaka/pigweed (Amaranthus viridis), sodom apple/spalmaka (Calotropis procera), bhang (Cannabis sativa), caperbush/ krherha (Capparis spinosa), maraginye/bitter apple (Citrullus colocynthis), hell’s bell/burbaka (Datura alba), and mowah/joint pine (Ephedra procera).

Fauna

Mammals of the TD are jackal, fox, monkeys, and wild goat. Migratory avifauna includes varieties of cranes, endangered Siberian white crane, varieties of egrets, and a variety of ducks. No data is available on reptilian and amphibian fauna of the TD.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Wildlife

There are no wildlife protected areas[1] in the former FATA. The endangered wildlife includes nearly all the mammals and birds, and a critically endangered bird is the Siberian white crane.

[1] FATA tourism Sector Report, FATA Development Authority