Punjab-Gujranwala

Introduction

Gujranwala district is located between 31° 47′ to 32° 33′ north latitudes, and 73° 42′ to 74° 35′ east longitudes. The Chenab River forms its northern boundary, beyond which are the Gujrat and Mandi Bahauddin districts, while on Gujranwala’s east is Sialkot district, on its south Sheikhupura district, and on its west is Hafizabad district.

District at a Glance

Name of District Gujranwala City District
District Headquarter
Population[1] 5,014,196 persons
Area 3,622 km2
Population Density[2] 1,384 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[3] 2.1%
Male Population[4] 50.5%
Female Population[5] 49.5%
Urban Population[6] 58.8%
Tehsils/Towns 07 towns and a Cantonment:

1.    Aroop Town

2.    Kamoke Town

3.    Qila Didar[7] Singh Town

4.    Nandipur Town

5.    Khiali Shahpur Town

6.    Wazirabad Town

7.    Nowshera Virkan Town

8.    Gujranwala Cantonment

Main Towns Gujranwala City, Qila Didar Shah, Ladhaywala Warraich, Talwandi Rahwali, Eminabad, Nandipur, Kamoke, Nowshera Virkan, Wazirabad, Dhaunkal, Rasulnagar (previously Ramnagar), Sohdra, Alipur Chattha, Khiali Shahpur, and Mandipur Town.
Literacy Rate[8] 71%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 74%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 69%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing 17%
Construction 34.5%
Manufacture 7.9%
Wholesale/Retail Trade, Hotel/Restaurant 7.9%
Community, Social & Personal Services 16.9%
Activities not adequately defined 11.4%
Transport, Storage & Communication 3.5%
Others 0.9%
Main Crops Wheat, rice, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, maash, masoor, moong, gram, maize, tobacco, oil seeds such as rape & mustard, sunflower, barley, canola, sesanum, sunn hemp, and fodder
Major Fruits Guavas, citrus, peaches, jaamun, banana, mango, plum, mulberry, pomegranate, and melons
Major Vegetables Potatoes, cauliflower, peas, turnip, tomato, carrots, brinjal, okra, bottle gourd, garlic, onion, bitter gourd, chilies, coriander, arum, spinach, mint, and radish
Forests (Area)[12] 2,000 HA[13]
Total Black Topped Roads[14] 2,869.6 km
National Highways[15] 69.5 km
Motorways[16] 45.5 km
Provincial Roads[17] 2,738.0 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] 16.7 km
No. of Grid Stations[19] 15 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 220 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[20] 72 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 375 to 16,600 lines
Industrial Zones[21] 3 Industrial estates developed by the Punjab Small Industry Corporation (PSIC). Total no. of industries: 2,986
Major Industry[22] Foundry Products 302 Units
Rice Mills 210 Units
Sanitary Fittings 218 Units
Utensils (All Sorts) 459 Units
Cutlery 196 Units
Fans/Coolers 149 Units
Motor Pumps 130 Units
Textiles 56 Units
Electric Furnace 33 Units
Auto Parts 43 Units
Household Size[23] 7.6 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water[24] 32.5%
Houses with Electricity[25] 93.3%

Table 1.1 Gujranwala District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] Also spelled as Dedar in some documents. This volume uses Didar for consistency.

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics reports 1,000 HA under Forests.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Gujranwala District; Latest available.

[20] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Gujranwala District; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Gujranwala District; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Gujranwala District; For a complete list of all existing industry in the district please refer to the section on Industry

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief History –  Governmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites, Historical Buildings, Tourist Areas, and Picnic Spots

Brief History of the District

Gujranwala is located in the northeast of Punjab in the Majha region. “Majha” means “central” or “heartland”, and since this region (Majha) is geographically located in the middle (or central part) of the historic Punjab region (combined East and West), it has been given the name Majha.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India while recounting the history of Gujranwala, asserts that:

The village of Asarur[1] has been identified as the site of the town of Tse-kie or Taki, visited by Hiuen Tsiang about A.D. 630, and described by him as the capital of the Punjab. Here immense ruins of Buddhist origin are still to be seen, and their date is marked by the discovery of coins as well as by the great size of the bricks, which is characteristic of the period when they were constructed. After the time of Hiuen Tsiang, we know little of Gujranwala, until the Muhammadan invasions brought back regular chronological history. Meanwhile, however, Taki had fallen into oblivion, and Lahore had become the chief city of the Punjab. (v. 12, p. 355)

According to Gujranwala District Gazetteer, published under the Authority of Punjab Government in 1936, the district has no authentic historical records prior to the Mughal period.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India states that the town of Gujranwala was originally founded by the Gujjars. It was renamed Khanpur by the Sansi Jats of Amritsar who settled there, but its old name, based on the Gujjar tribe, has been retained.[2]

Under Muslim rule, the areas belonging to Gujranwala district flourished from the days of Akbar to those of Aurangzeb; wells were constructed over the entire region, and villages thickly dotted the southern plateau, but a mysterious depopulation took place and the whole region seems to have been almost entirely abandoned, left to devolve into a barren waste of grassland and scrub jungle. The remains of the villages and wells may still be found in the wildest and most solitary reaches of the Bar areas.

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:

[…] before the close of the Mohammadan period the tract was mysteriously depopulated; the tribes now occupying the District are all immigrants of recent date and before their advent the whole region seems for a time to be completely abandoned. The only plausible conjecture to account for this sudden and disastrous change is that it resulted from the constant wars by which the Punjab was convulsed during the last years of Mohammadan supremacy. (v.12, p. 355)

Thus, after the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707 AD, the Mughal Empire started to decline and vast tracts of lands were conquered by the Marathas, which led to wars and feuds among the Afghans, Sikhs, and the Marathas as well as the Mughals. Several independent states further weakened the Mughal hold on Punjab, while the region also saw the rise of Sikh power. Between 1765 and 1800, the Sikhs consolidated their hold on both the Punjab and Jammu, the account of which follows.

During the period in which the Sikhs were fighting for a stronghold in Punjab, the plains of Gujranwala were seized by the military adventurers/ mercenaries who roamed the region. Charat Singh (who died in 1774), the grandfather of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (who consolidated Sikh power in Punjab), married the daughter of a Gujranwala Sardar and settled in Gujranwala. Mahan Singh (1756-1790), father of Ranjit Singh, was born here. Ranjit Singh was born in the region in 1780 in a Haveli (mansion) in Gujranwala’s Purani Mandi or Old Market. The town, thus, became important, especially for the Sikh empire in Punjab. After the death of his father, Ranjit Singh fought many wars to expel the Afghans. He won most of these wars and brought together all the other warring Sikh Misls[3] under one banner. As a consequence, he was proclaimed “Maharaja of Punjab.” He made Lahore his capital in 1799. One of his generals, Hari Singh Nalwa, was also born in Gujranwala and is credited with conquering many parts of Punjab, Kashmir, Peshawar, and Jamrud. Nalwa is the founder of the city of Haripur which is named after him, and is credited with having built the “new” city of Gujranwala.

The Muslim tribes that resisted—with some success—the Sikh conquests were the Bhattis and Tarars in Hafizabad district and the Chatthas in the western half of Wazirabad Tehsil (Gujranwala district), where they continued an unceasing resistance to the Sikhs, till their final over throw by Ranjit Singh in 1799.

The British took over Punjab from the Sikhs after the Second Sikh War (1848-49) and the area was annexed into the British Empire in 1849. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:

A cantonment was established at Wazirabad, which was abolished in 1855. Originally the District formed part of the extensive District of Wazirabad, that comprised whole upper portion of the Rechna Doab. In 1852 this unwieldy territory was divided between Gujranwala and Sialkot. The District, as then constituted, stretched across the entire plateau, from the Chenab to the Ravi; but in 1853 the south-eastern fringe, consisting of 303 villages, was transferred to Lahore, and 3 years later a second batch of 324 villages was handed over to the same District. There was no outbreak during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the Sikh Sardars and people rallied to the side of Government with the greatest enthusiasm. (vol.12, pp. 356)

At the time, the district was divided into 4 tehsils, namely: Gujranwala, Wazirabad, Hafizabad and Khangah Dogran (the headquarters of each being at the place after which it is named).

A railway line was built alongside the Grand Trunk Road in 1881 to connect Gujranwala with other cities of Punjab which made commercial trade between cities more convenient. The municipality of Gujranwala was created in 1867. The Northwestern Railway connected Gujranwala with other cities of British India to the far ends of the British Empire such as Calcutta (extreme East of India) as well as Karachi (Southern port).

After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, Gujranwala developed rapidly, and is now a leading city of Pakistan. Gujranwala, as a district, was run by a Deputy Commissioner until it became a Division. In 1951, the city was converted into the capital of the district, giving rise to new industries and other developmental works. Gujranwala City, at present, is the 7th largest city of Pakistan. Many prominent civil servants worked as its Deputy Commissioners; renowned among them is Mansur Zaimur Rehman (M. Z. Rehman), who worked as the DC from 1959 to 1962. He initiated many developmental projects including the Cantonment. He is known for his hard work, integrity, and honesty. In 1991, the city hosted its first Cricket Test match at the Jinnah Stadium as well as several One Day International matches. Since then, the city has continued to thrive, with improved economic growth and stabilization.

According to the website City Mayors Statistics, The World’s Fastest Growing Cities and Urban Areas,[4] based on an analysis of statistics from 2006 to 2020, Gujranwala ranks 27th in the world in terms of population growth rate with an estimated average annual growth of 3.49% from 2006 to 2020. It ranks 1st in Pakistan, and is followed by Faisalabad that has an average annual growth of 3.3% (Faisalabad ranks 33rd in the world).

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Gujranwala district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 7
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 13

Under the Local Government and Community Development, Gujranwala has 1 district Council, 1 Municipal Corporation and 7 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Kamoke
  • Wazirabad
  • Nowshera Vikran
  • Ghakkhar Mandi
  • Ladhaywala Warraich
  • Qila Didar Singh
  • Alipur Chattha

Administrative Divisions

Gujranwala district covers an area of 3,622 km² and is subdivided into 7 towns and 188 Union Councils as follows:

Aroop Town 26 Union Councils
Khiali Shahpur Town 26 Union Councils
Nandipur Town 23 Union Councils
Qila Dedar Singh Town 28 Union Councils
Wazirabad Town 36 Union Councils
Nowshera Virkan Town 25 Union Councils
Kamoke Town 24 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Gujranwala Administrative Divisions

Heritage Sites, Historical Buildings, Tourist Areas, and Picnic Spots

The following buildings are protected under Pakistan Laws:

  • Baradari in Sheranwala Garden, Gujranwala City: This structure was built in the late 19th century and was the residence of the Deputy Commissioner. It was constructed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh
  • Tomb of Abdul Nabi, Kotli Maqbara, Gujranwala: In the small village of Kotli, the Maqbara (tomb) is an imposing domed Mughal structure. Its ground floor is plain, and the basement has 3 graves. This building was constructed in the mid-17th century and houses the tomb of Divan Abdul Nabi Khan, who was the governor of Wazirabad under Mughal Emperors Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
  • Chillah-gah of Hazrat Sakhi Sarwar, Dhaunkal: Hazrat Sakhi Sarwar lived in Dhaunkal town in the 12th century; his house was changed into a Darbar during the reign of Mughal Emperor Shahjahan. A fair (urs) is held at the Chillah-gah annually
  • Mosque of Sher Shah Suri at Chaman Shah
  • Dak Chowki of Sher Shah Suri’s period: This was built in 1542 by Sher Shah Suri

Following are some other important buildings of the district that are not protected:

  • Gurdwara Damdama Sahib
  • Gurdwara Rori Sahib, Eminabad: This was built where Baba Guru Nanak stayed
  • Hydraulic Research Center, Nandipur
  • Khanki Headworks
  • Jinnah Bagh, Gujranwala: The Samadhi—a rounded cupola or dome—that covers the ashes of Mahan Singh, father of Ranjit Singh, is situated in the corner of Jinnah Bagh. This garden was known as Mahan Singh Garden before Partition
  • Jamia Masjid and Baradari Sheranwala Bagh, Gujranwala
  • Company Bagh, Gujranwala

Figure 1.12 Baradari, Sheranwala Garden, Gujranwala

Figure 1.13 Tomb of Abdul Nabi, Kotli Maqbara

Figure 1.14 Jinnah Stadium, Gujranwala

Figure 1.15 Tomb of Maha Singh, Gujranwala. c1869[1]

 

[1] http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1800_1899/ranjitsingh/gujranwala/gujranwala.html

[1] Village of Asarur still exists

[2] Imperial Gazetteer of India, vol.12 page 363

[3] Misls is a term which originated in the 18th century historical accounts of the Sikhs. The word was used to describe a unit or brigade of Sikh warriors and also the territory acquired by the brigade in the course of its campaign of conquests following the weakening of the Mughal authority in the country.

[4] http://www.citymayors.com/statistics/urban_growth1.html

Topography

The City District is located in the Rechna Doab[1] area of Punjab.

With the exception of the southeastern corner of the district, which is traversed by the Degh nullah (also spelled as Dek nullah), the district is a flat plain, unrelieved by hill or ravine and thus, featureless.

The district can be broadly divided into 2 parts: the low-lying alluvial lands on the fringes of the Chenab River and the Degh Nullah, and the uplands between these 2 rivers.

The low-lying areas are subject to river floods.

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series, Gujranwala District “The uplands decrease in fertility as the distance from the Himalayas increases until in the southwest it merges in the Bar tract which in its natural aspect was a level prairie thickly covered by stunted undergrowth” (p. 90). The Chenab Canal irrigation system has, however, made the wastelands fit for cultivation.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

There is only one river, the Chenab, in the district, but there are several nullahs which form channels for flood water during rains. The important nullahs are Degh, Palkhu, Aik, Khot Satrah, Bhair, and Beghwala.

Forests

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Gujranwala district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 4,369 A Under Provincial Govt. 3,314 A
District Govt. – A Reserved Forests 1,055 A
Un-classed Forests – HA Resumed Lands – HA
Linear Plantation 2,307 km

Table 1.3 Gujranwala Forests

As a highly urbanized district, Gujranwala is deficient in forests. The only forests found in the district are along River Chenab and are, thus, Riverine Forests. Some of these forests include Bela Thatha Faqirullah, Bela Qila Jawar Singh, and Bela Kahan Garh.

The original vegetation consists mostly of bhan (Populus euphratica), kikar (Acacia nilotica), and frash (Tamarix aphylla). Shisham (dalbergio sissoo), sufaida (Euclayptus camaldulensis), and the weeping fig (Ficus benjamina) are also grown.

Soils

The main types of soil[2] in the district are:

  1. Gora: This is an artificial soil highly manured, and commonly found around villages and wells
  2. Rohi: This is the finest natural soil. It is a stiff clay that is dark/ reddish dark in color
  3. Doshair or Missi: This is a fine clay soil
  4. Maira: This type of soil is of less loam, with less clay than sand
  5. Tibba: This is an inferior form of Maira
  6. Kallar: This is a sour[3] and barren clay, unsuitable for cultivation without adequate suitable treatment
  7. Bela: A type of riverain soil, bela is a fine alluvial soil mixed with sand

Climate

The climate of the district is hot and dry during summer and cold in winter. The summer season starts in April and continues till September. June is the hottest month with mean maximum and minimum temperatures of 40 °C and 27 °C respectively. The summer season is accompanied by frequent dust storms which provide some relief from the intense heat. The winter season begins in November and lasts till March. January is the coldest month, with the mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this month recorded as 19 °C and 5 °C respectively. The sky usually remains overcast.

The Monsoon sets in July and continues till September. The eastern part of the district receives more rain; the mean annual rainfall in the district is usually 630 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] Rechna Doab is the area between River Chenab and River Ravi.

[2] 1998 Census Report ; Gujranwala District.

[3] Sour soils are acidic and may even have a sour smell when tilled

Population

The following table shows the population figures for Gujranwala district as per the 2017 Census:

 District/ Tehsil Area km2 Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Gujranwala District 3,622 5,014,196 50.5 49.5 58.8 2.06
Gujranwala Tehsil 914 3,066,610
Kamoke Tehsil 834 581,444
Nowshera Virkan 678 535,746
Wazirabad Tehsil 1,196 830,936

Table 1.4 Gujranwala Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 95.4%
Christians 4.4%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.2%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.6 Gujranwala Religious Distribution

Languages[2]

Urdu 1.9%
Punjabi 97.3%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 0.6%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.1%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.7 Gujranwala Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Gujranwala is one of the most important industrial cities of Pakistan. Specifically, steel and electric products produced in Gujranwala are world famous. A majority of the population is engaged in the construction industry, followed by agriculture and its allied livestock breeding.

The rural areas surrounding Gujranwala produce a large variety of agricultural produce. The main crops grown are wheat, cotton, rice, barley, and millet. At present, Gujranwala is playing a major role in supporting the economy of Pakistan. It is a large industrial city with numerous textile mills, a thriving cutlery industry, and large agricultural processing plants.

The major industrial occupations[1] of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing (17%)
  • Construction (34.5%)
  • Manufacture (7.9%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail trade, Hotel/ Restaurant (7.9%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (16.9%)
  • Activities not adequately defined (11.4%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (3.5%)
  • Others (0.9%)

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Almost 17% of the total population of the district is engaged in agriculture and its allied livestock breeding. The irrigated areas rely on canals and tube wells. The main crops of the district include wheat rice, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, maash, masoor, moong, gram, maize, tobacco, oil seeds such as rape & mustard, sunflower, barley, canola, sesanum, sunn hemp, and fodder.

Fruits of the district include guavas, citrus, peaches, jaamun, banana, mango, plum, mulberry, pomegranate, and melons.

Main vegetables are potatoes, cauliflower, peas, turnip, tomato, carrots, brinjal, okra, bottle gourd, garlic, onion, bitter gourd, chilies, coriander, arum, spinach, mint, and radish.

Figure 1.3 Freshly cut Rice Crop, Gujranwala

Figure 1.4 A Fruit Market, Gujranwala

Land Use

The following table shows the major land use statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 362,200 HA Reported Area 367,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 289,000 HA Net Sown 230,000 HA
Current Fallows 59,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 78,000 HA
Culturable Waste 30,000 HA Forest area 1,000 HA

Table 1.8 Gujranwala Land Use Statistics

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the total number of livestock as per Livestock Census 2006 (latest available) quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Cattle 168,000 Heads Buffaloes 647,000 Heads Sheep 72,000 Heads
Goats 132,000 Heads Camels – Heads Horses 6,180 Heads
Mules 2,993 Heads Asses 44,169 Heads

Table 1.9 Gujranwala Livestock Statistics

Lohi sheep, beetal goats, and beetal spotted goats are indigenous breeds of the district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) there are a total of 1,502 poultry farms in the district. According to Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 there are 1356 boiler, 122 layer and 15 breeding farms (all privately owned) in the District.

Figure 1.5 A Poultry Farm in Gujranwala

Figure 1.6 A Bio-Gas Plant in Gujranwala

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in Quadirabad Pond Area[2] but excludes the Reserved Areas; fishing is also permitted in the Lower Chenab Canal, Upper Chenab Canal, River Chenab Downstream (except Reserved Areas), and Quadirabad-Balloki Link Canal. Most of this fish is consumed locally but some is exported to other provinces and districts of Pakistan also.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

Honeybee colonies are extant in Gujranwala, since the introduction of apiculture in Pakistan in the 1980s.

Irrigation

The district is irrigated through the canals controlled by the Khanki Headworks on River Chenab. The Lower Chenab and the Upper Chenab Canals are the main canals irrigating the district. Other smaller canals or distributaries of Lower Chenab Canal are the Vanike, Gajar, and Manchar, whereas the distributaries of Upper Chenab Canal are Nokhar and Raya.

The following table shows the irrigation statistics as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Irrigated Area 516,000 HA Un-Irrigated Area – HA
Canal Irrigated 93,000 HA Wells Irrigated 2,000 HA
Tube Well Irrigated Area 311,000 HA Canal Wells 12,000 HA
Canal Tube Wells 98,000 HA Others – HA

Table 1.12 Gujranwala Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.17 Khanki Headworks Gujranwala

Figure 1.18 Headworks Quadirabad, Gujranwala

Minerals and Mining

There are no minerals in the district.

Industry

Punjab Small Industries Corporation (PSIC) has established 3 Industrial Estates in Gujranwala and there are a total 2,986[3] small, medium, and large industrial units in the district. Industry-wise numbers of units in the district are as follows:

Type Of Industry Number Of Units Type Of Industry Number Of Units
A.C./Refrigerators 01 Auto Parts 46
Baby Diapers 01 Beverages 02
Ceramics Products 76 Chip/Straw Boards 04
Cutlery 196 Drugs/Pharmaceuticals 03
Electric Meters 02 Electric Transformers 04
Electric Furnace (Closed) 33 Fans/Coolers 149
Flour Mills 61 Foam Manufacturing 01
Foundry Products 302 Gas Appliances 31
GI/MS Pipes 13 Hosiery Products 66
Iron & Steel Re-Rolling 55 LPG Gas Cylinder 38
Melamine Utensils 48 Motor Cycle/Rickshaws 04
Motor Pumps 130 Paper/Paper Board 09
Pencils/Ball Points 02 Pottery 32
Rice Mills 210 Sanitary Fittings 218
Tanneries 32 Textile Processing & Spinning 56
Tires And Tubes 04 Utensils (All Sorts) 459
Vegetable Ghee/Oil 04 Washing Machine 90
Weights And Scales 11 Wire & Cables 14
Woolen Textiles Spinning & Weaving 47 Soaps & Detergents 50
Electric Goods 27

Table 1.10 Gujranwala Industries

Figure 1.8 Wall Fan made in Gujranwala

Trade

The major exports of the city are rice, textiles, carpets, electric transformers, garments, glass goods, electric fans, sanitary fittings, surgical equipment, hosiery, leather products, metal utensils, auto parts, and sanitary wares and fittings.

Handicrafts

Handicrafts of the district include handmade gift items such as embroidered clothes, leather goods, and handbags. This district is the traditional home for the manufacture of cutlery goods, most of the manufacturers of which are concentrated in Wazirabad Tehsil.

 

Economic Infrastructure

Gujranwala is the 7th largest city of Pakistan and is linked with Gujrat, Sheikhupura, Mandi Bahauddin, Sialkot, Narowal, and Hafizabad districts through metaled roads. By road, the city is less than 2 hours’ drive from Lahore and 3 hours’ drive from Islamabad. The City District has paved roads connecting its towns with each other.

Gujranwala district is situated on the main railway line connecting Lahore and Peshawar. The district is linked with Sheikhupura and Gujrat districts through a railway network.

Roads

The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road Length 2,869.6 km
National Highways 69.5 km
Provincial Highways 2,738.0 km
Motorways 45.5 km
Sugar Cess Roads 16.7 km

Table 1.11 Gujranwala Road Statistics

Some of the important road links of the district include:

  • Wazirabad-Sialkot Road
  • Sambrial-Gujranwala Road
  • Gujranwala-Sheikhupura Road
  • Rasulnagar-Alipur Chattha Road
  • Gujranwala-Nowshera Road
  • Eminabad-Kali (via Wandho) Road
  • Sadhoke-Mianwali Bangla Road
  • Kamoke-Nowshera Virkan Road
  • Gujranwala-Hafizabad Road
  • Gujranwala-Pasrur Road
  • Eminabad-Sialkot (via Dherm Kot) Road

Rail and Airways

Gujranwala is situated at the main railway line of Pakistan Railways, which runs from Karachi to Peshawar. The stations which are located in the district starting from the east (Lahore) are Sadhoke, Kamoke, Eminabad, Gujranwala City, Gujranwala Cantonment, Ghakhar, Dhaunkal, Nizamabad, Wazirabad Junction, Sodhra-Kopra, and Gukametter. In addition, there are 2 branch lines, one of which is from Wazirabad Junction to Sangle Hill Junction and the other is from Wazirabad Junction to Sialkot Junction. There are many small railway stations along both these branch lines.

In all, there are 15 railway stations in the district, as per Pre-Investment Study 2012, Gujranwala District by Directorate of Industries, Punjab.

There is no commercial airport in the district, but there is a military airbase. The nearest airport is the Sialkot International Airport.

Radio and Television

There is 1 privately-owned Radio station in Gujranwala. Also, there is an on-line TV station in Gujranwala that broadcasts programs and news; all other TV channels can be viewed via boosters and cable.

Telecommunications

Pakistan Telecommunications Ltd. has established a network of telephone lines. In all, there are 72 telephone exchanges[1] operating in the district (ranging in capacity from 375 lines to 16,600 lines). In addition, a number of cellular companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are nearly 67 offices[2] of Pakistan Post in the district, with 45 branches in Gujranwala, 14 in Wazirabad, 4 in Kamoke, and 4 in Nowshera Virkan.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are a total of 143 branches[3] of various banks in the district, with 107 in Gujranwala, 23 in Wazirabad, 7 in Kamoke, and 6 in Nowshera Virkan.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have branches in the district:

  • Al Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Falah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Bank Islami Pakistan Ltd.
  • Burj Bank Ltd.
  • Dubai Islamic Bank Pakistan Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • First Women Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Metropolitan Bank Ltd.
  • JS Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • National Investment Bank Ltd.
  • Samba Bank Ltd.
  • Silk Bank Ltd.
  • Sindh Bank Ltd.
  • SME Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Standard Chartered Bank Pakistan Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • The Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 275 branches of various conventional banks and 58 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

The Gujranwala Electric Power Company (GEPCO) looks after the supply and transmission of electricity to the district. There are 15 grid stations[4] in the district (ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 220 KV).

Gujranwala’s hydro-electric project provides electrical power generated from the Chenab River. Natural Gas is available.

Education

The following table shows the details of educational facilities of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility Boy/Girl Facility Boys/girl
Primary Schools 468/618 Middle Schools 118/182
Secondary Schools 122/147 Higher Secondary 08/07
Degree Colleges 20/31 Other Higher Secondary[5] 06/06
Other Degree Colleges[6] 11/18 Technical Training Institutes[7] 10/-
Vocational Institutes[8] -/04 Commercial Training[9] 05/01
University[10] 03 Government Mosque Schools -/-
Medical College[11] 01 Agriculture College
Engineering Colleges[12] 02 Law Colleges[13]

Table 1.13 Gujranwala Educational Institutions

There are numerous private schools and colleges in the district and an IT University in Gujranwala.

Figure 1.19 A High School, Gujranwala

Figure 1.20 Punjab University Campus, Gujranwala

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. The DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility No./Beds Facility No./Beds
Government Hospitals 08/1,132 Dispensaries 63/76
Rural Health Centers 14/242 Basic Health Units 98/184
TB Clinics 01/- Sub-Health Centers -/-
Mother Child Health Centers 10/- Private Hospitals 08/557
Private Healthcare Providers[14] 29/897

Table 1.14 Gujranwala Health Institutions

Figure 1.21 A Government Hospital, Gujranwala

Policing

Deputy Inspector General Police looks after Gujranwala region which comprises of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Narowal, Mandi Bahauddin, and Hafizabad districts. Gujranwala district is further subdivided into 10 subdivisions and 30 police stations.[15] The police in each region is headed by a District Police Officer who is assisted by a varying number of Superintendents and Deputy Superintendents of Police.[16]

[1] Directorate of Industry, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Gujranwala City District 2012; Latest available.

[2] Directorate Of Industry, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Gujranwala City District 2012; Latest available.

[3] Directorate Of Industry, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Gujranwala City District 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industry, Punjab. Pre-investment Study, Gujranwala City District 2012; Latest available.

[5] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[6] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[7] Pre-Investment Study District Gujrat, 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[8] Pre-Investment Study District Gujrat, 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[9] Pre-Investment Study District Gujrat, 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[10] Campus of University of Punjab; Campus of virtual University and GIFT University (Private)

[11] Campus of University of Punjab; Campus of virtual University and GIFT University (Private)

[12] Campus of University of E & T Lahore; Rechna College of E & T

[13] Campus of University of E & T Lahore; Rechna College of E & T

[14] Three Years Rolling Plan 2010-2013 Gujranwala District; Latest available.

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Police Official website

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] Department of Fisheries Punjab Manual

[3] Directorate of Industry,Punjab. Pre-investment Study, Gujranwala City District 2012; Latest available.

Environment and Biodiversity

Gujranwala City District is the 7th most populous city of Pakistan. Heavy traffic flows on roads for most parts of the day adding to the air pollution. Common air pollutant sources in Gujranwala City include respirable particulate matter from smoky diesel vehicles, two-stroke motorcycles, rickshaws, road dust, and industry. In addition, Gujranwala is a city of factories and mills, which are spread all over the district and not confined to industrial estates only as some of these factories are located in residential areas, which contributes significantly to pollutants.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Trees of Gujranwala include babul (Acacia nilotica), shisham, tahli (Dalbergia sissoo), pipal (Ficus religiosa), bohar or banyan (Ficus bengalensis), mulberry (Morus alba), lasoora (Cordia obliqua), siris (Albizzia lebbela), amaltas (Cassia fistula), beri (Zizyphus jujuba), bakain or dharek (Melia azedarach), sufaida (Eucalyptus camelduleusis), simal (Bombax ceiba), jhand (Prosopis spicigera), karir (Capparis aphylla), vann (Salvadora oleoides), peelu (Salvadora persica), Indian fig (Ficus racemosa), dragon spurge or bambori (Euphorbia dracunculoides), Turk’s cap or wax mallow (Malvaviscus arboreus), and curry leaf (Murraya Koenig).

Shrubs and herbs include narrow-leafed indigo (Indigofera linifolia), jasmine (Jasminum officinale), motia (Jasminum symbac), Indian sweet clover or sinjahi (Melilotus indica), harmal (Peganum harmala), pohli (Argemone maxicana), khardar (Alhaji camelorum), khabbal (Cynodon dactylon), datura (Datura alba; Datura inrokia), phog (Calligonum polygnoides), malla (Zizyphus numularia), laily (Convolvulus arvensis), shahtara (Fumaria parviflora), saunchal (Malva parviflora), dhodhak (Euphorbia sp.), It sit (Boerhauid diffusa), aak (Calotropis procera), aksin (Ipomea crassicaulis), dib koonder (Typha elephantina), deela (Cyperus rotundus), bhang (Cannabis sativa), bathu (Chenopodium album), and jantar (Sesbania sesbans).

Fauna

Wild animals are now confined to the riverine area of the district. Wild boars, black buck, riverine deer, and hog deer are still present in the belas (Riverine forests) around Wazirabad. Wolves are common, as are jungle cat, porcupine, hedgehog, jackal, hare, squirrel, mole rat, house rat, black rat, chimgadar/ bat, geese, and house shrew.

Birds common to the district include brahminy kite, black kite, white-breasted king fisher, ring-necked dove, common dove, varieties of finches, larks, weaver birds, Indian sand martins, black partridges, common babbler, wood peckers, storks, grey partridge, jungle pigeon, sun bird, house sparrow, Russian sparrow, crow, owl bubo, parakeets, shrikes, tree-pies, fly catchers, neel kanth, house sparrow, mynas, bee-eaters, minivets, koel, parrot, quail, and black rock pigeon. Migratory birds include cattle egret, common coot, common pochard, common sand piper, common teal, grey heron, pond heron, river tern, lesser whistling teal, little egret, little grebe, purple heron, red shank, and common starling.

Reptiles include 2 varieties of snakes, Indian monitor lizard, and common house and field lizards.

A large variety of fish is present in River Chenab.

Figure 1.10 An Amaltas Tree in full bloom

Figure 1.11 A Neel kanth or Blue-Throated bird

Protected Areas and Endangered Wildlife

Following are the protected wildlife areas of the district:

  • Head Khanki Barrage: a protected wetland area that provides sanctuary to a large variety of migratory birds such as common teal, mallard, pintail, Eurasian widgeon, and purple swamp hen
  • Bhon Fazil: a protected game reserve of the district that provides sanctuary to all the fauna present in the forest.