Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Shangla

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Introduction

The district is located between 34° 31Ꞌ to 33° 08Ꞌ north latitudes, and 72° 33Ꞌ to 73° 01Ꞌ east longitudes. The district is bounded on the northeast by Battagram district, on the southeast by Kala Dhaka district, on the west by Swat district, on the south by Buner district, and on the north by Kohistan district.

District at a Glance

Name of District Shangla District
District Headquarter Alpuri Town
Population[1] 757,810 persons
Area[2] 1,586 km2
Population Density[3] 545.7 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 3.0%
Male Population[5] 50.9%
Female Population[6] 49.1%
Urban Population[7] -%
Tehsils/Talukas 05 Tehsils:

1.    Alpuri Tehsil

2.    Besham Tehsil

3.    Chakesar Tehsil

4.    Puran/Makhozai Tehsil

5.    Martung Tehsil

Main Towns/Villages There are no urban areas in the district. The main villages are Shangla Puran, Alpuri, Besham, Martung, Makhozai, Kotkay, Chagam, Aloch, Yakhtangay, Shapur, Barkana, and Bazarkot
Literacy Rate[8] 36.0%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 59.0%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 12.0%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 62.8%
Mining & Quarrying 3.4%
Manufacturing 2.3%
Construction 10.1%
Wholesale, Retail Trade, Hotel & Restaurant 8.8%
Transport, Storage & Communication 4.0%
Community, Social & Personal Services 7.5%
Others 1.1%
Main Crops Maize, rice, wheat, barley, rice, tobacco, sunhemp, and sunflower
Major Fruits Apricot, apple, pear, peaches, plums, walnuts, persimmon, citrus, guava, fig, jujube (ber), wormal (a fruit with the size of an apple), mulberry, and grapes.
Major Vegetables Onions, potatoes, tomatoes, garlic, pumpkins, turnip, okra, radishes, carrots, cauliflower, cabbage, and mint.
Forests (Area)[12] 44,405 HA[13]
Black Topped Roads[14] 200.6 km
Shingle Roads[15] 271.0 km
No. of Grid Stations Peshawar Electric Supply Corporation (PESCO) looks after distribution and transmission of Electricity in the district
No. of Tel. Exchanges[16] 12 Telephone Exchanges with 1,746 connections
Industrial Zones[17] There is no Industrial Estate in the district. There is only 1 Flour Mill registered and running in the district
Major Industry[18] Flour Mill (1unit)
Household Size[19] 8.1 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[20] 11.8%
Houses with Electricity[21] 15.2%

Table 1.1 Shangla District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census uses spatial data

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet

[12] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Forestry Statistics reports 73,017 HA under forests.

[14] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage/ Historical Sites; Tourist/ Picnic Spots

Brief History

Shangla was part of Swat district till 1995 as its Tehsil. In 1995 Shangla Tehsil was upgraded to a district level. The history of Shangla is, thus, synonymous to Swat district, and has been described in the chapter on Swat. Some details specifically relevant to Shangla district are being recounted.

The first mention of Swat, Dir, Bajaur and Utman Khel is made by the Greek historian Arrian who records that in 326 BC Alexander led his army through Kunar, Bajaur, Swat, and Buner. He fought a battle on a mountain spur which has been identified by Sir Auriel Stein[1] as Pir Sar located in Chakesar Tehsil of Shangla. After defeating the local population on Pir Sar, Alexander built a temple and other buildings before proceeding towards Punjab. Another place where Greek relics were found is Daut. Relics belonging to the Hindu Shahi period were found in Qlandar-Ajmair.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India states:

Alexander led his army through Kunar, Bajaur, Swat, and Buner; but his successor Seleucus, twenty years later made over these territories to Chandragupta Maurya. The inhabitants of the area were of Indian origins with Buddhism being their prevailing religion. They remained thus undisturbed under their own kings until the fifteenth century. They were the ancestors of the non-Pathan tribes, e.g. Gujars, Torwals, Garhwis, etc. who are now confined to Bashkar of Dir, and Swat Kohistan. (v.23, p.184)

When Sultan Mahmood Ghazni (1000 AD) invaded India, the Swati and Dalazak tribes accompanied him. Mahmud Ghazni, after occupying Swat, settled these tribes in the Shangla region. Later due to some misunderstandings, the Swatis expelled the Dalazaks from Swat, and the Dalazaks then settled in the Peshawar and Mardan areas.[2] The Swatis established their rule in the region for centuries, and remained independent and out of the sphere of influence of the neighbouring Muslim rulers of Afghanistan and India. In 1520 the Yousafzai tribe (also spelled Yusufzai) was expelled from Kabul by Mirza Ulugh Beg, the Timurid Governor of Kabul, and they came to Peshawar Valley. They asked for, and received, lands to settle from the Dalazaks. The Yousafzais started expanding their influence, and by the 16th century they were in possession of Buner, Lower Swat (which included Shangla Valley) and the Panjkora Valley. It is firmly believed that the Yousafzai and other Pathan tribes brought Islam to the area.

The Yousafzais retained their independent position during the Mughal regime. Emperor Babar, the first Mughal Emperor, made diplomatic peace with the Yousafzais by marrying the daughter of the Yousafzai Chief.[3] Later, Mughal Emperors tried to subdue the tribe but could never fully control them. The tribe continued to be independent during the reigns of the Durranis and the Sikhs as well.

In 1849, the British annexed Punjab, and established their rule over Peshawar Valley. At first they did not make a push to enter the hill country, but since the tribes did not want to be under the British rule, they started a guerrilla war such that the British sent 3 separate expeditions against them. The biggest expedition was the one sent in 1852 against the Swat tribes (Yousafzais, and the Utman Khels among others). The British won this specific war, and severely punished the tribesmen.

At the time of Partition, the Princely State of Swat acceded to Pakistan, and Shangla, which was a Tehsil of Swat State, became part of Pakistan. The Swat State was abolished when the then President and Chief Martial Law Administrator of Pakistan, General Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan declared the merger of all the Frontier States, including Swat, into Pakistan on July 28, 1969.

Shangla is home to several Buddhist stupas, as well as a small but thriving Hindu community in the Chakesar region of the district.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Shangla district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 1

Under the Local Government Act District Shangla has 1 District Council constituted by general seats, seats reserved for women, peasants/workers, youth, and non-Muslims as prescribed under the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act 2013. Shangla District Council is composed of 28 general members, 10 women members, 2 peasants/worker members, 2 minority members, and 2 youth members.

Administrative Divisions

The district has a total area of 1,586 km2 and is divided into 5 Tehsils as follows:

Alpuri Tehsil 10 Union Councils
Besham Tehsil 05 Union Councils
Chakesar Tehsil 04 Union Councils
Poran/Mokhozai Tehsil 04 Union Councils
Martung Tehsil 03 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Shangla Administrative Divisions

[1] Sir Aurel Stein was a Hungarian-British archeologist, primarily known for his explorations and archeological discoveries in Central Asia. He was also a professor at various Indian universities. He surveyed this area in 1926.

[2] Swat State during 1849-1969: A Historical Perspective by Fakhr-ul-Islam

[3] More details have been included in Malakand district’s history section

Heritage/ Historical Sites; Tourist/ Picnic Spots

There are no protected historical sites/buildings in the district.

District Shangla is a mountainous valley, which is full of tourist spots like natural lakes, beautiful rivers, and mountain peaks.

Well known sites of the district include Shangla Top, Lake Bashigram in Lionai Village (Alpuri Tehsil), Greek Stupas at Pir Sar, archeological finds of Chakesar and Daut, Yakhtangay, and Karora. The tomb of Hafiz-e-Alpuri, who was a famous poet, religious scholar, and saint of the district, is located in Alpuri.

Other tourist areas include Takht Barakhan Lake, Puran Lake, Aloach/Nimkalay, Besham, Chakesar, Martung, Shahpur, and Lilownai.

Figure 1.10 A Cricket Ground in Shangla

Figure 1.11 Puran in Winter

Figure 1.12 Tomb of Hafiz-e-Alpuri

 

Topography

The topography of the district is dominated by high mountains and narrow valleys. These mountains are the western extremities of the Great Himalayan Range, at the foothills of which lie the valleys of Swat and Shangla. The ranges enclose small valleys. The general elevation of the district is 2,000 to 3,000 m above sea level.

Subsistence farming is carried out in the small valleys. Some of the valleys of the district are Kandaw, Kandawono, Bori Mar, Pir Sar, Changa Valley (Chakesar Tehsil), Kana Valley in Alpuri Tehsil.

One of the important eastern ranges is the Mankial Range, the southern extension of which reaches proper Swat. There, they join the Shangla Range. Shangla Range separates proper Swat from Shangla Par area (Shangla district). Shangla Top is the highest point of this range, at 2,125 m above sea level. The pass at Shangla, the Shangla Pass, connects Shangla district to Swat. The highest point of the district is near Kuz Ganrshal in the north, which is 3,440 m above sea level.[1]

Another important mountain range of the district is the Karora Range, which separates Puran from Kanra and Ghurband.

Figure 1.6 Shangla Top in Winter

Figure 1.4 Lush Green Mountains of Shangla District

Figure 1.5 A view of Shangla Valley

Figure 1.6 Lilowni Valley, Shangla

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The River Indus passes through the district and is joined by numerous streams and rivers which originate in the mountains; the main streams are Ghawar-Band Kana Khwar, Etai Khwar, and Kangala Khwar which ultimately flow into River Indus at Behsam, Kabalgram, and Jatkool, respectively (Shangla distrct Profile 1998 by GOP). Other streams (mostly tributaries of River Indus) include Khan Khwar, Managai Khwar, Kotkai Khwar, Yakhtangai Khwar, and Shino Khwar.

Forests

There are only 2 types of forests in the district: Protected Forests and Private Plantations. The following table shows the area and type of forests in Shangla district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 180,430 A Resumed Land – A
Reserved Forests – A Communal Forests – A
Protected Forests 109,727 A Guzara Forests – A
Un-classed Forests[2] – A Private Plantation 70,703 A
Miscellaneous – A Linear Plantation – km

Table 1.3 Shangla Forests

The forests of the district belong to Coniferous Mountain Type and consist mostly of pindrow fir (Abies fir), Morinda Spruce (Picea smithiana), blue pine (Kail; Pinus wallichiana), Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) and deodar cedar (Cedrus deodara) trees. Other trees in the forests include yarrow or yarkand (Achillea millefolium), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa), mock strawberry or Indian strawberry (Duchesnea indica), and cats milk or zahar booti (Euphorbia helioscopia). 

Figure 1.7 Coniferous Forests Shangla District

Figure 1.8 Pine Cones on a Tree

The forests of Ranyal Hills, Lilownai Valley, Changa Valley, and Dedal Valley are some reserved forests of the district.

Soils

The cultivated soils of Shangla have developed from re-deposited loess. The soils are very deep, silt-loam, and used either for dry farming or irrigated agriculture.

Climate

The climate in the region is cold, with patches of moderate weather in summers.  District Shangla is located at an altitude ranging from 1,800 to 3,100 m above sea level, and as such, winter is harsh in the upper parts of the district while the winter season is somewhat moderate in the lower part. The areas situated in Besham and Martung Tehsils experience hot summers and cold winters. The district receives both rains and snow. Snowfall generally starts by the end of November on the high peaks of the mountains, and descend downwards as the temperature falls. Snowfall continues till late February, and may continue up to mid-March, after which winter becomes pleasant and usually remains mild for the rest of the year.

Since the meteorological data for Shangla is not available, the recorded data for Dir Station (the nearest station) has been used for computing annual rainfall of the district. This has been taken as 1,420 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 3 of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which is the moderate to severe damage zone. The area was badly damaged in the October 2005 earthquake.

[1] Shangla District Profile 1998 by Government of Pakistan (GOP)

[2] Un-classed Forests are owned by the Government

Population

The following table shows the population of the district as per 2017 Census:

District Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Shangla District 1,586 757,810 50.9 49.1 3.0
Alpuri Tehsil 663 508,361
Bisham Tehsil 184 105,950
Chakesar Tehsil 227 Included in Alpuri Tehsil
Martoong Tehsil 215 Included in Puran Tehsil
Puran Tehsil 297 145,298

Table 1.4 Shangla Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.8%
Christians Negligible %
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.2%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Shangla Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.2%
Punjabi Negligible %
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 95.4%
Balochi 0.1%
Seraiki Negligible %
Others 4.3%

Table 1.6 Shangla Languages

Other languages spoken in the district include Hindko, Gujri, and Kohistani.

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding & fishing (62.8%) is the back bone of the district’s economy. Other industrial occupations in the district include:[1]

  • Mining & Quarrying (3.4%)
  • Manufacturing (2.3%)
  • Construction (10.1%)
  • Wholesale/Retail Trade, Hotel/Restaurant (8.8%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (4.0%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (7.5%)
  • Others (1.1%)

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet

Land Use

The total geographical area of Shangla district is 158,600 HA. The following table shows the land use statistics of the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Area 158,600 HA Reported Area 137,434 HA
Total Cultivated Area 40,563 HA Net Sown 39,451 HA
Current Fallow 1,112 HA Uncultivated Area 96,871 HA
Culturable Waste 37,877 HA Forest Area 44,405 HA

Table 1.7 Shangla Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Dry Mountain Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture is mostly based on rains and small water courses dug by the landowners. Agriculture is mostly subsistence level. Maize, rice, wheat, barley, rice, tobacco, sunhemp, and sunflower are the crops of the district.

Fruit orchards of the district comprise of apricot, apple, pear, peaches, plums, walnuts, persimmon, citrus, guava, fig, jujube (ber), wormal (a fruit that is the size of an apple), mulberry, and grapes.

Most the vegetables grown are for local use only, and comprise of onions, potatoes, tomatoes, garlic, pumpkins, turnip, okra, radishes, carrots, cauliflower, cabbage, and mint.

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the statistics of livestock according to the 2006 Census of Livestock for the district (qtd. in KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 204,946 Heads Buffalo 129,041 Heads Sheep 59,480 Heads
Goats 289,828 Heads Camels 306 Heads Horses 2,847 Heads
Mules 4,458 Heads Asses 8,210 Heads

Table 1.8 Shangla Livestock Statistics

Cross breed between Rambouillet and Kaghani sheep is the most common breed of sheep in the district; Kaghani sheep is the indigenous breed of the district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) there are 06 poultry farms in the district.

Bee Keeping

Honey is an important non-wood forest production of KP, and the provincial government offers ample opportunities for promotion of bee keeping. The Government of KP is providing training to its rural population in the art of apiculture and honey processing.

There are many types of honey being produced in KP, but Sedar (ber in Urdu) and acacia modesta (Phulai in Urdu) honey are produced in the highest quantities. The total numbers of bee keeper entrepreneurs (farm) in KP is about 3,800 and the direct employment in these farms is of 17,500 people.[1]

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in all rivers and streams in the district. There are trout hatcheries for breeding of trout in the district as well.

Mining

At present, chromite, feldspar, granite, limestone, silica sand, slate stone, soap stone, and serpentine are being mined in the district. In addition, some precious stones like copper, emerald, tourmaline, quartz, and epidote are also found in the district.

Oil and gas are not being explored in the district.

Irrigation

The following table shows the mode and area irrigated by each mode (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 3,021 HA Canal Irrigated (Private) 3,021 HA
Tube Wells – HA Canal Irrigated (Govt.) – HA
Wells – HA Lift Pumps/Others – HA

Table 1.10 Shangla Irrigation Statistics

The small water courses dug from rivers and streams are used for irrigation purposes.

The Khan Khwar Dam and Hydro-Power Plant[1] was completed in 2012. This dam also supplies water for irrigation purposes.

Figure 1.14 Khan Khwar Dam

[1] Source: https://www.dawn.com/news/1259703

Industry and Manufacturing

There is no industrial estate in the district, and only 1 flour mill is working in Shangla, according to KP Development Statistics 2018-19.

Trade (Import/ Export)

The biggest trading center of the district is located in Besham. Minerals are the biggest trading item of the district in general.

Handicrafts

Handicrafts include household items like blankets and shawls made of wool, woolen rugs called namda, cloth made on handlooms, embroidery, furniture, and Shkor. Shkor is a pot in which chapatis are kept; ordinary Shkors are made everywhere in Swat, but a special design is made in Puran and Chakarzai. These Shkors are high-based pots made of wheat stalks with artistic designs woven into the stalks, and are not easily available in the bazaars.

Figure 1.9 A girl in traditionally embroidered dress, Shangla

[1] Small Medium Enterprise Development Authority (SMEDA), Honey Processing & Packaging Common Facility Center – Mingora Swat

Economic Infrastructure

The district is connected with other parts of Pakistan via black topped roads. The Shahra-e- Karakorum (or Karakorum highway) otherwise named National Highway N-35 passes through the eastern borders of the district. Another important road built during the times of Wali-e-Swat is the road from Mingora (Swat) to Besham via Shangla Top, but there is no rail or air connection.

Roads

According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19 the road statistics of Shangla district are as follows:

Total Roads 974.4 km
High Type Roads 576.2 km
Low Type Roads 398.2 km

Table 1.9 Shangla Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of Shangla district include:

  • Shahra-e-Karakorum or National Highway N-35 passes through the district
  • Mingora to Besham via Shangla Top
  • National Highway N-90 connects Besham City with Khwazakhela, Swat
  • Alpurai-Shahpur Road
  • Shangla Road
  • Martung-Chakesar Road
  • Martung-Mingora Road

Figure 1.13 Batt Chowk, Shangla

Rail and Airways

The district is not connected to other parts of Pakistan via Pakistan Railways; the nearest railway station is in Peshawar. There is no commercial airport in the district, and the nearest airports are in Saidu Sharif, Swat, and the Bacha Khan International Airport at Peshawar.

Radio and Television

Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) does not have its broadcasting station in the district. There are no privately owned FM radio stations either, but the district has modern cable TV network.

Telecommunications

There are 12 telephone exchanges with 1,746 connections (KP Development Statistics 2018-19). Cellular phone services, with considerable coverage in all major towns, are also available.

Post Offices

There are 24 offices of Pakistan Post in the district, but no Head Office. There are 5 Sub Post Offices, and 19 Branch Offices in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19).

Electricity and Gas

Electricity is supplied by Peshawar Electric Supply Corporation (PESCO).

Banking/ Financial Services

In all, there are 19 bank branches in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19).

Following banks have branches in the district:

  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd
  • Askari Bank
  • Bank Al Falah
  • Bank Islami Pakistan
  • Habib Metropilitan
  • Muslim Commercial Bank
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • The Bank of Khyber
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank

According to the “List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan” in all there are 16 branches of different conventional banks and 3 branches of various Islamic banks in the District.

Education

Shangla district has a literacy rate of 36.0%. The following table shows the number of Government Educational Institutions in the district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 404/170 Middle Schools 49/21
High Schools 41/07 Higher Secondary Schools 08/03
Mosque Schools 39 Degree Colleges 03/02
Polytechnic Institutes Commerce Colleges/Institutes
Vocational Centers Private Primary Schools 37
Private Schools (Middle to Higher Sec.) 32 Post Graduate College
Medical Colleges Engineering Colleges/University
Military Institutes Universities

Table 1.11 Shangla Education Institutes

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Shangla District as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No/Beds
Hospitals 05/292 Dispensaries 12/-
Rural health Centers -/- Basic Health Units 15/-
Mother Child Health Centers 01/- Sub Health Centers -/-
Leprosy Clinic -/- TB Clinics 05/-
Private Hospitals 01/17 Private Medical Practitioners 30

Table 1.12 Shangla Health Institutes

Policing

The District Police Officer (DPO) is directly responsible to the Zila Nazim for public safety. The Police Department is headed by the Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP). This SSP supervises and controls the police force in maintaining law and order and investigation of cases of criminal nature. The Police Department operates under the Police Rules. The DPO is in-charge of policing the district. There are 11 police stations[1] in the district including women police stations.

[1] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

Environment and Biodiversity

Since there are no industries in the district, and hence, the air is generally free of pollutants, and the physical environment is clean.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

A large variety of trees, shrubs, herbs, and grasses is found in the district. The most common flora of the district includes pindrow fir (Abies fir), morinda spruce (Picea smithiana), blue pine (kail; Pinus wallichiana), chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) and deodar cedar (Cedrus deodara) trees. Other trees/shrubs of the district include yarrow or yarkand (Achillea millefolium), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa), mock strawberry or Indian strawberry (Duchesnea indica), and cats milk or zahar booti (Euphorbia helioscopia). Shrub species include cranberry (Viburnum sp.), rose (Rosa macrophylla), Himalayan indigo (Indigofera heterantha), blackberry (Rubus irritans), and honeysuckle (Lonicera sp), and Kashmir Daphne (Daphne mucronata).

A large variety of medicinal herbs is also found in the district. These include tarkha or sage bush (Artemizia species), Unab (a variety of ber; Zizyphus sativa), althea or common marshmallow (Althaca officinalis), banafsha or wild violets (Viola serpens), mushki bala or valerian (Valeriana species), musli sufed asparagus (Aspargus species), bugleweed or kauri booti or kamargul (Ajuga bracteosa), Himalayan alder or sharol (Alnus nitida), shamshad or boxwood (Buxus wallichiana), leghonay or Kashmir Dapne (Daphne mucronata), and alif booti or milk weed (Euphorbia indica).    

Fauna

Common mammals of the district include Asiatic jackal, markhor, Himalayan ibex, urial, Himalayan black bear, brown bear, leopard, snow leopard, wolf, bear, rhesus monkeys, jungle cat, and Indian porcupine.

The avifauna of the district include, among others, blue rock pigeon, spotted dove, little brown dove, chakor, Himalayan snow cock, red jungle fowl, monal pheasant, koklas pheasant, khalij pheasants, stray tragopan, hoopoe, white-breasted king fisher, Indian robin, Eurasian kestrel, Eurasian sparrowhawk, blue whistling thrush, slatyheaded parakeet, yellow wagtail, golden oriole, laughing cuckoo, and European bee-eater.

Reptiles include varieties of snakes and agamas.

Protected Areas and Endangered Fauna

There are no wildlife protected areas in the district, but the urial, the 3 varieties of bears, snow leopard, rhesus monkeys, and jungle cat among others, are provided protection and sanctuary in the various reserved forests of the district. Endangered avifauna of the district includes the various pheasants, Himalayan snow cock, and the blue rock pigeon.