Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Swabi

Share now

Introduction

The district is located between 33° 55Ꞌ to 34° 23Ꞌ north latitudes, and 72° 13Ꞌ to 72° 49Ꞌ east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by Buner district, on the east by Haripur district, on the south by Attock district (Punjab province), and on the west by Nowshera and Mardan districts.

Figure 1.3 Baja Village Swabi

District a Glance

Name of District Swabi District
Headquarters Swabi City
Population[1] 1,624,616 persons
Area[2] 1,543 km2
Population Density[3] 1,097 persons/ km2
Male Population[4] 50.2%
Female Population[5] 49.8%
Growth Rate[6] 2.4%
Urban Population[7] 17.0%
Literacy Rate[8] 49.0%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 65.0%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 34.0%
Administrative Units 04 Tehsils:

1.    Swabi Tehsil

2.    Chota Lahor Tehsil

3.    Rajar Tehsil

4.    Topi Tehsil

Important Towns/ Villages Chota Lahor, Shewa Adda, Tordhar, Topi, Batakara, Yarhussain, Hund Thand Koi, Haryan, Kernal Sher Khan Kilay, Shewa, Marghuz, Maneri, Zaida, Kunda, Qillabat, Zarobi, Terbela, Ismaila, Adeena, Kalukhan, Swabi, Sudher, Yaqoobi, Turlandi, Tarakay, Naranji, Parmooli, Menai, Tandkhoi, Gadoon, and nearby villages, Amazai, Jehangira, Dobiaan, Anbaar, Baamkhel, Jalbai, Jalsai, Chaknooda, and Sheikhjana
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 55.8%
Construction 14.9%
Community, Social & Personal Services 12.9%
Wholesale, Retail & Hotel/Restaurant Business 8.2%
Transport 4.3%
Manufacturing 2.4%
Others 1.5%
Main Crops Wheat, barley, sugarcane, maize, rice, jowar, groundnut, tobacco, sesanum, mustard & rapeseed
Major Fruits Watermelon, musk melon, apricots, guava, pear, peach, plum, citrus, mulberry, pomegranate, grapes, mango, banana, dates, and walnut
Major Vegetables Potatoes, tomatoes, onions, pumpkins, chilies, radish, carrots, sweet peas, cauliflower, cabbage, okra, brinjal, spinach and other green vegetables, and garlic
Forest (Area)[12] 26,505 HA[13]
Black Topped Roads[14] 456.5 km
Shingle Roads[15] 169.1 km
Electricity[16] Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO) looks after distribution and transmission of Electricity in the district.
Telephone Exchanges[17] 29 Telephone Exchanges with 9,340 connections
Industrial Zones[18] 01 Industrial Estate, and 152 registered and running industrial units.
Major Industry[19] Plastic & Rubber 35 units
Chemicals 12 units
Textile Loom Sector 01 units
Cement Based 4 units
Flour Mills 7 units.
Textile Mill Sec. 11 units
Cigarettes 6 units ea.
Polyester Acrylic 3 units
Soaps 2 units ea.
Beverages[20] 1 unit ea.
Household Size[21] 7.7 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water[22] 10.9%
Houses with Electricity[23] 83.4%

Table 1.1 Swabi District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census uses spatial data

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

[12] KP Development Statistics, 2018-19

[13] Forestry Statistics report 4,666 HA

[14] KP Development Statistics, 2018-19

[15] KP Development Statistics, 2018-19

[16] KP Development Statistics, 2018-19

[17] KP Development Statistics, 2018-19

[18] KP Development Statistics, 2018-19

[19] KP Development Statistics, 2018-19

[20] For a detailed list please refer to article on Industry.

 

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 census data has not been made public yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 census data has not been made public yet.

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistoric/Heritage Sites; Tourist Attractions

Brief History

A local legend of the district states that the name “Swabi” has been derived from the Arabic word for the group Sabi’in. This word is used for a religious group mentioned in the Quran as “People of the Book” or “those who believe”, among whom are those who profess Judaism, Christians, as well as the Sabi’ins.[1]

Geographically, Swabi district was part of the Gandhara Civilization, which spread over Peshawar Valley, Mardan, Swat, Dir, Malakand, and the Bajaur Agency of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), upto Taxila in Punjab, and Jalalabad in Afghanistan. The district has remained at the crossroads of different influences and cultures since the time of Alexander the Great up to the Durrani period (326 BC-1826 AD).

Most of the following account of the history of Swabi district has been summarized from Pakistan Heritage: A research Journal by the Department of Archaeology, Hazara University, Mansehra.

Accordingly, historical records and archeological findings suggest that Swabi remained under the Achaemenid administration from 558 BC till 326 BC. The Greek accounts state that Alexander the Great, with his army, reached the present Hund[2] in 326 BC. He stayed in the region for 30 days, built a bridge of boats, and crossed the Indus. After a short Greek control, Swabi came under the Mauryans’ rule; this is confirmed by Jamal Ghari Monastery and the Ashoka rock edicts at Shehbaz Garhi (now in Mardan district).

The Chinese traveler, Hiuen Tsang, visited the area in 630 AD and noted that Panini, the Sanskrit grammarian, was a dweller of Salatura, which is now Chota Lahore. He further mentioned that U-to-kia-han-cha, the present-day Hund, was one of the most prosperous towns of Gandhara.[3]

Later Hund was made the winter capital of Gandhara by Hindu Shahi rulers (4th century AD to 870 AD). In 1007 AD, Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni conquered Hund after defeating the Hindu King Jayapala Deva/Jaipal. Mahmud took over Hund and Swat. The Ghaznavids were followed by the Ghorid (1186-1215 AD) and the Delhi Sultanate[4] (1206-1526 AD) periods which continued till the arrival of the Mughals in 1526. By this time, the Yousafzai Pathan tribe was in control of the area. In order to make peace and have some control over this tribe, Emperor Babar married the daughter of the Yousafzai chief.

In 1586, Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great, perceiving the strategic importance of Hund as a crossing point of River Indus, ordered the construction of a fort. This work was assigned to one of his generals: Raja Birbal. Throughout Mughal rule, Hund served as a military outpost.

During the declining years of the Mughal Empire, around 1738, Swabi was occupied by Nadir Shah Durrani and remained under Durrani rule till the Sikh invasion (1818). According to Major Raverty, the Sikh army, under the leadership of Ranjit Singh, crossed the Indus in March 1823, and was able to wrest control of Swabi after a long and hard struggle.

British rule followed the Sikhs in 1849, when the British annexed Punjab and the areas that are now KP. In the War of Independence of 1857, the residents of Swabi organized a group of Mujahidin (Muslim soldiers/ fighters) and revolted against the British at the site of the current village of Narinji, but were defeated. Nawab Azeem-ullah Khan, a War for Independence veteran, was a resident of Swabi.

Another historical account of Hund is of the time when Syed Ahmad Barelvi, after his success against the Sikh force in 1826, reached Hund, and was well received by the Rais Khadi Khan (then ruler of Hund). Syed Ahmad reorganized his troops, but the intrigues of the Barakzai Sardars of Peshawar turned Khadi Khan against Syed Ahmad. Syed Ahmad had to attempt to subdue Khadi Khan, who was killed in one of the skirmishes that followed.

A report entitled Archaeological Discoveries at Maini, District Swabi by Zafarullah Hayat Khan who works at the Department of Archaeology, Islamia College, Peshawar, lists 18 archeological sites in Maini Valley (pronounced Mainai) 17 km east of Swabi town.

At the time of Partition in 1947, Swabi was a Tehsil of Mardan district, and remained such till 1988, when the Tehsil was upgraded to a district level.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Swabi district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 2
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 7

Under the Local Government Act District Swabi has 1 District Council constituted by general seats, seats reserved for women, peasants/workers, youth, and non-Muslims as prescribed under the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act 2013. Swabi District Council is composed of 56 general members, 19 women members, 3 peasants/worker members, 3 minority members, and 3 youth members.

Administrative Division

Swabi district has a total area of 1,543 km2 and is divided into 04 Tehsils, with 56 Union Councils (UC) as follows:

Swabi Tehsil 10 Union Councils (Originally 39 UC)
Chota Lahore Tehsil 16 Union Councils (Originally 17 UC)
Razar Tehsil 17 Union Councils (Newly Created from Swabi Tehsil)
Topi Tehsil 13 Union Councils (Newly Created from Swabi Tehsil)

Table 1.2 Swabi Administrative Divisions

[1] The Origin of Islam in its Christian Environment by Bernard Lewis. Chapter 11, verse 62

[2] Currently Hund is a small village situated on the east bank of River Indus, upstream of Attock Fort.`

[3] Pakistan Heritage: A Research Journal Department of Archaeology, Hazara University, Mansehra

[4] The Delhi Sultante was composed of 5 Dynasties: Mamluk Dynasty (1206-90), Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320), Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414), Sayyid Dynasty (1414-51), and Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526).

Historic/Heritage Sites; Tourist Attractions

One heritage site protected[1] under the Government of Pakistan Laws in the Swabi district is Takhta Band, Swabi.

There are a total of 18 archeological sites in Miani valley which need investigation and study. Some of these non-protected but important archeological sites[2] are:

  • Banhr Dherai: this is graveyard and a monastic complex
  • Najeem Jaṛe Graveyard: a graveyard with Islamic period ancient tombs
  • Muradu Dherai
  • Rahima Ḍab and Rahima Dherai
  • Kañṛo Dherai
  • Ajumair Hill
  • Ghundheray
  • Shado Dherai
  • Rani Ghatt: this is a historical site where Buddhist relics were discovered. It is not protected, and contains the ruins of a famous palace belonging to the queen of the Buddhist era. She was famous for paying Swabi villagers for keeping the air clean and not polluting it by winnowing the crops.[3] A localNGO, Shewa Educated Social Workers Association, built a walkway to the historical sites, as well as fences to protect the area. It also built a rest house on Baga Mountain. This area attracts many tourists, including Japanese who come here to learn about Buddhism in ancient times
  • Hund archeological site (not protected): this was the capital of the Hindu Shahi Kingdom for nearly 300 years. This is the village where Alexander the Great crossed River Indus. The richest archeological site at Hund is that of Salamgarh, which is spread over an area of nearly 2 km. Many important structures are still visible here, including a wide mouth water well, probably from the Hindu Shahi period. The well is internally finished with excellent stone masonry work, but its existence is now threatened, since the owners of the site are using heavy machinery for levelling the ancient mounds of Salamgarh. Ruins of a fort called Hund Fort are also visible. The relics collected are being displayed at Hund Museum.

Figure 1.6 Rani Ghat

Tourist Attractions/ Picnic Spots

Swabi is famous due to the Pashtun folk love story of Yusuf Khan and Sherbano. The tombs of Yousaf Khan and Sherbano are located on Karamar Mountains. Visitors come to the village of Shera Ghund (situated near Shewa Adda) and climb Karamar Mountain in the town of Kalu Khan to visit the tombs.

The Indus and Kabul Rivers meet at a place called Kund, another major tourist attraction. The Indus River with its blue colour and the Kabul River’s muddy brown waters flow side by side without blending, and can be differentiated without a problem. The government of KP has developed a big park called Kund Park here.

Other tourist attractions are the Ghazi-Barotha Hydro Power Plant, which is near the town of Topi and the Tarbela Dam. Ghazi-Barotha Dam is located on River Indus, and is a 1,450 MW Hydel Power Plant located about 7 km downstream of Tarbela Dam.

Mahaban Hill in Gadoon has scenic beauty. The Pir Galai resort is located here, at about 6,000 ft (1,800 m) above sea level. From here, one can see Mansehra, Buner, and Kaghan Hills.

Figure 1.7 Chair Lifts at Kund Park, Swabi

Figure 1.8 Ghazi-Barotha Dam

Figure 1.9 A Horse-drawn Tonga, Yar Hussain Village, Swabi

Figure 1.10 Makha Sport

Figure 1.11 A Tea House in Swabi

[1] Guidelines for Critical and Sensitive Areas, Pakistan 1997

[2] Archaeological Discoveries at Maini, District Swabi by Zafarullah Hayat Khan

[3] Winnowing is a method of separating the chaff from grains. The mixture is thrown into the air and the winds blow away the chaff, leaving grains behind

Topography

Topographically,[1] the district can be divided into 2 parts: the northern hilly region and the southern plains.

Hilly Areas

The major part of the hilly region belongs to Gadoon Hills in the northeast of the district; these hills are the continuation of the Mahaban Hills (on the fringes of River Indus). The other important hills are situated in the northwestern corner of the district, and are locally called Naranji Hills. The height of these hills varies between 750 to 1,400 m above sea level. There are other small isolated hills, the most important of which is located south of Swabi town. Other hills are in the south, along the border with Nowshera district; these hills are a part of the Khattak Range, north of Kabul River.

Some of the other important mountain ranges of the district are the Karamar, located in the village of Kalu Khan, and Madho Garhi, among others.

Southern Plains

From the foot of these hills, the plains run down, at first with a steep slope, and then gently to the lower levels, towards Kabul River. The lower southern half of the district has its slope towards River Indus. The plain area of the district is intercepted by numerous streams and many smaller ravines.

Figure 1.4 Mahaban Hills Peak, Topi, Swabi (1,968 m high)

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

River Indus flows along the southern boundary of the district, and River Kabul flows through the district in its north. Both these rivers meet at Kund in Attock. A large number of streams are generated at the hills in the northeast of the district; the important ones are:

  • Naranji Khwar flowing from Naranji Hills in a southwest direction to join Kalpani Stream in Mardan district
  • Badri Khwar which flows from the north, close to Swabi Town, and joins River Indus near village Hund
  • Shagai Khwar which enters the district at Chak Nodeh and, after flowing through Dagai and Yarhussain villages, leaves the district at village Dobian

Some other streams of the district include Maqam Khwar, Dagai Khwar, and Bakarai Khwar.

Some lakes/ dhands of the district include Nathu Dhand, Gadano Dhand, Misri Khan Dhand, Nawe Dhand, and Mir Abdullah Dhand.

Figure 1.5 A Tributary of River Indus, Swabi District

Forests

The plains and sub-mountainous tracts[2] of Swabi district have Tropical Dry Deciduous and Sub Tropical Scrub Forests which merge with Sub Tropical chir pine and temperate forests at higher altitudes. These forests consist of phulai (Acacia modesta), kau (Olea cuspidata), jand (Prosopis cineraria), hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa), kikar/ babul (Acacia nilotica), vann/piloo (Salvadora oleoides), frash/khaggal (Tamarix aphyla), varieties of ber (zizyphus spp)., karir (Cappris decidua), desert teak/lahura (Tecomella undulate), aak (Calotropis procera), gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal), gum guggul (Commiphora mukul), euphorbia (Egphogribia spp.) and kikiri (Acacia jacquemontii).

Some of the forests/ game reserves of the district are Baga Hills, Shewa Karmar, Naranji, Besak, and Punjpir. Other protected forests include Mahaban Forest, Rakh Pandoori, and Rakh Abdu Khan.

The following table shows the status of forests in Swabi district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 110,371 A Resumed Land 537 A
Reserved Forests – A Communal Forests – A
Protected Forests – A Guzara Forests 39,131 A
Unclassed Forests[3] – A Private Plantation 70,703 A
Miscellaneous – A Linear Plantation 178 km

Table 1.3 Swabi Forests

Soils

The fertile soil of the district has developed either from river alluvium or loess plains. The texture of river alluvium ranges from sandy loam to loamy sand, and loam approaching clay loam. The soil of the loess plains ranges in texture from silt loam to silty clay loam of silty clay.

Climate

The district has extremes of climate. The summer season is extremely hot. A steep rise of temperature is seen from May to June, and sometimes even in July, August, and September there can be record high temperatures. During May and June dust storms are frequent. The temperatures reach their maximum in June, during which month the heat is oppressive. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during June are 42 °C and 25 °C respectively. A rapid fall of temperatures is observed from October onwards. January is the coldest month, when the mean maximum and minimum temperatures stay between 18 °C and 2 °C respectively. Towards the end of the cold weather, the district receives occasional thunder and hail storms.

Since there is no meteorological station in the district, mean annual temperatures and precipitation of Risalpur has been taken for the district. Mean annual rainfall in the district is 600 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] District Profile Swabi 1998 by Government of Pakistan

[2] Phyto-Sociology of Deciduous Forests in Swabi District by Farrukh Hussain, Moinuddin Ahmad, Mufakhara Jan Durrani, and Ghazala Shaheen (Department of Botany, University of Peshawar).

[3] Owned by Government

Population

The following table shows the population of Swabi district (2017 Census):

District Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Swabi District 1,543 1,625,477 50.2 49.8 17.0 2.44
Lahor Tehsil 318 305,782
Swabi Tehsil 389 406,321
Razzar Tehsil 418 584,876
Topi Tehsil 418 328,499

Table 1.4 Swabi Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.6%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.3%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Swabi Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.2%
Punjabi 0.5%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 96.4%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.1%
Others 2.8%

Table 1.6 Swabi Languages

Other languages spoken in the district include Brahvi, and Dari.

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made Public Yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made Public Yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The industrial occupations in the district include[1]:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing (55.8%)
  • Construction (14.9%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (12.9%)
  • Wholesale, Retail & Hotel/Restaurant Business (8.2%)
  • Transport (4.3%)
  • Manufacturing (2.4%)
  • Others (1.5%)

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made Public Yet.

Land Use

The following table shows the major land use statistics of Swabi district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total area  154,300 HA  Reported Area  148,689 HA
 Cultivated Area  87,046 HA  Net Sown Area  59,502 HA
 Current Fallow  27,544 HA  Uncultivated Area  61,643 HA
 Culturable Waste  26,630 HA  Forest Area  26,505 HA

Table 1.7 Swabi Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plain Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan; here, agriculture is based on canal irrigation. Tobacco is the main cash crop of the district; other crops of the district include wheat, barley, sugarcane, maize, rice, jowar, groundnut, sesanum, and mustard and rapeseed.

The fruit orchards consist of watermelon, musk melon, apricots, guava, pear, peach, plum, citrus, mulberry, pomegranate, grapes, mango, banana, dates, and walnut. The main vegetable produce of the district includes potatoes, tomatoes, onions, pumpkins, chilies, radish, carrots, sweet peas, cauliflower, cabbage, okra, brinjal, spinach and other green vegetables, and garlic.

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the livestock position in Swabi district as per Livestock Census 2006 (qtd. in KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 203,076 Heads Buffalos 103,566 Heads Sheep 14,866 Heads
Goats 163,700 Heads Camels 592 Heads Horses 4,034 Heads
Asses 25,983 Heads Mules 486 Heads

Table 1.8 Swabi Livestock Statistics

Hashtnagri sheep is the indigenous breed of livestock in the district.

Poultry

There are 148 poultry farms[1] in the district.

Fishing

Fishing is one of the more important economic activities in the district. Fishing is carried out in the River Indus, its tributaries, River Kabul and other streams/ nullahs and canals of the district.

Bee Keeping

Honey is an important non-wood forest production of the province. The government of KP offers ample opportunities for the promotion of bee keeping, and is providing training to its rural population in the art of apiculture and honey processing.

There are many types of honey being produced in KP, but Sedar (ber in Urdu) and acacia modesta (Phulai in Urdu) honey are produced in the highest quantities. The total numbers of bee keeper entrepreneurs (farm) in KP is about 3,800 and the direct employment in these farms is of 17,500 people.[2]

Minerals and Mining

The minerals that are being mined on a commercial basis in the district include dolomite, Fuller’s Earth, granite, limestone, marble, quartzite, shale clay, silica sand, and slate stone.

Oil and gas is not being explored in the district.

Irrigation

The district is irrigated through a network of canals and tube wells. The district is irrigated through the Upper Swat Canal system and the Pehur Canal system. The Pehur Canal system (River Indus) is the first parabolic canal system in Pakistan. The Upper Swat Canal system includes Zaida Minor, Maira Branch Canal, Jehangira Minor, Lahor Minor, and Adina Branch Minor. The canals from the Pehur Canal system include Topi Minor, Zaroobi Minor, Kotha Disty, Zaida Minor, and Sheikh Dheri Minor.

The following table shows the area and mode of irrigation in Swabi district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 37,317 HA Government Canals 24,814 HA
Private Canals – HA Wells 11,453 HA
Tube Wells 94 HA Lift Pumps/ Others 956 HA

Table 1.11 Swabi Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.12 A Canal of the Pehur Canal System

 

Figure 1.13 Stepa Canal, Swabi

Industry

There is 1 major Industrial Estate in Swabi District—the Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate. This is the largest estate in KP. There are a total of 152 industrial units registered and running in the district.

The following table shows the type of industry and its number according to KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Industry Number of Units Industry Number of Units
Beverages 01 Cement Based 04
Chemical 12 Cigarettes 06
Corn 02 Engineering 13
Flour Mills 09 Cold Storage 02
Marble & Chips 10 Metal Work 01
Packages 06 Plastic & Rubber 35
Polyester Acrylic 03 Soap 03
Silk 02 Textile Mills Sector 11
Textile Looms Sector 01 Engineering 13
Woolen 01 Vegetable Ghee/Oil 01
Wood 02 Adhesive Tape 01
Carpet 01 Cotton 05
Industrial Foam 02 Glasses 01
Ice Factory 02 Paper & Board 04
Pharmacy 05

Table 1.9 Swabi Industries

Handicrafts

A number of articles of daily use, for example bullock carts, home furniture, shoes, agricultural equipment, clay pottery, ladies shawls and clothes, are made by hand. Embroidery and needlework such as Phulkari and Kamdani on women’s clothes and shawls is done by women in villages in Swabi, as in other districts.

[1] Table 17, No. of Poultry Farms and No. of Birds KP

[2] Small Medium Enterprise Development Authority (SMEDA), Honey Processing & Packaging Common Facility Center – Mingora Swat

Economic Infrastructure

The district has a network of black topped roads linking the district headquarter Swabi to other parts of Pakistan. The historical place Maini is also well connected with other parts of Pakistan. Small link roads connect various towns and villages, and also markets to farms. These link roads play a vital role in the socio-economic development of the area. Main Peshawar-Islamabad Motorway (M-1) passes through the district.

There is no rail or air connection.

Roads

According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, the road statistics of the district are as follows:

High Type 456.5 km
Low Type 169.1 km
Total 625.6 km

Table 1.10 Swabi Road Statistics

Important roads of Swabi district include:

  • Swabi-Topi Road
  • Jehangira-Swabi Road
  • Zaida Bypass
  • Gumbat-Yarhussain Road
  • Peshawar-Islamabad Motorway M-1
  • Dobian-Mardan Road

Rail and Airways

There are no railway lines in the district; the nearest railway station is the Akora Khattak Railway Station, and the Mardan Railway Station.

There is no commercial airport in the district, and Bacha Khan International Airport, Peshawar is the nearest airport to the district. There are no military air bases in the district.

Radio Television

Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) does not have a radio station in the district, nor is there any privately-owned radio station in the district.

There is no TV channel in the district, but TV can be viewed through cable.

Telecommunications

According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, there are 29 telephone exchanges with 9,340 connections in Swabi district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 103 Post Offices in the district with no Head Office, 28 Sub Post Offices and 75 Branch Post Offices in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19). All the courier services working in Pakistan provide their services in the district.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are a total of 78 bank branches operating in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19). Following banks have branches in Swabi:

  • Al Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Al Falah Bank Ltd.
  • Al Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd
  • Faisal Bank
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • JS Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

According to the “List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan” there are 68 branches of different conventional banks and 10 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO) looks after electricity distribution and transmission to all the districts of KP. PESCO networks own and maintain KP’s electricity distribution system via 132, 66, 33 KV sub-transmission lines and sub-stations, and 11 KV and 440 V low tension lines, with distribution transformers that deliver electricity to domestic and commercial users. Natural gas is available in the district.

Education

The following table shows the number of Government Educational Institutions in the district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 561/444 Middle Schools 68/60
High Schools 79/51 Higher Secondary Schools 21/14
Mosque Schools 44 Degree Colleges 07/08
Polytechnic Institutes 01 Commerce Colleges 01
Vocational Centers Private Primary Schools 60
Private Schools (Middle to Higher Secondary) 171 Medical Colleges[1] 01, planned
Post Graduate Colleges 01 Engineering Universities[2] 01
Universities[3] 01 Engineering College[4] 01

Table 1.12 Swabi Educational Institutes

Figure 1.14 Ghulam Ishak Khan Institute

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Swabi district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Hospitals 06/530 Dispensaries 10/-
Rural Health Centers 06/90 Basic Health Units 38/-
Mother Child Health Centers 03/- Sub Health Centers
TB Clinics 02/- Leprosy Center 01/-
Private Hospitals[5] 10/175 Private Medical Practitioners 135

Table 1.13 Swabi Health Institutes

Policing

The District Police Officer Swabi (DPO) is in charge of policing Swabi district. The DPO reports to the Deputy Inspector General Police (DIGP) who, in turn, reports to the District Co-ordination Officer. In Swabi district, there are 10 police stations.[6]

[1] Gajju Khan Medical College

[2] Swabi Engineering College of Technology (Private)

[3] University of Swabi

[4] Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology (Private)

[5] Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Government Official Website

[6] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

Environment and Biodiversity

Generally the air is free of pollution, with the only pollutants being dust from stone crushers and vehicle emissions. Since there are only a few factories in the district, pollutants from industrial emission is not a source of concern for the environment.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Some of the most common flora of the district include phulai/paloosa (Acacia modesta), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), ber (Zizyphus mauritania), kikar/babul (Acacia nilotica), mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), fig (Ficus pulmata), bakain (Melia azedarach), mulberry or shahtoot (Morus alba), variety of ber (Zizyphus nummalaria), a variety of asparagus (Asparagus gracilis), a species of cactus (Opuntia dellenii), kandiari or pataki (Maytenus royleanus), sand paper bush (Ehretia obtusifolia), paper mulberry (Broussonttia papyrifera), Malabar nut or baikar basuti (Justicia adhatoda), and durva grass or dhub (Cynodon dactylon).

A large variety of medicinal plants is also found/grown in the district some of which include ispaghol (phyllium), manji boti (Rubia cordifolia), amla (Embilica officinalis), piyaz (Allium cepa), landais or amaltas (Cassia fistula), bhang (Cannabis sativa), lashura (Cordia obliqua), juhawa (Eruca sativa), mushk-e-bala (Valeriana wallichii), unaab (Zizyphus vulgaris), banafsha (Viola serpens), ajwain (Carum copticum), baid-e-mushk (Salix alba), and saunf (Foeniculum vulgare).

Fauna

Mammalian fauna of the district includes wild cats, leopard, fox, jackal, wild rabbits, porcupines, hedgehog, squirrel, and mongoose.

Avifauna of the district includes quails, owls, wild pigeon, black and grey partridges, starling, snipe, mallard, widgeon, myna, see-see partridge, tit, lark, and doves. Reptile and amphibians include the cobra (a threatened species).

Protected Wildlife Areas

Following are community-owned and protected game reserves in the district:

  • Baga Hills Game Reserve
  • Shewa Karmar Game Reserve
  • Naranji Game Reserve
  • Besak Game Reserve
  • Panjpir Game Reserve

These reserves provide sanctuary to hare, wolf, fox, jackal, mongoose, porcupine, black and grey partridge, starling, snipe, mallard, widgeon, see-see partridge, owls, and quails.