Punjab-Dera Ghazi Khan

Introduction

Dera Ghazi Khan (DG Khan) district is located between 29° 34′ to 31° 20′ north latitude and between 69° 53′ to 70° 54′ east longitude. The district is bounded on the north by Dera Ismail Khan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and its adjoining tribal areas; on the west by Musa Khel and Barkhan districts of Balochistan province; on the south by Rajanpur district; and on the east by Muzaffargarh and Layyah districts. Muzaffargarh and Layyah are separated from DG Khan by River Indus.

The district earned a place in the Guinness Book of World Records for making the biggest charpoy (string cot) in the world, which is still on display in the district.

District at a Glance

Name of District Dera Ghazi Khan
District Headquarter Dera Ghazi Khan City
Population[1] 2,872,201 persons
Area[2] 11,922 km2
Population Density[3] 245.7 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.98%
Male Population[5] 50.5%
Female Population[6] 49.5%
Urban Population[7] 19.1%
Tehsils 2 Tehsils:

1.    Dera Ghazi Khan

2.    Taunsa Shareef

1 Tribal Area:

1.    De-excluded area

Main Towns Dera Ghazi Khan, Taunsa Shareef, Jampur, Vihowa, Churatta, Basti Fauja, Hakim Shahwala, Mangrota, Yaro Khoosa, Tibbi Miana, Tibbi Qaisrani, Kot Chutta, Sakhi Sarwar, Fort Munro, Shah Sadar Din, Shadan Lund, Mithanwali, Peer Aqil, and Mana Ahmadani
Literacy Rate[8] 43%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 58%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 29%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 67.4%

 

Construction 11.3%
Manufacturing 1.5%
Wholesale/ Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant 6.9%
Community, Social, Personal Services +Other 12.9%
Main Crops Sugarcane, cotton, wheat, rice, guar seed, sunflower, tobacco, jowar, bajra, moong, maash, masoor, maize, barley, gram, rapeseed & mustard, groundnut, sesanum, sugarbeet, linseed, sunn hemp, chickpea, and fodder
Major Fruits Citrus, mango, guavas, pomegranate, dates, jaamun, phalsa, ber, and mulberry
Major Vegetables Chilies, onion, potatoes, tomatoes, peas, cauliflower, bottle gourd, turnips, okra, carrots, brinjals, and radishes
Forests (Area)[12] 59,000 HA[13]
Total Roads[14] 2,121.0 km
National Highways[15] 239.0 km
Motorways[16] – km
Provincial Highways[17] 1.882.0 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] – km
No of Grid Stations[19] 17 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[20] 29 telephone exchanges ranging in capacity from 200 lines to 14,736 lines
Industrial Zones[21] No industrial estate, but 201 small, medium, and large enterprises
No. of Industrial Units[22] Rice Mills 39 Units
Cotton Ginning & Pressing 70 Units
Carpets 25 Units
Household Size[23] 7.9 persons per household
Houses with Piped Water Inside[24] 19.5%
Houses with Electricity[25] 56%

Table 1.1 DG Khan District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics marks 24,000 HA under forests.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Pre-investment Study, Directorate of Industries, Lahore, DG Khan District Study 2012; Latest available.

[20] Pre-investment Study, Directorate of Industries, Lahore, DG Khan District Study 2012; Latest available.

[21] Pre-investment Study, Directorate of Industries, Lahore, DG Khan District Study 2012; Latest available.

[22] Pre-investment Study, Directorate of Industries, Lahore, DG Khan District Study 2012; Latest available. For a detailed list of industries, please consult the section on Industry

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites and Tourist Attractions

Brief History

The Imperial Gazetteer of India, while describing the history of the district, shows that

the tract between the Suleiman mountains and the River Indus was mostly barren with Harrand [Rajanpur District], Mari [Mianwali District] and Asni [now in Rajanpur] being the only towns, rest being a baren wilderness. Popular etymology connects Harrand with Harnakus the daitya who was devoured by the lion incarnation of Lord Vishnu, it also derives Asni from Asan the place or seat of Raja Rasalu the mythical King of Punjab, and declares Mari to be the abode of Kokkilan his faithless Queen.

With the rest of Sindh the District fell in the year A.D. 712 before the young Arab conqueror Muhammad Bin Qasim, the first Muhammadan invader of India and throughout the Muhammadan supremacy it continued to rank as an outlying apanage[1] of Multan Province. (v. 11, p. 250)

The following details of the history of DG Khan have been extracted from both the Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series Punjab (v. II, p.259) and the DG Khan District Census Report 1998.

The early history of the district is linked to that of Multan.[2] In 1398, Timur (historically known as Tamerlane) invaded northern India, attacking the Delhi Sultanate ruled by Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mehmud of the Tughlaq Dynasty. After crossing the Indus River on 30 September 1398, he sacked Tulamba (Khanewal district) and massacred most of its inhabitants. He then advanced and captured Multan thus making the area independent of the Delhi Sultanate.[3] In 1445 AD, the chief of the Langah, a Jat Tribe, Rai Sahra, seized Multan and region, and proclaimed himself King with the title Sultan Qutb-ud-din. The Langah claim to be of Afghan descent.

Till 1556 AD, Multan and its suburbs, including the areas of DG Khan, were ruled by Langah Kings and the area was nicknamed the Derajat.[4] During Langah rule, in 1450, the Nahars, a branch of the Lodhi Family, attacked the Langahs and succeeded in setting up their government at Kin (Rajanpur district) and Sitpur (Muzaffargarh district). They then proceeded to extend their dominion in the Derajat area.

Malik Sohrab Baloch (a Baloch) invaded the area and received a fiefdom from the Langah rulers. Malik Sohrab Baloch was succeeded by a Mirani Chieftain, Haji Khan, whose son Ghazi Khan gave his name to the town he founded before the end of the 15th century. 18 successive princes of the same family (the Haji Khan Family) held the lower Derajat areas successfully, and alternately bore the names of their two ancestors: Haji or Ghazi Khan.

During the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar, the Mirani dynasty of Ghazi Khan made a nominal submission to the Mughal Empire, but though they paid a “quit-rent” and accepted their lands in jagirs, their practical independence remained undisturbed. In 1700 AD, near the end of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb’s reign, one of the Ghazi Khans rebelled, but was defeated by the Governor of Multan. About this time, the Kalhora family rose to prominence in Sindh and soon came into conflict with the Miranis. They prevailed so far that, in 1739 when Nadir Shah came into power, he made Nur Muhammad Kalhora his Governor, replacing the Mirani Governor. The last Ghazi Khan who ruled the area died in 1758.

A series of Afghan rulers succeeded to the throne of Afghanistan, who then appointed Governors for the DG Khan areas under the Durrani monarchs, but this era was constantly disturbed by warfare among the Baloch clans which led to a reign of anarchy. During the same period of unrest in the Multan area, Sikh power was rising in the Punjab. In 1819 Ranjit Singh extended his conquests towards the Derajats beyond the Indus, and annexed the DG Khan areas. Sadiq Muhammad Khan, the Nawab of Bahawalpur, received this area as his fiefdom on payment of an annual tribute to Lahore. In 1827 AD, the Nawab overran the northern portion, and the entire area became the Sikhs’ domain. In 1832 AD the Dewan Sawan Mal of Multan took over the district, and his son Mulraj continued to exercise control over it until the end of the Second Sikh War in 1849 when the area was annexed by the British.

The British established the colonial system in the continent and declared DG Khan as a district in 1849. General Courtland was appointed as the first Deputy Commissioner of this district. In 1908, the old city of DG Khan (which was situated at a distance of 10 km east of the present city) was destroyed by a heavy flood in the River Indus. As a result, the existing city of DG Khan was developed in 1910. The district was divided into 2 revenue subdivisions: a Tribal Belt called the Special Area, and a Political Area.

This Tribal Belt is inhabited by different Baloch Tribes. There are no written historical records of their influx into these hills. Oral stories which are passed from generation to generation recount this history, according to which, during British rule, this area was under the direct control of the Governor General. Each tribe was constituted of Tumans and the chief called a Tumandar. This Tumandar had first class (top level) magisterial powers and all civil and judicial cases were decided by him under the Frontier Crimes Regulations.

The predominantly Muslim population supported the Muslim League and the Pakistan Movement during the Independence struggle. After the Independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority population of Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while Muslim refugees from India settled in the DG Khan district.

After Partition, the Tumandari system of the Tribal Area was withdrawn, and 3 Political Naib Tehsildars and 1 Political Tehsildar have since been appointed to administer justice in the region instead. In 1950, the Special Area was declared as De-Excluded Area of DG Khan and the Jirgas of the old Tumandari system are now being presided over by Naib Tehsildars instead of Tumandars.

The town has largely grown towards the north and south; the land on the west of the city contends with the dangers of flooding torrents.[5] Growth has also occurred towards the eastern side. Almost all of the new developments in the north and east of the planned town are haphazardly built. The development in the town from 1947 to 1958 remained slow due to a lack of transportation and communication facilities. Only a boat bridge on the River Indus in the winter season, and a steamer service during the summer season linked DG Khan with the rest of Punjab. Once the Taunsa Barrage on the River Indus was completed in 1953, the pace of development gained momentum. Keeping in view the rapidly increasing population, district DG Khan was further divided into 2 districts in 1982: DG Khan district and Rajanpur district.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, DG Khan district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 3
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 6

Under the Punjab Local Government and Community Development DG Khan District has 1 District Council, 1 Municipal Corporation (DG Khan) and 2 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Taunsa
  • Kot Chutta

Administrative Divisions

DG Khan district is the largest district (in area) of Pakistan; it covers an area of 11,922 km² and is subdivided into 3 Tehsils named after their major towns and 1 Tribal Area:

Dera Ghazi Khan Tehsil 41 Union Councils
Taunsa Shareef Tehsil 18 Union Councils
Tribal Area (De-Excluded Area) 01 Union Councils

Table 1.2 DG Khan Administrative Divisions

Heritage Sites and Tourist Attractions

The following sites are being protected under Government of Pakistan Laws:

  • Ghazi Khan’s Tomb, Mohalla Zaminaran, Village Chirotta, DG Khan: This was built in the 15th century and resembles the tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam in Multan. It is located in the Mulla Quaid Shah Graveyard
  • Ther Dallu Roy, Dajal, DG Khan

Non-protected heritage sites include:

  • Shrine of Sakhi Sarwar: Also known as Sultan Sakhi Sarwar, Lakh Data, Sakhi Sultan, and Lalan Wali Sarkar, Sakhi Sarwar was the son of Hazrat Zain ul Abedin, who migrated fromBaghdad and settled in Shahkot, near Multan during the 13th century. Sakhi Sarwar preached Islam in Sodhra, Wazirabad. He came to DG Khan from Dhounkal, and settled in Nagaha, now named Sakhi Sarwar after him. He died at the age of 53. His shrine was built on the slopes of the Suleiman Mountains, in a small village named Muqam. The Mughal king, Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babar renovated his tomb during his reign. Thousands of people from all over South Asia perform a pilgrimage to the shrine during the annual celebrations of the birth of Sakhi Sarwar in March every year
  • Shrine of Zinda Pir: It stands near a sulphur spring which is good for skin diseases, in the valley of the Shori hill torrent
  • Shrine of Dera Din Pannah: On the banks of River Indus, this is the shrine of Syed Bokhari, who died in 1012
  • Shrine of Pir Adil: This shrine is located 14 km north of DG Khan City
  • Shrine of Muhammad Suleiman at Taunsa: Commonly known as Taunsa Sharif, the shrine was built by the Nawab of Bahawalpur in 1272. The façade of the tomb is covered with Jaipur marble and the interior tiles were made by artisans from Multan. There is a mosque attached to this shrine, and an annual fair is held
  • Some of the parks of the district include the Dera Ghazi Khan Wildlife Park, Nawaz Sharif Park, DC Gardens, Company Bagh, Ghazi Park, and Kamal Park
  • Fort Munro: This fort is located at a height of 1,890 m above MSL in a hill station. The fort includes gardens, orchards, and residences. The Trimmu waterfalls, a dam, and a lake situated near this fort provide good recreation
  • Taunsa Barrage, the banks of DG Khan Canal and Vidor Nadi and lake as well as other hill torrent spots in the Tribal Area are all good picnic areas

Figure 1.8 Fort Munro Lake

Figure 1.9 Tomb of Ghazi Khan

Figure 1.10 Shrine of Muhammad Suleiman Shah, Taunsa Sharif

Figure 1.11 Nawaz Sharif Park, DG Khan

[1] A French word meaning Royal Estate assigned to a younger son, which is returned to the original estate if its holder dies without a male heir

[2] See chapter on Multan for details

[3] The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim kingdom based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of India for 320 years (1206–1526). This consisted of 5 dynasties: the Mamluk Dynasty (1206–90), the Khilji Dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq Dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid Dynasty  (1414–51), and the Lodhi Dynasty  (1451–1526).

[4] Derajat is the area that the Jat clan/ tribe ruled from 1445 to 1849

[5] One major flood occurred in 1955, while there have also been other, regular, floods in the region.

Topography

DG Khan district is the only district of Pakistan that lies entirely on the west of River Indus, which separates it from the districts of Mianwali and Muzaffargarh.

Topographically, the district is divided into 2 parts: the mountainous areas in the west and the Plain areas in the east.

Mountainous Area

The western half of the district is covered by the hills of Suleiman Range. Most of these hills are located in the De-Excluded Area of the district. The hills are higher in the north, where they rise to a height of 3,000 m above mean sea level (MSL). In addition to the main range, there are 2 smaller chains of mountains parallel to each other, which are located between the main range and the Plain areas in the east. The two chains merge into one and disappear in the north of DG Khan Tehsil. The main chain gradually diminishes southward until, in the Mari Mountains, it spreads into a large and fairly level plateau. The height of these ranges decreases southwards. The high peaks towards the center of the district are Ekbhai (2,274 m), Fort Munro (1,916 m) and Dragul (1,640 m). These mountains are made up of sandstone with occasional outcrops of limestone. They are mostly barren with the exception of some of the higher summits in the north of the district.

A large number of torrents drain these hills, which are laden with silt; this silt is deposited yearly between the hills and River Indus, and form the main tract called the Pachad. This is formed of rich loamy soil and is located between hills and the east bank of River Indus.

Plain Areas

The Plain areas of the district can be divided into 3 natural tracts: the piedmont areas (close to the foothills of the Suleiman Range), the canal well irrigated Plain area, and the riverine area.

The piedmont area stretches along the base of the hills, and cultivation depends upon hill torrents. The canal well irrigated area forms the intermediate zone between the piedmont and the riverine areas. The latter is close to River Indus and is subject to floods. The cultivation in these areas depends upon the spill of River Indus.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

River Indus which flows in the east of the district is its major river. Nearly 200 hill torrents[1] originate from the mountains and join River Indus. Most of these hill torrents may cause flooding during rainy season but they dry up in the summers. Some of the important hill torrents include Vihowa, Sangarh, Kaha, Kaura, Sheikhpara, Litra, Bathi, Qaisrani, Rud Kanwan, Chit Bantri, Mahoi, Rikani, Sori Lund, Bod Rud, Tirkhan Lahar, and Vidor Nadi. Vihowa, Sangarh and Kaha are the major perennial hill torrents, and the rest are all minor and seasonal torrents.

There are no major lakes in the district but Ghazi Ghat is a minor, seasonal lake near River Indus. Taunsa Barrage Reservoir is the main manmade lake in the district.

Figure 1.3 Trimmu Water Fall Fort Munro

Forests

An area of 59,000 HA is forested in the district. Most of the forests of the district are Riverine Forests and Irrigated Plantations. The protected/ reserved forests of the district are located in DG Khan Tehsil and Taunsa Sharif Tehsil. Some of the forests include the Rakh Triman Riverine Forest, Rakh Triman Irrigated Plantation, Golewah Riverine Forest, Jampur Ibrahim Riverine Forest, and Rakh Rind Wala Irrigated Plantation. In addition, there is a Protected Wildlife Park in the DG Khan Tehsil.

The forests of the district support the growth of kahu or wild olives (Olea ferruginea), phulai (Acacia modesta), bhan (Populus euphratica), kikar (Acacia nilotica), frash (Tamarix aphylla), sarkanda or wild sugarcane (Saccharum bengalense), fodder cane (Saccharum spontaneum), gazz or salt cedar (Tamarix dioica), jhau or Indian tamarisk (Tamarix indica), kandi or jandi (Prosopis cineraria), khabbal (Cynodon dactylon), peelu or tooth brush tree (Salvadora persica), vann (Salvadora oleoides), karir (Capparis deciduas), gum Arabic or babul (Acacia Senegal), and kikri (Acacia jacquemontii).

The following table shows the kinds and area of forests in the district (Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 59,000 HA Protected Forests (Provincial Govt.) 142,839 A
District Govt. – HA Un-classed Forests 2,979 A
Linear Plantation 1,319 km Resumed Lands – A

Table 1.3 DG Khan Forests

Soils

The greater part of DG Khan is alluvial, but its western boundary includes a considerable bed of tertiary rocks. These consist of sandstone and shale. The soil is deep, well-drained, calcareous, medium-textured, and low in organic matter.

Figure 1.4 Pachad Area, DG Khan

Figure 1.5 Suleiman Mountains, DG Khan

Climate

Generally, the climate of DG Khan is dry with little precipitation. The summer season starts in April and continues till October, with May, June, and July being the hottest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during these months range between 40.6 °C and 27.7 °C respectively. The winter season is short with January and February being the coldest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this period stay between 22.3 °C and 5.9 °C, respectively. In September and October, the heat becomes less intense in the hilly areas where the climate is cold from September to April, and mild and pleasant for the rest of the year. The existing wind direction is north-south.

Rainfall is scanty and uncertain, and its annual distribution is very uneven. The Monsoons start late in July, and most of the annual rain occurs before September. Spring and fall rains are rare and uncertain. Winter rains start by the end of December and stop by the end of February, when windstorms set in. Winter rains generally extend over a shorter period than the Monsoons, followed by a prolonged period of dry weather. Since there is no meteorological station in the district, and Multan is situated along the same longitude and latitude, it is advisable to use the data for Multan. Since the mean annual rainfall in Multan is 190 mm, it is presumed that DG Khan has similar amounts of rain annually.

Seismic Activity

The district is located in Zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means moderate to no damage due to earthquakes.

[1] A Review of Hill Torrent Management of Suleiman Range by Dr. D. M. Zahid Khan and Dr. M. Zubair

Population

The following table shows the population of the district and its tehsils as per the 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area km2 Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
DG Khan District 11,922 2,872,201 50.5 49.5 19.1 2.98
DG Khan Tehsil 3,814 1,226,612
Taunsa Tehsil 2,769 675,756
Kot Chutta Tehsil[1] Included in DG Khan Tehsil 757,403
De-Excluded Area 5,339 212,430

Table 1.4 DG Khan Population Statistics

Religions[2]

Muslims 99.6%
Christians 0.01%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.2%
Scheduled Castes Negligible%
Others 0.2%

Table 1.5 DG Khan Religious Composition

Languages[3]

Urdu 3.2%
Punjabi 1.2%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 0.7%
Balochi 14.3%
Seraiki 80.3%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.6 DG Khan Languages

[1] Kot Chutta Tehsil was created in 2014, out of Dera Ghazi Khan Tehsil; no other data is available.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[3] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

DG Khan is a mainly agrarian district and is one of the best cotton growing areas of the country. In addition, there are small, medium, and large industrial units operating in the district. According to the 1998 Census (2017 Census data has not been made public yet), the major employers are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing (67.4%)
  • Construction (19.7%)
  • Manufacturing (1.5%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant (6.9%)
  • Community, Social, Personal Services and Others (12.9%)

Agriculture

The district falls under the Suleiman Mountains Piedmonts Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan, and relies mostly on hill torrents for its agriculture. Some areas of the district are canal irrigated as well. Sugarcane, cotton, wheat, rice, guar seed, sunflower, tobacco, jowar, bajra, moong, maash, masoor, maize, barley, gram, rapeseed & mustard, groundnut, sesanum, sugarbeet, linseed, sunn hemp, chickpea, and fodder are the main crops of the district.

The main fruits grown in the area are citrus, mango, guavas, pomegranate, dates, jaamun, phalsa, ber, and mulberry.

Main vegetables include chilies, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, peas, cauliflower, bottle gourd, turnips, okra, carrots, brinjal, and radishes.

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 1,192,200 HA Reported Area 935,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 454,000 HA Net Sown 331,000 HA
Current Fallow 123,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 481,000 HA
Culturable Waste 62,000 HA Forest Area 24,000 HA

Table 1.7 DG Khan Land Use Statistics

Livestock

The following table shows the livestock population as of the 2006 Census of Livestock (included in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 723,000 Heads Buffaloes 247,000 Heads Sheep 412,000 Heads
Goats 1,143,000 Heads Camels 8,024 Heads Horses 4019 Heads
Mules 924 Heads Asses 33,358 Heads

Table 1.8 DG Khan Livestock Statistics

Dajal cow, rojhan cow, and ghulmani camels are indigenous breeds of the district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock), there are 261 poultry farms in the district in total. As per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 the number of privately owned poultry farms in the district are:

  • Broiler Farms 40
  • Layer Farms 23

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in River Indus in DG Khan Tehsil and Taunsa Sharif Tehsil, as well as in Dera Ghazi Khan Canal. This fish is exported to other districts and provinces of Pakistan.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

Commercial bee keeping is carried out in various forests and farms in the district, and is a lucrative source of income for farmers.

Irrigation

The district is irrigated by the DG Khan Canal System. This canal system is controlled by Taunsa Barrage on River Indus. Other smaller canals include Manka and Sharya canals. During the rainy season, embankments are made, and the water from the hill torrents is collected and stored to be used for agriculture. This type of irrigation system is called Rod Kohi[5] or spate irrigation, which is mainly practiced in the western part of the district (located in the Piedmont Plains of the Suleiman Mountains). In DG Khan, there are more than 200 small to large spate irrigation systems that supply water for irrigation purposes. The land area covered by the system ranges from 20 to 30,000 HA depending upon the discharge and command area.[6]

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and the area irrigated by each mode as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area Sown 413,000 HA Irrigated Area 366,000 HA
Un-Irrigated Area 47,000 HA Canal Irrigated 146,000 HA
Dug Wells 118,000 HA Tube Well Irrigated 55,000 HA
Canal Well Irrigated 24,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 17,000 HA
Others 6,000 HA

Table 1.11 DG Khan Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.17 DG Khan Canal

Minerals and Mining

There are petroleum and gas reservoirs in DG Khan at sites like Rodho, Zindapir, Afiband, and Dhodhak. The Suleiman Range is full of natural deposits like marble, limestone, argillaceous clay, fullers earth, gypsum, iron ore, and silica sand which are being commercially mined in the district.

Industry

At present, there is no industrial estate in the district but there are 201 small, medium, and large enterprises[1] operating in the district. The following table[2] shows the number and type of industry present in the district:

Type of Industry Number Type of Industry Number
Auto Parts 02 Ice Cream 02
Carpets 25 Cement 01
Cold Storage 09 Cotton Ginning & Pressing 70
Flour Mills 18 Fruit Juices 02
Gypsum Industry 01 LPG 04
Pesticides & Insecticides 02 Petroleum Products 01
Power Generation 01 Rice Mills 39
Textile Spinning 08 Tractors 01
Vegetable Ghee/oil 01 Agricultural Implements 12
Soaps & Detergents 02

Table 1.9 DG Khan Industry

Figure 1.6 Tractors Manufactured in DG Khan Tractor Factory

Handicrafts

Household items made from the leaves of the dwarf palm or peesh is the main handicraft of the district. Other crafts include woolen carpets made from hand-spun goat wool, and embroidery on clothes, caps, shoes, and handbags.

 

Economic Infrastructure

The district is linked with Rajanpur, Muzaffargarh, Barkhan, Dera Ismail Khan, and Layyah districts through black topped roads. The National Highway N 55, also known as the Indus Highway, passes through DG Khan. Another National Highway, N 70, connecting Multan (Punjab) to Qila Saifullah (Balochistan), passes through DG Khan. There is a railway link connecting DG Khan to other parts of Pakistan.

Roads

The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road length 2,121.0 km
National Highways 239 km
Provincial Highways 1,882 km
Motorways – km
Sugar Cess Roads – km

Table 1.10 DG Khan Road Statistics

Some of the important Provincial Highways of the district include:

  • Vidor Road
  • Manike Road
  • DG Khan Cement Factory Road
  • Road to Musakhel
  • Road to Barkhan
  • Road to Loralai

Figure 1.12 National Highway N 70

Figure 1.13 Indus Highway N 55, near DG Khan

 

Figure 1.14 Ghazi Ghat Bridge over River Indus

Rail and Airways

Shadan Lund, DG Khan, and Kot Chutta are the main railway stations in the district. The district is linked with Layyah, Muzaffargarh, and Rajanpur districts through the Pakistan Railways railway network. There is an international commercial airport in the city called DG Khan Airport.

Figure 1.15 DG Khan Railway Station

Figure 1.16 DG Khan Airport

Radio and Television

There is a private local radio station in the district and cable TV can be viewed throughout.

Telecommunications

There are 29 telephone exchanges[1] operating in the district, each ranging in capacity from 200 lines to 14,736 lines. Nearly all of the major cellular companies also operate in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

Pakistan Post has its headquarters[2] and also its night office in DG Khan City. Most of the major courier services of Pakistan provide services in the district. There are a total of 45 post offices in the district, with 21 in DG Khan Tehsil, 20 in Taunsa Sharif, and 4 in the Tribal Area.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

A total of 87 branches[3] of various banks are operating in the district, with 65 in DG Khan, 18 in Taunsa Sharif, and 04 in the Tribal Area.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have their branches in the district:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Falah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Bank Islami Pakistan Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Silk Bank Ltd.
  • Sindh Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • The Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 98 branches of various conventional banks and 14 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Multan Electric Power Company (MEPCO)[4] looks after the supply of electricity in the district. There are 17 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV in the district. Natural gas is also available.

Education

The following table shows the number of educational institutes in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility Boy/Girl Facility Boys/girl
Primary Schools 812/555 Middle Schools 107/84
Secondary Schools 78/45 Higher Secondary 15/09
Degree Colleges 11/08 Other Higher Secondary[7] 05/02
Other Degree Colleges[8] 05/05 Technical Training Institutes[9] 07/01
Vocational Institutes[10] -/06 Commercial Training[11] 02/01
University[12] 04 Government Mosque Schools -/-
Medical Colleges[13] 01 Agriculture Colleges (Campus) 01
Engineering Colleges Law Colleges 03

Table 1.12 DG Khan Educational Institutions

Figure 1.18 Virtual University, DG Khan

Figure 1.19 Public College DG Khan

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. The DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff.

The following table shows the number of health care institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 11/1,218 Dispensaries 41/04
Rural Health Centers (RHC) 15/264 Basic Health Units (BHU) 69/138
T B Clinics 01/36 Mother Child Health Centers 05/-
Private Hospitals -/- Sub Health Centers -/-
Private Healthcare Providers[14] 146 Private Hospitals[15] 45/NA

Table 1.13 DG Khan Health Institutions

Figure 1.20 District Hospital, DG Khan

Figure 1.21 Tehsil Headquarter Hospital, Taunsa Sharif

Policing

The Inspector General Police (IGP) stationed at Lahore is responsible for policing most of Punjab. The Regional Police Officer (RPO) DG Khan Region reports to the IGP and is responsible for maintaining law and order in DG Khan, Muzaffargarh, Rajanpur, and Layyah districts. The District Police Officer (DPO) DG Khan is in charge of the district. The DPO DG Khan has 04 Subdivisions supervised by a Deputy Superintendent Police (DSP) for each subdivision. These DSPs supervise a total of 29 police stations and police posts[16] in the DG Khan district

 

[1] Directorate of Industries Punjab, Pre-investment Study District DG Khan 2012; Latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries Punjab, Pre-investment Study District DG Khan 2012; Latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries Punjab, Pre-investment Study District DG Khan 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries Punjab, Pre-Investment Study District DG Khan 2012; Latest available.

[5] Rod means water streaming natural channels and Kohi means mountains/ hills, hence Rod Kohi means water coming down hills or mountains

[6] Spate Irrigation Development in DG Khan District by Karim Nawaz.

[7] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[8] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[9] Pre-Investment Study 2012 DG Khan District, Directorate of Industries, Punjab

[10] Pre-Investment Study 2012 DG Khan District, Directorate of Industries, Punjab; Latest available.

[11] Pre-Investment Study 2012 DG Khan District, Directorate of Industries, Punjab; Latest available.

[12] Campuses of Bahauddin Zakkariya U., University of Agriculture Faisalabad, University of Education Lahore, and Virtual University

[13] Dera Ghazi Khan Medical College

[14] Three Years Rolling Plan DG Khan District 2010-13 (No. of beds not available)

[15] Three Years Rolling Plan DG Khan District 2010-13 (No. of beds not available)

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2013-14

[1] Pre-Investment Study Dera Ghazi Khan District, Directorate of Industries Punjab,  2012; Latest available

[2] Pre-Investment Study D G khan District, Directorate of Industries Punjab, 2012; Latest available.

Environment and Biodiversity

DG Khan district is mostly a rural district and hence, the air quality is good; however, dust and suspended particulate matter is present due to heavy vehicles’ movement on roads.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The flora of the Riverine Forests along River Indus includes shisham (Dilbergio sisso), kikar (Acacia Arabica), obhan (Populus euphratica), jand (Prosopis spicigera), frash (Tamarix articulate), sirin (Albizia lebbek), dwarf palm or peesh (Nannorrhops ritchiana), ber (Ziziphus mauritania) and deb (amuricatus). The grasses include Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Heteropogon contortus, Cenchrus ciliaris, and Saccharum munja especially in the Piedmont Plains.

Fauna

The Piedmont Grasslands provide a habitat for a spectrum of wild mammals, that includes the Asiatic jackal, fox, markhor, hog deer, wild hare, porcupine, desert hedgehog, jungle cat, Kelaart’s Pipistrelle, Kuhl’s Pipistrelle, Indus blind dolphin, roof rat or house rat, mole rat, palm squirrel, Asian mongoose, Indian mongoose, and bats.

The avifauna includes a variety of ducks like the lesser whistling duck, cranes, bar-headed goose, marbled teal, cormorants, Eurasian widgeon, Eurasian teal, gadwell, and the common pochard.

The reptilian and amphibian fauna includes the river turtle, Indian or desert toad, Indian flapshell turtle, Chitra or Indian narrow-headed softshell turtle, Punjab snake-eyed lacerta, Indian python, Indian cricket frog, Indian monitor lizard, and Indian checkered keel-backed snake.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Fauna

In addition to all the reserved forests, the following are important wildlife protected areas of the district:

  • DG Khan Wildlife Park
  • Part of Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary

These areas provide sanctuary to the markhor, hog deer, Asiatic or golden jackal, jungle cat, palm squirrel, small Asian mongoose, desert hedgehog, Kelaart’s Pipistrelle, Kuhl’s Pipistrelle, Indus blind dolphin, marbled teal, and python.

Figure 1.7 Keelart’s Pipistrelle