Punjab-Attock

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Introduction

Attock is located at the rim of the Potowar (Potohar) Plateau, overlooking the Kabul-Indus River confluence to its north. It is the historic gateway to Central Asia. It is located between 33° 46′ 20” to 34° north latitude and 71°43′ to 72° 56” east longitude. It has an altitude of 348 m (1,145 ft). The district is bounded on the north by Haripur and Swabi districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), in the east by Rawalpindi district, by Chakwal district in the southeast, Mianwali district in the southwest, and by Kohat and Nowshera of KP in the west and northwest respectively. The River Indus forms the western boundary of the district.

Figure 1.3 Entrance to Attock City

District at a Glance

Name of District Attock District
District Headquarter Attock City
Population[1] 1,883,556 persons
Area[2] 6,857 km2
Population Density[3] 270 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.1%
Male Population[5] 49.7%
Female Population[6] 50.3%
Urban Population[7] 26.0%
Tehsils

6 Tehsils:

1.    Attock Tehsil

2.    Fatehjang Tehsil

3.    Jand Tehsil

4.    Pindi Gheb Tehsil

5.    Hasan Abdal Tehsil

6.    Hazro Tehsil (newly established).

Main Towns Attock, Chhachh, Dhullian, Jand, Fatehjang, Pindi Gheb, Hasan Abdal, Hazro, Ghorghushti, Kamra, Sanjwal, Daurdad, Attock Khurd, Attock Fort, Kala Chitta, Attock Cantt, Shadi Khan, Mukhad, Sarwana, Malhoo, Nartopa, Bangi, Daman, Kund National Park, Thatta, Mithail, Mansar, Haji Shah, Basal, Makhad Sharif, Kani, Injra, Chhab, Jhamat
Literacy Rate[8] 64%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 78%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 52%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding and Fishing 50%
Elementary Workers 37.3%
Service, Shop And Market Sales 6.7%
Professionals 3.5%
Main Crops Wheat, ground nut, maize, jowar, bajra, barley, sugarcane, sunn hemp, tobacco, guar seed, gram, moong, maash, masoor, jowar, rapeseed & mustard, canola, and sesanum
Major Fruits Citrus, guava, bananas, apricot, ber, mulberry, chikoo, peach, and loquat
Major Vegetables Potatoes, cauliflower, onion, peas, chilies, coriander, bottle gourd, bitter gourd, tomatoes, and garlic
Forests (Area)[12] 73,000 HA[13]
Total Roads[14] 2,407.8 km
National Highways[15] 68.5 km
Motorways[16] 8.0 km
Provincial Highways[17] 2,331.3 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] – km
Electricity[19] 12 grid stations in the district, managed by Islamabad Electric Supply Corporation
No. of Tel. Exchanges[20] 56, ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 45,639 lines
Industrial Zones[21] There is no industrial zone in the district, but most factories are located along the Grand Trunk Road (now National Highway N 5). Kamra Aeronautical Complex and Sanjawal Ordinance Factories are situated in the district as well
Industrial Units[22] Carpets 2 Units
Cement 1 Unit
Cold Storage 2 Units
Flour Mills 30 Units
Food Products 1 Unit
Glass & Glass Products 3 Units
Iron & Steel Re-Rolling, Light Engineering, Motor Pumps, Packages, Poultry Feed, Power Generation 1 Unit Each
Textile Spinning 2 Units
Vegetable Ghee & Oil 3 Units
Woolen Textile 2 Units
Household Size[23] 6.1 per house
Houses with Piped Water[24] 27%
Houses with Electricity[25] 69.7%

Table 1.1 Attock District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 2017 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census results have not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics reports 73000 HA under Forests

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Pre-investment Study, Directorate of Industries, Lahore, Attock District Study 2012; Latest available

[20] Pre-investment Study, Directorate of Industries, Lahore, Attock District Study 2012, Latest available

[21] Pre-investment Study, Directorate of Industries, Lahore, Attock District Study 2012; Latest available

[22] Pre-investment Study, Directorate of Industries, Lahore, Attock District Study 2012; Latest available

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census results have not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census results have not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census results have not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites/ Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the District

Attock district has a rich history which is synonymous with that of Rawalpindi district and Hasan Abdal.[1] The areas belonging to Attock district were part of the Gandhara Civilization, which took root in what is now northern Pakistan and Afghanistan from the mid-1st millennium BC to the beginning of the 2nd millennium AD, and consisted of multiple dynasties which ruled over the same area. Takshashila (modern day Taxila) and Peshawar were its main cities. These areas first became a part of the Persian Empire and were then conquered by Alexander the Great in 327 BC. Alexander is believed to have crossed River Indus on a bridge of boats at Ohind which is 26 km from Attock. Chandragupta Maurya, after defeating Alexander’s army, took control of northwestern India (now Pakistan) by 316 BC. Chandragupta was the founder of the Mauryan Empire, which lasted from 322 to 185 BC. The Mauryan Empire was the largest empire (in area) to control (and unite) the Indian subcontinent. Its decline began 50 years after Ashoka’s death, and it ended in 185 BC with the rise of the Sunga Dynasty in Magadha (now in Bihar State, India). Emperor Ashoka adopted Buddhism as his religion and brought peace and prosperity to the region. After the decline of the Mauryan Empire, the region first became a part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (155-130 BC), then the Indo-Scythian (or the Sakas), from the middle of 2nd century BC to 1st century BC, and after that, the Indo-Parthian Kingdom (20 AD to 250 AD), the Kushan Dynasty (60-375 AD), the White Huns (455 AD-533 AD), and the Kabul Shahis (500 AD-1020/1026 AD) who were rulers who were followers predominantly of the Buddhist and Hindu faiths, and were thus, patrons of numerous faiths. After about 533 AD, there is no recorded history of the region. During this unrecorded period, Buddhism is said to have declined and Brahamanism revived.[2]

At the time of the Muslim invasion of India[3] the region was under the dominion of the Hindu kings of Kashmir and probably remained so till the 9th century AD. After that, the district came under the Brahman Rulers of Kabul popularly known as the Hindu Shahis.

The first verifiable event of modern history particularly pertaining to Attock is the battle between Mahmud Ghaznavi/ Ghazni and the Hindu army led by Anand Pal in 1008 AD.[4] This battle is said to have been fought on the plain of Chhachh, between Hazro and Attock near the Indus. It ended with the total defeat of the Hindu Rajput Confederacy. During the reigns of Mahmood Ghazni and other succeeding Sultans of Ghazni, there were many invasions of India, and even though the district lay in the path of the invading armies, no special event is associated with the district.

The Gakkars, who were an important tribe, ruled the areas belonging to Rawalpindi and Hazara region (Khyber Paktunkhwa) [5] until 1205 AD, when the northern portion of Attock district became the scene of a battle between the Gakkars and Sultan Shahab-ud-din Ghori (1149-1206 AD). Ghori, after defeating the Gakkars and restoring order in India, while returning westward, camped on the banks of the Indus. His tent was left open on the Indus side for coolness. A band of Gakkars swam across the river at midnight to where the Sultan’s tent was pitched, and on entering unopposed, killed him. There is, however, no record indicating whether the Gakkars regained control over the region after this assassination.

Through the 13th century and onwards, Ghaznavi and Afghan incursions into India continued. In the 16th century, the Mughals conquered India. The archeological remains of Mughal settlements are still present in Attock and Fatehjang Tehsils. In 1519 AD, Emperor Babar marched through the district and crossed the River Soan on his way to Khushab, Bhera and Chiniot (all in Punjab).

The history of the district, thus, remains mostly tribal,[6] since most of the invading armies just passed through the district after receiving gifts of horses and hawks by the various tribes residing in the district. Historically, then, the Janjua tribe was the first to control the district. Babar (the Mughal Emperor), in his memoirs, says that the Janjuas had, from ancient times, been the rulers of the Salt Range between the Indus and the Jhelum. Jats, Gujars, and other tribes settled on various hills and valleys of the district. The Janjuas were ousted by the Khattars who claim to have come with the earliest Muslim invaders and natives of the Khorasan. Awans and Ghebos came to the district from the south of the Salt Range.

Mughal Emperor, Akbar the Great, built the Attock Fort in 1581 AD under the supervision of Khwaja Shams-ud-din Khawafi. This fort saw countless battles between the Sikhs and the Afghans in later years. In 1808, when the Sikh ruler, Ranjit Singh, tried to include all the states south of Sutlej River in his jurisdiction, the rulers of these states sought, and obtained, the protection of the British. Despite this, in 1813, Ranjit Singh secured Attock Fort as well as the Koh-i-Noor diamond and thus consolidated his rule over Punjab. The British annexed the area in 1848.

During the 1857 war of independence, because of the fort’s (and the district’s) strategic location (as the controlling route between Punjab and Peshawar), the British forces quickly removed the susceptible Sepoy garrison from the Attock Fort, and consolidated its position to regain control of Delhi.

The contemporary Attock district was officially constituted in 1904 by the British. The district was named Campbellpur (Campbell town) after Sir Campbell who laid the foundation stone of Campbellpur City in 1908, a few kilometers southeast of the old Attock Khurd town.

The renowned builders, Joseph Westwood and Robert Baillie of Westwood Baillie & Co, London, built the iron girder bridge on Kabul River in 1880, which is a two-level bridge, with the railway line situated above a pavement for road traffic and pedestrians. Once the pavement was discontinued for road traffic in the late 1970s, the bridge has been lying abandoned.

Although Pakistan became independent in 1947, it was not until 1978 that the name Attock was used again for the city.

Attock’s first oil well was drilled in Khore in 1946. It has an oil and gas field, Dakhini, near Jand. Many international companies have, since, explored different sites in hopes of finding more oil and gas deposits.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Attock district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 3
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 5

Under the Local Government and Community Development Act, Attock district has one District Council and 6 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Attock
  • Hazro
  • Hassan Abdal
  • Fatehjang
  • Pindi Gheb
  • Jand

Administrative Divisions

Attock district covers an area of 6,857 km² and is subdivided into 6 tehsils, named after their major towns:

Attock 11 Union Councils
Fatehjang 14 Union Councils
Hassan Abdal 08 Union Councils
Jand 12 Union Councils
Pindi Gheb 13 Union Councils
Hazro (established from Attock tehsil in 2006) 14 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Attock Administrative Divisions

Heritage Sites/ Tourist Attractions

There are a number of buildings and heritage sites protected under the Government of Pakistan Laws in the district. These include:[1]

  • Lala Rukh Tomb, Hasan Abdal, Attock
  • Begam Ki Serai, on the left bank of River Indus, near Attock Fort, constructed by Empress Nur Jehan, as a caravan serai (rest stop for caravans)
  • Saidan Baoli, Hattian, Attock
  • Chitti Baoli, Pindi Suleiman Makhan, Attock
  • Attock Fort, constructed by Emperor Akbar in 1581 AD
  • Attock Tomb, on Grand Trunk (G.T.) Road (now N 5), near Ziarat Hazrat Baba Sahib, Attock
  • Behram ki Baradari, Attock
  • Tope and Monastery (Buddhist remains), 8 km (5 mi) east of Hasan Abdal, Baoli Pind, Attock
  • Kallar (Temple) or Sassi da Kallara, Shah Muhammad Wali village, Tehsil Talagang
  • Site at Garhi, Malak Mala village, 9.6 km (6 mi) east of Hasan Abdal, Attock
  • Inderkot Mosque, Fatehjang, Inderkot, Attock
  • Buddhist Site, (Behari Colony) Hasan Abdal Town, Behari Colony, Attock

Non-protected heritage sites include Hakimon Ka Maqbara, Gurdwara Panja Sahib, and the Mosque of Fateh Khan in Fatehjang Tehsil. This mosque is a prototype of Mughal mosques. Other buildings include the many Sikh Buildings built during the British period, Samadhi and Gurdwara of Than Singh (a pious Sikh during British rule), Bilal Mosque, and Muslim tombs in the Malahi Tola Village. There are a number of shrines and tombs in the district, prominent among which is that of Syed Pir Noori Badshah in Mukhad Sharif (a small village near Makhad town). Other shrines in the same village include the shrines of Hazrat Pir Qasim Ali Shah and Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Ali Chishti.

Figure 1.9 Hakimon Ka Maqbara & Lala Rukh Tomb

Figure 1.10 Attock Fort

Figure 1.11 Begam Ki Serai in 1956

Figure 1.13 A Golf Course, Attock

 

[1] Guidelines for Critical and Sensitive Areas, GoP

[1] Imperial Gazetteer of India v.6 p.132

[2] Punjab District Gazetteer: Attock District v.29 p.36

[3] Punjab District Gazetteer: Attock District v.29 p.36

[4] District Profile by Govt. of Punjab

[5] Punjab District Gazetteer: Attock District v.29 p.36

[6] District Profile by Govt. of Punjab.

Topography

Most of Attock district is located in the Potowar plateau of Punjab. Geographically, the district consists of mainly hills, plateaus, and plains. The Indus River flows on the northern and western borders of the district. The district is in the shape of an irregular oval; on its north, there are hills which are the southern extensions of the hills of Abbottabad district (the southern hills of the Gandgar Range of Haripur district) that form a projection in the north of Attock tehsil. In the middle of the district, along its western boundary in Jand and Attock tehsils, are the Kala Chitta Mountains. This range of mountains divides the district into 2 distinct parts, with one on the north and northwest of the Kala Chitta Range, and the other to the south and east of it. The former includes Attock and Hasan Abdal Tehsils and the latter includes Fatehjang, Pindi Gheb, and parts of Jand tehsils. The Kala Chitta Range of mountains is almost 56 km long; its greatest height in the west, near River Indus, is more than 1,000 m. The range is rugged and covered with brush forests, and consists of several limestone ridges.

Another range of mountains, the Khari Moorat Range is situated in the Fatehjang tehsil. This range rises to a height of about 950 m and consists mostly of limestone ridges. The southern boundary of the district is formed by the Soan River, which is a tributary of River Indus.

Fatehjang and Pindi Gheb tehsils are upland plains which are dissected by numerous streams and hills.

The northern extremity of Attock district falls into 2 zones: the northern and the southern. The northern zone is the fertile Chhachh plain and the southern is a dry, sandy, and stony tract which rises to the Kala Chitta Range of mountains.

An important feature of the topography of Attock district is the general slope, the direction of which is northeast to southwest.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The River Indus flows on the western and northern sides of the district; Soan River flows along the eastern boundary of the district and joins River Indus. The Haro River originates from Haripur town and passes through the Attock tehsil on the north of the Kala Chitta Range. There are 14 perennial streams and nullahs[1] in the district. These are Haro, Soan, Sill, Naindna, Dotal, Raisi, Ghambir, Namal, Soka, Gandakas, Saghar, Ghanir, Jhablat, and Kala Pani.

There are a number of small and mini-dams built on various streams for the collection and storage of water. The common reservoir of these dams attracts a large number of migratory birds.

The ground water resources are limited. The main sources of water for humans and livestock are wells and dugout ponds. The drainage is satisfactory. The entire area is drained off to the west into the Indus River, largely through Soan River. Springs are mostly seasonal, and flow only during the rains.

Figure 1.4 Historical Bridge over River Indus

Figure 1.5 River Haro passing through Kala Chitta Range

Forests

The following table shows the total area of, and types of, forests in the district:[2]

Total Forest Area 180,247 A Under Provincial Govt 815 A
Resumed Lands 4,412 A Un-Classed Forests – A
Linear Plantation 679 km Reserved Forests under provincial Govt. 175,020 A

Table 1.3 Attock Forest Statistics

The forests of the district are Subtropical Scrub Forests and are mostly located on the Kala Chitta and Khairi-Moorat Ranges. These forests support a scattered growth of olives, khair (Acacia catechu) and lesser shrubs. Other trees found in these forests are shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) and dhreh.

Some of the Reserved Forests of the district are Mukhad West Forest, Ghoko Forest, Tora Bera Forest, Amanpur Forest, Ban Ramay Sha Forest, Naka Afghan Forest, Mera Nilhad Forest, Tanwin Forest, Maryala Forest, Kali Dilli Forest, Nara Forest, Sanwalian Forest, Chatti Forest, and Dhoke Tahli Forest.

Soils

Attock slates are Precambrian[3] and contain gritty layers of an arenaceous[4] type. On weathering, they give rise to fertile, loamy clay, which collects only in sheltered places. The major part of the area (of the Kala Chitta forest area) is composed of limestone.

Climate

The climate of Attock district is extreme. The western portion of the district is hotter and drier than the eastern and northern parts. The winter is bitterly cold, while the summer is unbearably hot. The temperature rises first in April, then remains almost steady due to windstorms from Balochistan, up to the middle of May, when it shoots up again. June and July are the hottest months (average maximum temperature 42 °C), while December and January are the coldest months (average minimum temperature 1.7 °C). The monsoon begins by the third week of July and continues till the beginning of September when the nights get cooler. The cold weather sets in by the middle of October. During winter, the days are bright, and the nights are clear. Early spring frosts are common, and sufficiently severe to cause widespread injury to plants, even to the indigenous tree growth in a fairly advanced stage of development. Frost may occur, especially at the upper altitudinal limits and in the depths of the valleys.

The area south of the Kala Chitta Range is an upland plateau, and is intensely hot in the summer, while in winter, a chilly North Wind prevails. In Attock tehsil, the summer is short while the winter is severe and long.

Rainfall is scanty and uncertain, and its annual distribution is very uneven. The annual rainfall varies from 250 to 750 mm. Monsoons start late in July, and most of the annual rain falls before September. Spring and fall rains are rare and uncertain. Winter rains start by the end of December and stop by the end of February when the windstorms set in. Winter rains generally extend over a shorter period than the Monsoons, which are followed by a prolonged period of dry weather.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means there will be minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality in District Attock, Pakistan, 2014, by Muhammad Yunas, Sarfraz Ahmad, Bashir Ahmad, Obaid ur Rehman and Sher Afzal

[2] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[3] Precambrian is the earliest part of earth’s history

[4] Consisting of sand or sand-like particles

Population

The following table shows the population of the district and its tehsils as per 2017 Census:

Tehsil/ Taluka

Area

km2

Population Male % Female % Urban% Growth Rate %
Attock District 6,857 1,883,556 48.7 50.3 26.0 2.1
Attock Tehsil 1,350 434,705
Fatehjang 1,249 325,970
Hasan Abdal 350 216,566
Jand 2,043 295,483
Pindi Gheb 1,865 271,594
Hazro Included in Attock Tehsil 339,238

Table 1.4 Attock Population Statistics

Religion[1]

Muslims 99.24%
Christians 0.66%
Hindus 0.01%
Ahmadis 0.06%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others 0.01%

Table 1.5 Attock Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 1.06%
Punjabi 87.2%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 8.3%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.2%
Others 3.2%

Table 1.6 Attock Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census results have not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census results have not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Major economic activity of the rural areas of the district is agriculture and its allied livestock breeding. The major employers of the district include:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding and Fishing (50%)
  • Elementary Workers (37.3%)
  • Service, Shop and Market Sales (6.7%)
  • Professionals (3.5%)

Agriculture

The district falls under the Barani Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan and relies on rain for its agriculture. The main crops of the district are bajra, barley, guar seeds, ground nut, jowar, khariff pulses, moong, maash, maize, rapeseed and mustard, sunn hemp, sugarcane, sesanum, tobacco, wheat, and millet.

The main fruits grown in the area are apricots, citrus, and guavas.

Main vegetables include onions, potatoes, tomatoes, spinach, olives, chilies, coriander, garlic, peas, cauliflower, eggplant, and cucumber.

Figure 1.6 Cotton Crop, Attock district

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 685,700 HA Reported Area 692,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 320,000 HA Net Sown 204,000 HA
Current Fallows 116,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 372,000 HA
Culturable Waste 42,000 HA Forest Area 73,000 HA

Table 1.7 Attock Land Use Statistics

[1] Attock District Profile by Govt. of Punjab

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the livestock population as of the 2010 Census of Livestock as quoted in Punjab Development statistics 2018-19:

Cattle 391,000 Heads Buffaloes 124,000 Heads Sheep 125,000 Heads
Goats 442,000 Heads Camels 2,366 Heads Horses 2,191 Heads
Mules 561 Heads Asses 28,277 Heads

Table 1.8 Attock Livestock Statistics

Dhanni cow, and Salt Range sheep are famous livestock breeds of Attock distict. The district is also known for horse breeding.

Poultry

There are a total of 392 government owned poultry farms in the district.[1] Also according to Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 there are 389 broiler, 62 layer and 2 poultry breeding privately owned farms in the district.

Fishing

There is a fish breeding center at Hattian in Attock district, from where fish seeds are supplied to privately-owned fish farms as well as to government-owned farms. The fish seeds are also stocked in small dams across the district. Mahseer, Bachwa, and other fish are caught in Haro, Soan, and the Indus Rivers. Most of this fish is consumed locally.

Fishing is carried out in River Indus Tehsil Attock and Jand as well as Sukh Nullah and Shahpur Dam Reservoir.[2] Reservoirs of other small dams are also used for fishing.

Bee Keeping

Commercial bee keeping is carried out in various forests and farms in the district.

Irrigation

The district relies heavily on rains for its agriculture. The total area under barani irrigation is 374,613 acres, and 43,818 acres are irrigated through wells and tube wells. There are a total of 3,737 government and privately-owned tube wells in the district.

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and the area served by the system as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area Sown 216,000 HA Irrigated Area 30,000 HA
Un-Irrigated Area 186,000 HA Canal Irrigated 3,000 HA
Dug Wells 16,000 HA Tube Well Irrigated 7,000 HA
Canal Well Irrigated 1,000 HA Canal Tube Wells – HA
Others 3,000 HA

Table 1.11 Attock Irrigation Statistics

There are a large number of small dams which store rain water for irrigation purposes.[5] These include Tanaza Dam, Sipiala Dam, Bango Dam, Ratti Kassi Dam, Qibla Bandi Dam, Kanjoor Dam, Chani Bor Dam, Shahpur Dam, Kamra Dam near Kamra, Nurpur Kamalia Dam, Kalu Khurd Dam on Nullah Sehat, Nara Kas Dam on Nara Kas stream, Dhok Jhalar on Nochindi Kas stream, Saghri Dam on Namal Kas stream, Trimni Kas Dam on Trimni Kas stream, Jabbi Dam on Lelamar Nullah, Shakarda Dam on Shakarda Kas stream, and Mirwal Dam on Noorpur Kas stream.

In addition, there are more than 26 mini-dams in the district.

Minerals and Mining

Attock has the distinction of being the first region in Pakistan to have an oil well, which is in Khore. It was established in 1946. Attock also has an oil and gas field, Dakhini, near Jand, and in Fatehjang tehsil.

Argillaceous clay, fire clay, marble, silica sand laterite are mined in Attock district. Coal is found in the Kala Chitta Range. Limestone and gypsum occur abundantly.

Industry

Kamra Aeronautical Complex and Sanjawal Ordinance Factories are located in the district. There are a total of 52 industrial units in the district. Major industries include flour mills, glass and glass products, industrial/ burn gases, iron and steel re-rolling mills, packages, poultry feeds, textile spinning, vegetable ghee and cooking oil production, and woolen textile spinning and weaving mills.

The following table shows the number and type of industry present in the district:[3]

Type of Industry Number Type of Industry Number
Carpets 02 Cement 01
Cold Storage 02 Flour Mills 30
Food Products 01 Glass And Glass Products 03
Iron And Steel Re-Rolling 01 Light Engineering 01
Motor Pumps 01 Packaging 01
Poultry Feeds 01 Power Generation 01
Textile Spinning 02 Vegetable Ghee/Cooking Oil 03
Woolen Textile/Spinning 02

Table 1.9 Attock Industries

Handicrafts

The traditional crafts of Attock include embroidered shoes, painted and lacquered woodwork, calico printing, and handloom cloth and blankets. Attock and Pindi Gheb produce elegant zari embroidered shoes. Pindi Gheb is also famous for lacquer woodwork, toys, and carved legs used for bridal beds. Calico printing of bed sheets, table covers, and similar articles are done at Fatehjang. Iron vessels are made at Mukhad and blankets are manufactured in Pindi Gheb and Fatehjang tehsils.

 

Economic Infrastructure

The district is linked with Rawalpindi, Kohat, Nowshera, Haripur, Mianwali, and Chakwal districts through black topped roads. The G.T. Road (now known as N 5) passes through Attock city. There is a railway track which links Attock to both Peshawar and Karachi.

Roads and Transport

The following table shows the road statistics of the district, as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road length 2,407.8 km
National Highways 68.5 km
Provincial highways 2331.26 km
Motorways 8.0 km

Table 1.10 Attock Road Statistics

Some of the important roads include:

  • Pindi Gheb-Attock Road
  • Jand-Pindi Gheb Road
  • National Highway N 80 passes very near to Jand and connects the district to National Highway N 55 or Indus Highway, which connects Karachi and Peshawar, running on the east bank of River Indus.

Figure 1.14 Attock Bridge

Figure 1.15 Kohat Road near Rangli, District Attock

Rail and Airways

The main Peshawar-Karachi railway line passes through Attock district. The district is also linked with Rawalpindi and Peshawar through the railway network. The main railway stations are Attock, Basal, and Jand.

There is a military airbase (Kamra Airbase or Minhas Airbase) in the district.

Figure 1.16 Basal Railway Junction, Attock District

Figure 1.17 Train on Attock Bridge

Radio and Television

There is a private local radio station called Awaz Radio FM 105 broadcasting in the district. Cable TV can also be viewed throughout the district.

Telecommunications

There are 56 telephone exchanges operating in the district, each ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 45,639 lines.[1] Nearly all of the major cellular companies also operate in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

Pakistan Post has its headquarters and its night office in Attock city. Most of the major courier services of Pakistan deliver to Attock. There are a total of 80 post offices in the district,[2] of which 14 are in Attock tehsil, 22 in Hasan Abdal/ Hazro, none in Fatehjang, 17 in Pindi Gheb, and 27 in Jand.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are a total of 81 branches of various banks in the district, of which 17 are in Attock, 27 in Hazro, 7 in Hasan Abdal, 10 in Fatehjang, 8 in Pindi Gheb, and 12 in Jand.[3]

According to the list of Reporting Bank Branches 2018-19 by State Bank of Pakistan Allied Bank Ltd., the following banks have their branches in the district:

  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Falah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Bank Islami Pakistan Ltd.
  • Dubai Islamic Bank Pakistan Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • J S Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • National Investment Bank Ltd.
  • Silk Bank Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • The Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 151 branches of various conventional banks and 18 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Islamabad Electric Supply Corporation looks after supply of electricity in the district. There are 12 grid stations ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV[4] in the district. Natural gas is available in Attock city, Hasan Abdal, Pindi Gheb, Kamra, Faqirabad, and Hazro.

Education

The following table shows the details of educational facilities in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 420/429 Middle Schools 88/113
Secondary Schools 119/96 Higher Secondary 13/12
Degree Colleges 10/07 Other Higher Secondary[6] 07/-
Other Degree Colleges[7] 01/- Technical Training Institutes[8] 06/-
Vocational Institutes[9] -/05 Commercial Training Institutes[10] 03/-
Universities[11] 01 Govt. Mosque Schools
Medical Schools[12] 01 Engineering Schools

Table 1.12 Attock Educational Institutes

There are 2 privately-owned universities in the district and a government-owned Cadet College at Hasan Abdal.[13]

In addition there are number of primary, middle and high schools that are privately-owned in the district.

Figure 1.18 Cadet College, Attock

Figure 1.19 Government Post-Graduate College, Attock

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is in charge of health services provided in the district. The DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government hospitals 08/535 Dispensaries 20/38
Rural Health Centers 05/100 Basic Health Units 63/126
T B Clinics -/- Mother Child Health Centers 05/-
Private Dispensaries/ Hospitals[14] 50/NA[15] Sub Health Centers 02/-

Table 1.13 Attock Health Care Institutes

Policing

The Inspector General Police (IGP) stationed at Lahore is responsible for the policing of Punjab. The Regional Police Officer (RPO) Rawalpindi region reports to the IGP and is responsible for policing Attock district. The District Police Officer (DPO) Attock is in charge of the district. The DPO Attock has 10 Deputy Superintendant Police (DSP; each in charge of 1 policing circle). These DSPs control 14 police stations[16] in the Attock jurisdiction.

 

[1] Pre-Investment Study District Attock 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[2] Pre-Investment Study District Attock 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[3] Pre-Investment Study District Attock 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[4] Pre-Investment study District Attock 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[5] Attock District Profile by Govt. of Punjab

[6] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other Organizations

[7] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other Organizations

[8] Pre-Investment Study 2012 Attock District, Directorate of Industries, Punjab

[9] Pre-Investment Study 2012 Attock District, Directorate of Industries, Punjab

[10] Pre-Investment Study 2012 Attock District, Directorate of Industries, Punjab

[11] Comsat University Campus, Wah Medical College

[12] Comsat University Campus, Wah Medical College

[13] World Urdu Forum, Website—data retrieved on May 02 2011

[14] Three Year Rolling Plan 2010-13; District Attock, Gov of Punjab (Latest available)

[15] Number of beds not available

[16] Punjab Police Official website.

[1] Table 17 (Number Of Commercial Poultry Farms And Number Of Birds By Size Of Flock)

[2] Fishing Manual, Fisheries Department, Punjab

[3] Pre-Investment Study, Directorate of Industries Punjab, Lahore (District Study Attock) 2012; Latest available.

Environment and Biodiversity

Attock district forms part of the Potowar Plateau which typically consists of dry, sparsely vegetated plains intersected by streams and rivers that cut valleys and gorges into sandstones, siltstones, and shales. Low rainfall, the clearing of vegetation for fuel wood, and the development of agricultural land contribute to the parched nature of the landscape.

The Chhachh plain of the district, with its numerous wells, is exceedingly fertile. The rest of the district is poor in natural resources. There are wild tracts of arid mountains and rock that predominate the landscape. The soil is light and shallow, with stone near the surface, and broken up by deep ravines.

Besides the Kala Chitta Range, the Makhad, and Narrara hills enclose the barren ravines of the central zone of the district.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The main flora of Kala Chitta Range consist of phulai (Acacia modesta), babul or kikar (Acacia nilotica), puth kunda or prickly chaff plant (Achyranthes aspera), sufaida or snow bush (Aerva javanica), wild fig (Ficus polmata), bakain (Melia azerdorach), kikar (Acacia nilotica), pipal (Ficus religosa), poplar (Populus alba), mulberry (Morus alba), simal (Bombax ceiba), shisham (Dilbergio sissoo), white sirin (Albizia procera), siris or shirin (Albizia lebbeck), aloe or kanwar gandal (Aloe vera), amaranth or khardar chulari (Amaranthus spinosus), amaranth or chulai (Amaranthus viridis), kuntze or gulabi booti (Anisomeles indica), peanut or moong phali (Arachis hypogaea), musli (Asparagus adscendens), neem (Azadirachta indica), koch or black mustard/ kali surson (Brassica nigra), swallow wort or aak (Calotropis procera), naudin or chibar (Cucumus melo var. agrestis), khabal grass (Cynodon dactylon), Stapf or murga ghas (Datura innoxia), sanatha (Dodonaea viscose), globe thistle or untkatara (Echinops echinatus), and snake weed or chatri dudhak (Euphorbia helioscopia).

A total of 49 species belonging to 29 families of medicinal plants are found in the district.

Fauna

The forests of Kala Chitta Range are home to 9 different species of mammals, which include Punjab urial, barking deer, goral, chinkara, wild sheep, gazelle, wolves, leopards, Asiatic jackal, rhesus monkeys, wild boar, flying squirrel, porcupine, fox, and palm squirrel. Urial, chinkara, chakor, hare, mongoose, wild boar, and yellow-throated martin are also abundant.

The rocky areas and rangelands provide both feeding and breeding habitat for several bird species, which include black and grey partridges, see-see partridge, chakor, bank myna, cuckoo, bulbul, hoopoe, parrots, egrets, ruddy shelduck, mallard, falcon, shikra, eagle tilor, and dove.

Some of the common reptiles of the district include frogs, house geckos, lizards, water snakes, sand snakes, Indian python, kraits, vipers, cobra, rat snake, and fresh water turtles.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Fauna

Some of the Protected Wildlife areas include:

  • Kala Chitta: This is a protected Game Reserve which was given the status of Nature Park under the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act in 2009. Indian wolf, jungle cat, barking deer, panther, and common serotine bat (chimgadur) are threatened species of mammals and are given protection in the Kala Chitta Game reserve. It includes a wildlife breeding center
  • Rakh Kheri Murat Game Reserve
  • Zoo and Wildlife Breeding Center (Wildlife Park) Attock

Figure 1.8 Deer in Attock Wildlife Park