Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Tank

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Introduction

The Federal Region Tank or FR Tank which was part of now ex Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) is now part of Tank district The district is now located between 32°2Ꞌ to 30° 40Ꞌ north latitudes, and 70° 2Ꞌ to 70° 37Ꞌ east longitudes. It is bounded on the northeast by Lakki Marwat district, on the south by DI Khan district, and on the west by South Waziristan District (previously Agency).

Tank is situated to the northwest of the Indus River and close to the Takht-e-Suleiman Range.

District at a Glance

Name of District Tank District
District Headquarter Tank City
Population[1] 427,077 persons
Area[2] 2,900 km2
Population Density[3] 131.2 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.1%
Male Population[5] 51.2%
Female Population[6] 48.8%
Urban Population[7] 12.1%
Tehsils/Talukas 01 Tehsil:

1.    Tank Tehsil

Main Towns/ Villages Tank City, Pir Kach, Cheena, Kali, Norang, Gira Shahbaz, Ranwal, Pai, Dabarra, Mullazai, Ghara Baloch, Shah Alam, Gara Hayat, and Tatta
Literacy Rate[8] 43.0%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 64.0%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 22.0%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 50.8%
Community, Social & Personal Services 17.5%
Construction 10.1%
Wholesale/ Retail, Trade & Hotel/ Restaurant 10.1%
Transport, Storage & Communication 8.1%
Others 3.4%
Main Crops Maize, rice, jowar, bajra, sugarcane, wheat, gram, barley, masoor, rapeseed, mustard & canola
Major Fruits Watermelon, musk melon, bananas, apple, dates, guava, mango, citrus, and ber
Major Vegetables Tomatoes, pumpkins, okra, radish, carrots, turnip, cabbage, cauliflower, eggplant, squash (tinda), cucumber, and chickpeas
Forests (Area)[12] 31,325 HA[13]
Black Topped Road[14] 469.9 km
Shingle Roads[15] 454.0 km
No of Grid Stations Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO) looks after the distribution and transmission of electricity in the district.
No. of Tel. Exchanges[16] 05 Telephone Exchanges with 924 connections
Industrial Zones[17] No Industrial Estate and no industry.
Major Industry[18] No Industry
Household Size[19] 9.3 persons per house
Houses (Piped Water Inside)[20] 46.8%
Houses with Electricity[21] 92.4%

Table 1.1 Tank District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census Population of ex FR tank added

[2] 1998 Census; Ex FR Tank area added (2017 Census uses spatial data)

[3] 2017 Census (Average of Tank District and Ex FR Tank)

[4] 2017 Census (Average of Tank District and Ex FR Tank)

[5] 2017 Census(Average of Tank District and Ex FR Tank)

[6] 2017 Census (Average of Tank District and Ex FR Tank)

[7] 2017 Census (Average of Tank District and Ex FR Tank)

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM), Only Tank District)

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census, 2017 Census data has nt been made public yet

[12] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Forestry Statistics reports 76,453 HA

[14] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistorical/ Heritage Sites; Tourist Areas/ Picnic Spots

Brief History

Tank district was a Tehsil of Dera Ismail Khan district till 1992, when it was upgraded to a district level. The earliest history is, thus, the same as that of Dera Ismail Khan district, and has been included in the relevant chapter; this section includes an account of events relevant to Tank city and district.

The word “Tank” in Pushto means a ‘receptacle’ or a reservoir for water; it is pronounced as “Taank” by the educated elite, as “Takk” by Pashto speaking people, and “Taak” in Hindko language. The word Takk in Pashtu means “border” and possibly refers to the geographical location of the district; it forms the borders between Waziristan and the main Daman area of Dera Ismail Khan district.

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:

The Tank Area was formerly a semi-independent State, and its Nawabs [rulers] belonged to the Katti Khel, a sub-clan of Daulat Khel, the most powerful of the original settlers, who gradually expelled all the rest. The last Nawab, Shahnawaz Khan who died in 1882 AD was the twentieth descendant of Daulat Khan, who gave his name to the tribe. His family first assumed the tribal leadership in the person of Katal Khan, great-grandfather of Shahnawaz Khan. His son Sarwar Khan devoted himself throughout a long reign to the amelioration of his territory and his tribesmen. Under his leadership the Daulat Khel changed from a pastoral to an agricultural people, and they still revere his memory, making his acts and laws the standard of excellence in governance. Sarwar Khan towards the end of his life found it necessary to tender his submission to the Sikhs, after their occupation of Dera Ismail Khan. The Sikhs levied tribute on Sarwar Khan. […] Sarwar Khan was succeeded by his son Aladad Khan; at the same time Nau Nihal Singh, who was then in Bannu, raised the tribute, Aladad Khan could not meet the demand and fled to the hills, where he found refuge with the Mahsuds [also spelled Mehsuds]. Tank was then given as a ‘Jagir’ to Nau Nihal Singh; but Aladad kept up guerrilla warfare from the hills such that the Sikh grantee at last threw up his possession in disgust. Malik Fateh Khan Tiwana then for a time seized Tank, but was ousted by Daulat Rai, son of Diwan Lakhi Mal, the Sikh Governor of Dera; and it was made over to three dependents of the Nawabs of Dera; Shahnawaz Khan, the son of Aladad (who had died meanwhile) being left a beggar. In 1846, however, the exiled chief attached himself to Lieutenant (afterwards Sir Herbert) Edwardes, who procured his appointment by the Darbar of Lahore to the Governorship of Tank. After the Annexation of Punjab, the British Government confirmed Shahnawaz Khan in his post as Governor; he thenceforth enjoyed a semi-independent position, retaining a portion of the revenues, and entrusted with the entire internal administration, as well as with protection of the border. The results however proved unsatisfactory, as regards both the peace of the frontier and the conduct of the administration. A scheme was accordingly introduced for remodeling the relations of the State. The Nawab’s income was increased, but he was deprived of all administrative powers, retaining only those of honorary magistrate. Tank thus became an ordinary Tehsil of Dera Ismail Khan. (v. 23, p. 244 and 245)

The headquarters of Tank district—Tank Town—was founded by Katal Khan the first Nawab of Tank. It was a well-planned city with a protecting wall (Hisar) around it and had 7 gates (Darwaza). It also housed the Mud Fort (Qilla) of Nawab Katal Khan. There were pickets (Burgs) at each corner, housing armed guards.

The area was visited by Sir Auriel Stein (1862-1943), a British archeologist, who found some mounds/ sites of archeological importance near Kot Allahdad and Gomal Kalan. These sites are pre-historic in nature, and show that the area was occupied by Buddhists and later by the Hindus.

Malik Sohrab Khan Baloch from Balochistan joined the forces of Sultan Hussain Langha (Ruler of Multan) in 1420 AD and was appointed Sobaidar (Governor) of the present-day Dera Ismail Khan area. He ruled the whole area up to Tank, and laid the foundation of Dera Ismail Khan city in 1469, naming it after his son Malik Ismail Khan. The places named after his other sons are Darya Khan and Dera Ghazi Khan.[1]

The Baloch ruled Dera Ismail Khan area including Tank for almost 300 years, but their power gradually weakened due to repeated attacks by Pashtun tribes and the migration of Pashtuns from Afghanistan into the area. The Daman area (Foothills Plain area) was first occupied by Lodhi Pashtun tribes of Prangi, Suri, Sarwani, and Bilach, but their occupation was short lived and they were ousted by the Lohani Pashtun tribes (Marwat, Daulat Khel, and Mian Khel) who then occupied the Daman area. In 1838 the Sikhs defeated the Pashtun tribes and occupied the area. In 1849, the British annexed the area, but the Pashtun tribes did not allow them entry and they remained confined to camps on foothills.

At the time of Partition, Tank district was a part (Tehsil) of Dera Ismail Khan district. It was upgraded to the status of a district in 1992, and became the southern-most district of the province. The city is located on the border of South Waziristan Agency, at the mouth of the plains of the famous Gomal Pass which links Ghazni in east Afghanistan with Dera Ismail Khan and Tank in Pakistan through Kot Murtaza and Domandi.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Tank district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 1

Under the Local Government Act District Tank has 1 District Council constituted by general seats, seats reserved for women, peasants/workers, youth, and non-Muslims as prescribed under the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act 2013. Tank District Council is composed of 16 general members, 6 women members, 1 peasants/worker members, 1 minority member, and 1 youth member.

Administrative Divisions

The district has a total area of 1,679 km2 and is divided into 1 tehsil as follows:

Tank Tehsil 16 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Tank Administrative Unit

[1] Further details have been included in the chapter on DI Khan district

Historical/ Heritage Sites; Tourist Areas/ Picnic Spots

There are no protected historical sites/ buildings in the district.

District Tank is mostly a plain area with mountainous areas in the northwest. Sheikh Buddin Hill Resort, if developed, can be a major tourist attraction for the district. Other tourist attractions/ places of interest are:

  • Kauar Fort: Located on Tank-Wana Road. It is a 100 years old fort made of mud; the mud walls are several feet high, and approximately equal to a modern day 3 story building. Huge trunks of trees can now be seen poking out from the walls of the fort. These were used to give strength and stability to the mud walls. The British used this fort against attacks from the Mahsud Tribe. These days, it is being used by the Frontier Corps
  • Frontier Constabulary Fort in Tank: This was constructed by the British in 1905
  • Shrine of Pir Sabir Shah Baba: This shrine is renowned, and one of the most visited places in the city. A 3 day urs is held every year
  • Shrine of Mama Pir Ziarat: This is located near Umar Adda. The Urs of Mama Pir is organized annually
  • Tank Zam Dam and its reservoir: This dam provides a good recreation/picnic area

Topography

The district is partly hilly and partly plain. The northwestern part of the district is occupied by the Bhittani Hills, while the southwestern part is a plain area also called the Daman area. Bhittani Hills are a part of the northern extremity of the Suleiman Range. The general height of the hills is 400 to 500 m above mean sea level. The highest point is 1,781 m. The general slope of the Bhittani Hills is from northwest to the east. A ridge from these hills runs along the northeastern boundary between Tank and Lakki Marwat districts, and separates the Tank plains from the Bannu plains. The plains of Tank district are a part of the dry alluvial plains of Dera Ismail Khan, which stretch from the hills to the River Indus.

Figure 1.3 Sheikh Budin Hills

Topography of Tank Sub Division (Ex FR Tank)

This Region is mostly covered by the dry Bhittani Hills, gradually sloping from northwest towards the southeast. The highest point of these hills is 1,943 meters above sea level, located near the northern border, on the watershed of Zia Plaiwan stream (official website of FATA/Agencies/FR/FR Tank).

A number of mountain passes lead into the Federal Region. Two of these are Musa Narai, and Kandi Narai.

 

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

Tank Zam is the only river that flows through the district. This is a tributary of River Gomal, which enters Gomal Valley through Tank district. After passing through the Daman Plains of Kulachi Tehsil (DI Khan district), it flows towards Dera Ismail Khan and then join River Indus 20 miles south of Dera Ismail Khan.

A large number of streams/ hill torrents flow from the mountains during rainy season and help in irrigating the lands through rod kohi or spate irrigation systems. Some of the hill torrents flowing in the district are Takwara Nullah, Kaur Nullah, Niskor Nullah, Sidki Nullah, and Pir Katch Nullah.

Tank Dam Reservoir is an important water lake in the district.

A large number of streams, also known as zams, originate from the mountains and flow through the Tank Sub Division. These zams bring large quantities of water laden with high silt. Some of these streams are Sager Algad, and Shinkai Toi (both tributaries of Tank Zam which flows along the borders of South Waziristan Acency) among others. The Shahur river flows near Jandola.

 

Forests

The following table shows the area and type of forests in Tank district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 65,189 A Resumed Land 15,120 A
Reserved Forests – A Communal Forests – A
Protected Forests – A Guzara Forests – A
Un-classed Forests[1] 14,718 A Private Plantation 35,351 A
Miscellaneous – A Linear Plantation 300 km

Table 1.3 Tank Forests

The forests of Tank district belong to the Tropical Thorn Forest category in Pakistan. The flora mainly consists of low and scanty trees and shrubs of thorny species. Major tree species are jand (Prosopis cineraria), vann or pilu (salvadora oleoides), phulai or paloosa (Acacia modesta), kikar (Acacia nilotica), athel pine (Tamarix aphylla), jujube or ber (Zizyphus spp.), karir (Capparis decidua), desert teak or lahura (Tecomella undulata), gum Arabic or khumbat (Acacia Senegal), and euphorbia (Euphorbia spp.).

Sheikh Sultan Reserved forest is the main community-owned and protected game reserve in the district.

Soils

The soil of the plain area is firm hard clay. After rains it becomes soft, tenacious mud. The entire hilly area is interspersed with numerous hill torrents which originate from the eastern slopes of these hills. For the greater part of the year, these torrents are dry, but become roaring torrents after heavy rains, bringing down water with heavy silt, making numerous fan-like branches. The culturable soils of the district developed either from sub-recent river plains or old piedmont plains. Soils are very deep, silty clays, or clay/clay loams.

Climate

The summer season in Tank district is dry and hot, beginning in April and continuing till October. The hottest month is June; the mean maximum and minimum temperatures in June are 42 °C and 27 °C. Humidity is the lowest during May and June. During this period, the area is under periodic dust storms. The hot wind called “loo” blows across the district. The cool weather starts in October. December, January, and February are the cold months. In winter, even though the daytime temperatures are not very low, the nights are very cold, with severe frost. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during January, the coldest month, are 20 °C and 4 °C respectively. The rainfall generally occurs in July and August, which are the Monsoon months. The mean annual rainfall is about 260 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] un-classed Forests are owned by the Government

Population

The following table shows the population of the district as per the 2017 Census:

District Area

km2

Population Male % Female % Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Tank District 2,900 427,046 51.2 48.8 12.1 2.1
Tank Tehsil 1,679 390,628 51.2 48.8 12.1 2.6
Tank Sub-Division 1,221 36,418 51.6 48.4

Table 1.4 Tank Population Statistics

 

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.4%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.3%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others 0.2%

Table 1.5 Tank Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.7%
Punjabi 0.2%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 80.3%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 18.5%
Others 0.3%

Table 1.6 Tank Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The major industrial occupations in the district include (1998 Census):

  • Agriculture with its allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing (50.8%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (17.5%)
  • Construction (10.1%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail, Trade & Hotel/ Restaurant (10.1%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (8.1%)
  • Others (3.4%)

Figure 1.4 Daman Hotel in Tank

Land Use

The total geographical area of Tank district is 290,000 HA[1]. The following table shows the land use statistics of the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Area 290,000 HA Reported Area 165,599 HA
Total Cultivated Area 15,953 HA Net Sown 14,188 HA
Current Fallow 1,765 HA Uncultivated Area 149,646 HA
Culturable Waste 96,866 HA Forest Area 31,325 HA

Table 1.7 Tank Land Use Statistics

[1] Includes area for Ex FR Tank

Agriculture

The area of Tank district falls in the Barani Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture is mostly based on rains, and on small water courses dug by landowners. It is thus mostly subsistence level agriculture. Maize, rice, jowar, bajra, sugarcane, wheat, gram, barley, masoor, rapeseed, mustard & canola are the crops of the district.

Fruit orchards of the district comprise of watermelon, musk melon, bananas, apple, dates, guava, mango, citrus, and ber. The vegetables grown are tomatoes, pumpkins, okra, radish, carrots, turnip, cabbage, cauliflower, eggplant, squash (tinda), cucumber, and chickpeas.

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the livestock statistics as per 2006 Census of Livestock (qtd. in KP Development Statistics 2018-19[1]):

Cattle 67,104+ Heads Buffalo 18,831 Heads Sheep 185,395 Heads
Goats 230,875 Heads Camels 7,784 Heads Horses 949 Heads
Mules 143 Heads Asses 7,311 Heads

Table 1.8 Tank Livestock Statistics

Lohani Cow, rojhan cow, and balkhi sheep are the indigenous breeds of livestock in the district.

Figure 1.5 Lohani Cow

Figure 1.6 Rojhan Cow

Poultry

There are 06 poultry farms in the district.[2]

Bee Keeping

Honey is an important non-wood forest production of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The province offers ample opportunities for the promotion of bee keeping, and the Government of KP provides training to its rural population in the art of apiculture and honey processing.

There are many types of honey being produced in KP, but Sedar (ber in Urdu) and acacia modesta (Phulai in Urdu) honey are produced in the highest quantities. The total number of the bee keeper entrepreneurs (farm) in KP is about 3,800, and direct employment in these farms is of 17,500 people.[3]

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in all rivers and streams in the district, and the fish caught is consumed locally.

Mining

At present, commercial mining is not carried out in the district. There are lucrative prospects of limestone mining in the district.

Oil and Gas are being mined from the Marwat Block which is located in South Waziristan, Lakki Marwat, Tank, and D I Khan districts.

Irrigation

The following table shows the mode and area irrigated by each mode (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 7,630 HA Canal Irrigated (Private) 1,730 HA
Tube Wells 5,900 HA Canal Irrigated (Govt.) – HA
Wells – HA Lift Pumps/Others – HA

Table 1.10 Tank Irrigation Statistics

The district is mostly irrigated through the spate or rod kohi system, which utilizes the waters of the hill torrents emanating from the hills. Total area irrigated through this system in the district is 0.436 Million Acres.[1]

Figure 1.7 Tank Zam Dam Site

[1] Irrigation System, Arid Piedmont Plains of Southern Khyber-Paktunkhwa (NWFP), Pakistan: Issues & Solutions. A presentation by Irrigation Department Peshawar and AGES Consultants Peshawar

Industry

There is no Industrial Estate in the district but 6 Industrial Units are registered. Out these, 2 units are closed and 4 are functioning. These consist of 3 ice factories and 1 cement-based industry.

Trade (Import/ Export)

A major trade center is Tank city. Agricultural produce are the trading items of the district.

Handicrafts

The main handicrafts of the district are embroidery and household item made of leather and leaves of mazri palms. The other cottage industries of the district are agro-based.

[1] Livestock Statistics for former FR Tank added.

[2] Table 17, Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by size of Flock

[3] Small Medium Enterprise Development Authority, Honey Processing & Packaging Common Facility Center – Mingora Swat

Economic Infrastructure

The headquarter town, Tank city, is connected to DI Khan city and Lakki Marwat through black topped roads. The district is also connected to other parts of Pakistan through a link road connecting it to the Indus Highway (National Highway N-55).

The district is also connected to other parts of Pakistan via rail, but there is no air connection.

Roads

According to the KP Development Statistics 2018-19 the road statistics of Tank district are as follows:

Total Roads 923.9 km
High Type Roads 469.9 km
Low Type Roads 454.0 km

Table 1.9 Tank Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of Tank district include:

  • The National Highway N-55 (Indus Highway) is connected to Tank City via a black topped road called Tank-Indus Highway Link Road
  • Tank-D I Khan Road
  • Tank-Jandola Road
  • Kulachi-National Highway N-55 Link Road
  • Road Jandola, Shahur and South Waziristan Agency (District,Tank-Jandola-Makeen road)
  • Road from Jandola to Pir Tangi Post
  • Road connecting Pir Tangi Post to former F R Lakki Marwat

Rail and Airways

The district is connected via Pakistan Railways to other parts of the country; there is a railway station in Tank city, and other railway stations are Gul Imam Railway Station and Drakki Railway Station. There is no commercial airport in the district, and the nearest airport is in Dera Ismail Khan.

Radio and Television

Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) does not have a broadcasting station in the district. There are no privately-owned FM radio stations in the district, but the district has modern cable TV network.

Telecommunications

There are 05 telephone exchanges in the district providing 924 connections.[1] Cellular phone services, with considerable coverage in all major towns are also available.

Post Offices

There are 58 offices of Pakistan Post in the district with 1 Head Office, 8 Sub Post Offices, and 49 Branch Offices in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19).

Electricity and Gas

Electricity is supplied by Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO). The Tank Zam Dam Hydro Generation Plant generates 25 MW of electricity.

[1] KP Development Statistics 2018-19.

Banking/ Financial Services

In all, there are 10 bank branches in the district.[1]

Following banks all have their branches in the district:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

According to the “List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019”, provided by State Bank of Pakistan there are 9 branches of different conventional banks and 1 branch of Islamic Banking in the district.

Education

Tank district has a literacy rate of 43%. The following table shows the number of Government Educational Institutions in the district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 286/251 Middle Schools 40/28
High Schools 36/15 Higher Secondary Schools 03/01
Mosque Schools 03 Degree Colleges 02/01
Polytechnic Institutes Commerce Colleges/Institutes
Vocational Centers 01 Private Primary Schools 15
Private Schools (Middle to Higher Sec.) 54 Post Graduate College
Medical Colleges Engineering Colleges/University
Military Institutes Universities/public/private
Homeopathic Colleges Law School

Table 1.11 Tank Educational Institutes

Figure 1.8 Children getting Quranic education in Tank District Mosque School

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Tank district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./beds Institution No./beds
Hospitals 5/198 Dispensaries 46/-
Rural Health Centers 3/54 Basic Health Units 23/-
Mother Child Health Centers 01/- Sub-Health Centers 02/-
Leprosy Clinic TB Clinics 05/-
Private Hospitals 01/85 Private Medical Practitioners 15

Table 1.12 Tank Health Institutes

Policing

The District Police Officer (DPO) is directly responsible to the Zila Nazim for public safety. The Police Department is headed by the Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP). The SSP supervises and controls the police force in maintaining law and order and investigation of cases of criminal nature. The Police Department operates under the Police Rules. The DPO is in-charge of policing the district. There are 05 police stations[2] in the district.

[1] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[2] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

Environment and Biodiversity

Since there are no industries in the district, the air is generally free of pollutants, leaving the physical environment clean.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The most common trees of the district include ber or jujube (Zizyphus nummalaria), kikar (Acacia nilotica), ghaz or frash (Tamarix aphylla), jand (Prosopis cineraria) and tali or shisham (Dalbergio sissoo) are common trees of the district. Most common shrubs are kana (canna), mazri (Nannorhops ritchieana), bead tree or bakain (Melia azaderach), and senna (cassia senna).

In addition to the above, a large number of medicinal plants are also found in the district, which include:

Blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), phog (Calligonum polygonoides), hop bush or sanatha (Dodonaea viscosa), fig (Ficus carica), camel thorn or jawain (Alhagi maurorum), ishpur (Aristida cyanantha), bathu or fat hen (Chenopodium album), common cattail or typha (Typha latifolia), aak or poison gooseberry or kakink (Withania somnifera), bilobed speedwell (Veronica biloba), kainch mainch or nightshade (Solanum nigram).

Fauna

Grey partridge, black partridge, raptors, fox, jackal, markhor, Afghan urial, and goral are provided sanctuary in Sheikh Sultan Game Reserve. Migratory birds include species of ducks, geese, cranes, falcons, and houbara bustard among other migratory birds.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Fauna

The only wildlife protected area in the district is the Sheikh Sultan Game Reserve, which provides sanctuary to the above mentioned fauna of the district.