Punjab-Gujrat

Introduction

Gujrat district is located between 32° 19′ to 33° 03′ north latitudes and 73° 31′ to 74° 28′ east longitudes. It is bounded in the northeast by the districts Mirpur and Bhimber of Azad Jammu and Kashmir; on the northwest by River Jhelum (which separates Gujrat from Jhelum district); on the southeast by River Chenab (which separates it from the districts of Gujranwala and Sialkot); on the east by River Tawi (which separates it from Sialkot district); and on the southwest by Mandi Bahauddin district.

Figure 1.3 An Aerial View of Gujrat City

District at a Glance

Name of District District Gujrat
District Headquarter Gujrat City
Population[1] 2,756,110 persons
Area[2] 3,192 km2
Population Density[3] 867.7 Persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 1.6%
Male Population[5] 48.5%
Female Population[6] 51.5%
Urban Population[7] 30.0%
Tehsils 3 Tehsils :

1.    Gujrat Tehsil

2.    Sarai Alamgir Tehsil

3.    Kharian Tehsil

Main Towns Gujrat, Sarai Alamgir, Kharian, Lala Musa, Daulat Nagar, Dinga, Sabour, Jalalpur Jatian, Jhandewal, Sangrana, and Khoja
Literacy Rate[8] 75%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 80%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 71%
Major Economic Activity[11] Elementary Occupations 36.3%
Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing etc. 29.5%

 

Service Workers And Shop/Market Sales Workers 11.6%
Craft & Related Trade Workers 7.2%
Others 15.4%
Main Crops Wheat, sugarcane, rice, tobacco, maize, jowar, bajra, maash, moong, masoor, gram, oil seeds such as rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, groundnut, sesanum, guar seed, linseed, sunn hemp, and fodder
Major Fruits Citrus, guavas, mango, jaamun, banana, ber, and mulberry
Major Vegetables Turnip, potatoes, cauliflower, peas, okra, brinjal, bottle gourd, carrots, peas, onions, garlic, chilies, bitter gourd, spinach, and cabbage
Forests (Area)[12] 17,000 HA[13]
Total Black Topped Road[14] 3,531.9 km
National Highways[15] 61.82 km
Motorways[16] – Km
Provincial Roads[17] 3,443.2 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] 26.8 km
No. of Grid Stations[19] 07 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[20] 61, ranging in capacity from 110 lines to 18,133 lines
Industrial Estates[21] 1 Industrial Estate and 703 small, medium, and large sized industrial units.
Major Industry[22] Fans/Coolers 345 Units
Pottery 128 units
Rice Mills 41 Units
Foundry Products 30 Units
Household Size[23] 6.7 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water[24] 21.2%
Houses with Electricity[25] 92.4%

Table 1.1 Gujrat District at a glance

[1] 2017 Censu)

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey; 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics reports 12,000 HA under forests.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries Punjab- Pre-Investment Study Gujrat District 2012; Latest available.

[20] Directorate of Industries Punjab- Pre-Investment Study Gujrat District 2012; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-Investment Study Gujrat District 2012; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-Investment Study Gujrat District 2012; For a complete list of all existing industrial units in the district please see section on Industry

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites/ Tourist Attractions/ Picnic Spots

Brief History of the District

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:

Gujrat town itself is a place of some antiquity, and the district bounds in ancient sites, Mong being the most important. The district formed part of the kingdom of Porus, who was defeated by Alexander, probably in the Karri plain beyond the Jammu border, in July, 326 B.C.; but 4 years later was conquered by Chandragupta Maurya in the national rising which took place on the death of Alexander. It remained under the Mauryas until shortly after the death of Asoka in 231 B.C., and about forty years later came under the sway of Demetrius the Graeco-Bactrian. The overthrow of the Bactrians by the Parthians in the latter half of the second century brought another change of rulers, and the coins of the Indo-Parthian Maues (c. 120 B. C.), who is known to local tradition as Raja Moga, have been found at Mong. At the end of the first century A. D., whole of the Punjab was conquered by the Yueh-chi. For several hundred years nothing is known of the history of the District, except that between 455 and 540 A.D. it must have been exposed to the ravages of the White Huns. Dr. Stein holds that the District formed part of the kingdom of Gurjara, which, according to the Rajatarangini, was invaded between 883 and 902 by Sankara Varman of Kashmir, who defeated its king Alakhana. This may be the Ali Khan to whom tradition ascribed the refounding of Gujrat. (v. 12, p. 365)

 

However the foundation of the capital, Gujrat, according to the Ancient Geography of India[1] “is ascribed to a king named Bachan Pal of whom nothing more is known; and its restoration is attributed to Ali Khan, a Gujar, whose name is strangely like that of Alakhana, the Raja of Gurjara, who was defeated by Sangkara Varmma between AD 883 AD 901” (p. 179).

The account of this region’s history by the Imperial Gazetteer of India shows that

Authentic history commences only in the Lodi period, when Bahlolpur, 23 miles [37 km] north-east of Gujrat, was founded in the reign of Bahlol (1451–89). Khwas Khan, governor of the Rohtas under Sher Shah Suri, founded Khwaspur near Gujrat. The settlement of the tract was completed by Akbar, who built a fort and compelled the Gujars, a pastoral tribe given to plunder, to settle in it. The tract was then named Gujrat and formed into a separate district. Revenue records have been preserved in the families of the hereditary registrars (kanungos), and these exhibit Gujrat the capital of a district containing 2,592 villages, paying revenue of 11.6 million. In 1605 the famous Saiyid Abdul Kasim received Gujrat as a tuyul or fief from Akbar. On the decay of the Mughal power, Nadir Shah occupied the district and destroyed Gujrat, after which it was run by the Gakhars of Rawalpindi, who probably established themselves in Gujrat in 1741 A.D. The country also suffered at the same time from the ravages of Ahmad Shah Durrani, whose armies frequently crossed and re-crossed it. (v.12, p 365)

 

Thus, as described in the quoted passage, during the reign of Bahlol Lodhi (1450-1488 AD), the tract of country on the right bank of River Chenab was made an independent district (zila) under the name of Zila Bahlolpur. Moghul Emperor Akbar the Great (1556-1605), who visited this part of India and included the Gujjars of the neighborhood in efforts to restore Gujrat, named the area Chala Gujrat. This was divided into 2 subdivisions (called parganas at the time): Pargana of Gujrat (Gujjar country) and Heart (Jat country). A third subdivision was formed and named Shahjahanpur (now Dinga) a few years later.[2] The parganas were subdivided into Tappas and the Tappas into Tops. This system remained in place until the death of Aurangzeb Alamgir in 1707.

During the years of the Moghul Empire’s declining power, the district suffered economically due to lack of administrative oversight. In 1738, the Gujrat area was attacked by Nadir Shah, who destroyed it. In 1741, the area was taken over by Sultan Mukarrab Khan, a Gakkar Chief of Rawalpindi, who then ruled from 1741 to 1765. Between 1748 and 1761, the area remained prey to the advancing and retiring armies of Ahmad Shah Durrani, whose route to and from Punjab lay through it. The government of the region remained nominally administered by Mukarrab Khan.

When Sardar Gujar Singh Bhangi crossed the River Chenab to advance towards Lahore and Amritsar, Mukarrab Khan confronted him outside the walls of Gujrat but was defeated and compelled to retire beyond Jhelum, leaving Gujrat district to become part of Gujar Singh Bhangi’s Empire. In 1767 AD when Ahmad Shah Abdali made his last descent upon Punjab, Sardar Gujar Singh was defeated, but within a year of allying himself with Cherat Singh Sukarchakia (Grandfather of Maharaja Ranjit Singh), he was able to recover most of his lost territories. A few months later, he laid siege to the Rohtas Fort in Jhelum. The greater part of Gujrat, along with the town and fort, was captured by him. Gujar Singh died in 1788, leaving his estates to his sons Fateh Singh and Sahib Singh.

On Gujar Singh’s death in 1788, his son, Sahib Singh, usurped the entire territory and Fateh Singh took refuge with Mahan Singh (father of Maharaja Ranjit Singh) at Gujranwala. In 1791 Mahan Singh attacked, and imprisoned, Sahib Singh in the Sodhra Fort. Sahib Singh called another Sikh Sardar, Karam Singh Dulu (of Jhang district), to his aid. Karam Singh was able to conquer Sodhra Fort and set his friend free. During this raid Mahan Singh died and left his son Ranjit Singh to rule Gujranwala. The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Provincial Series: Gujrat District shows that “In 1810, Ranjit Singh now master of the consolidated Sikh empire, determined to depose his tributary vassals, Sahib Singh withdrew to the hills and later accepted a fiefdom of Bajwat Territory [now belonging to Sialkot district] conferred to him in Jagir” (p. 112).

The first governors of the district under Sikh rule were Khalifa Nur ud Din and Faqir Aziz ud Din; both of them consolidated their rule by making friends and allies of any influential person, who assumed the position of half government officials and half clan/ tribe representatives. They attended the Darbars and were consulted in all points affecting their respective tracts.

Two main battles between the British and Sikh armies were fought in this district: the Battle of Chillianwala[3] and the Battle of Gujrat. Only after winning the Battle of Gujrat on 22 February 1849 did the British declare victory in Punjab, even though the British attempts to gain control over the region began earlier. Gujrat City was made district headquarter under the British rule by 1849.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India further states:

In 1846 Gujrat came under the supervision of British officials, when a settlement of land revenue was effected under order from the provisional government at Lahore. Two years later, the District was the scene of some of the battles which decided the event of the second Sikh War. While the siege of Multan still dragged slowly on, Sher Singh established himself at Ramnagar on the Gujrawala side of the Chenab, 22 miles [35 km] below Gujrat, leaving the main body of his army on the northern bank. Here he awaited the attack of the British, who attempted unsuccessfully to drive him across the river, on November 22, 1848. Lord Gough withdrew from the assault with heavy loss; but sending round a strong detachment under Sir Joseph Thackwell by the Wazirabad ferry; he turned the flank of the enemy, and won the battle of Sadullapur. Sher Singh retired northward, and took up a strong position between the Jhelum and the Pabbi Hills. The bloody battle of Chillianwala followed (January 13, 1849) a victory as costly as a defeat. On February 6, Sher Singh again eluded Lord Gough’s vigilance, and marched southwards to make a dash upon Lahore; but the British pressed him close in the rear and, on February 22, he turned to offer battle at Gujrat. The decisive engagement which ensued broke irretrievably the power of the Sikh. The Punjab lay at the feet of the conquerors, and passed by annexation under British rule. (v.12, p.365)

 

Gujrat district was a large district (area-wise), covering the entire region of the Chaj Doab, from the Jammu border to the confluence of the Chenab and Jhelum. In June of 1849 the district was broken up and the southern portion of the Doab (Miani, Sahiwal and half of Qadirabad) were separated and formed into another district with its headquarters at Shahpur.[4] In 1857 some parts of the district (specifically the Bajwat area) were transferred to Sialkot district.[5] During British rule, Gujrat district consisted of 3 tehsils: Gujrat, Kharian and Phalia (now Phalia is a tehsil of Mandi Bahauddin district).[6]

The Muslims of Gujrat district joined the Pakistan Movement during the struggle for independence from British Colonial rule and in 1947 Gujrat became a part of Pakistan. The first administrative change to the district was made in 1960, when Mandi Bahauddin (which was a growing town) was given the status of a subdivision/ tehsil. In 1993 Mandi Bahauddin was granted the status of a district with Phalia and Malakwal as its tehsils. Since Independence, Gujrat has become one of the major industrial and commercial centers of Pakistan. There are over 5,000 cottage-level and small to large scale industrial units operating in the district.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Gujrat district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 4
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 8

Under the Local Government and Community Development Gujrat district has 1 District Council, 1 Municipal Corporation (Gujrat) and 6 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Kharian
  • Sarai Alamgir
  • Dinga
  • Lala Musa
  • Jalalpur Jattan
  • Kunjah

Administrative Divisions

Gujrat district covers an area of 3,192 km2 and is subdivided into 3 tehsils as follows:

Gujrat Tehsil 65 Union Councils
Kharian Tehsil 43 Union Councils
Sarai Alamgir Tehsil 09 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Gujrat Administrative Divisions

Heritage Sites/ Tourist Attractions/ Picnic Spots

Following are the important heritage sites protected by Government of Pakistan Laws:

  • Gujrat Fort and Akbari Baoli: the foundation of this fort was laid by Emperor Akbar the Great in 1596-97. Akbari Baoli is a deep well near the Fort which was dug to provide water to the fort inhabitants
  • Bahar Wali Baoli, Kharian Town

Non-protected historical sites of the district include:

  • Serais of Khwaspur, along the route to Kabul: Throughout the district are remains of serais (inns) and baolis (wells) constructed by Muslim rulers. The main serai was built by Sukhi Khawas Khan in 952 Hijri, near Lala Musa. Khawas Khan was a General in Sher Shah Suri’s army. He was later made the governor of this area (District Profile; 1998 Census)
  • Shrine of Hazrat Tawakal Shah Rehman
  • Shrine of Hafiz Muhammad Hayat, and Mosque and Baradari attached to it
  • Shrine of Shah Jahangir and attached mosque: Mughal emperor Jahangir is said to have died in a settlement called Shah Jahangir. His wife, Noor Jahan, concealed the news of his death for political reasons and carried out a surgical procedure to remove all internal organs susceptible to decay. She then buried them at Shah Jahangir. The location is also known for a saint, Jahangir Shah[1]
  • Shrine of Hazrat Shah Daula: Shah Daula was the descendant of Emperor Bahlol Lodhi. He was a saint and interested in social welfare. He built a number of mosques, bridges, and inns
  • Camp (Paraoo or Bardashat Khana)
  • Akbari Hammam in Mohalla Dhaki, Gujrat: It was built as a hammam (hot bath house) for Emperor Akbar’s wife near Gujrat Fort
  • Begumpura Mosque, south of Darbar of Shah Daula: There is a Begumpura Mohalla where this mosque is situated. This mosque was constructed in memory of Emperor Aurangzeb’s wife (District Profile; 1998 Census)
  • Tombs of Saint Kanwan-Wali Sarkar: Hazrat Sayeen Karam Elahi Qadri Gujrati was called Kanwan-Wali Sarkar; he was born in Gujrat. He loved birds especially the crow, and due to this reason, he was called Kanwan-Wali Sarkar. The Urs of Kanwan-Wali Sarkar is celebrated with a fair in August every year, when thousands of devotees pay homage at the tomb
  • Tomb of Pir Jafar: His real name was Syed Saeed Miran, but he was known as Syed Pir Jafar Shah. This tomb is located on one of the peaks of Pabbi Mountain
  • Tomb of Major Aziz Bhatti Shaheed (posthumous recipient of the Nishan-e-Haider)

Other recreational spots include:

  • Ladies and Children Park, Gujrat
  • Rasool Barrage Reservoir
  • Nawaz Sharif Park

Figure 1.11 Gujrat Fort

Figure 1.12 Shrine of Kunwan Wali Sarkar

[1] Source : https://www.dawn.com/news/746713

[1] The Ancient Geography of India by Alexander Cunningham

[2] District Profile; 1998 Census, p. 5

[3] Now in Mandi Bahauddin district.

[4] Now, Shahpur is a Tehsil of Sargodha district

[5] Bajwat Area is a small island delta of River Chenab. It was separated from Gujrat district and added to Sialkot district in 1857.

[6] From Gujrat District Gazetteer 1893 by Luard C E

Topography

The northern corner of the district is Plain country, separated from Jhelum by a range of hills[1] called Pabbi hills; it is a low range which forms a continuation of the Salt Range. The highest point is 1,400 ft (427 m).

Topographically, the district is divided into 4 zones:

  • Sub-mountainous zone: This is the lowest slope of the foothills of the Himalayas. The northern corner of the district is crossed by the Pabbi hills, a low range intersected by the River Jhelum at Mong Rasul (now in Mandi Bahauddin). These hills form a continuation of the Salt Range. Their highest point has an elevation of 427 m above mean sea level (MSL) or about 183 m above the surrounding Plain. There are numerous streams which carry water to the region from the Pabbi hills. During the rainy seasons, all these streams or hill torrents deposit the heavier sand first while the lighter silt is carried further into the Plains, and thus, the low lying ground often receives the benefit of the fertile silts
  • The Central plateau of Bar: Immediately below the hills and also surrounding them, a high and undulating sub-montane plateau extends from Dinga (which lies between rivers Chenab and Jhelum) to the western border of the district. This bar terminates in a precipitous bank which is 30.5 m to 61 m in height and which almost overhangs the waters of the Rivers Tawi and Chenab.[2] At the foot of the plateau, a belt of upland crosses the district ending in a high bank beneath which lies a strip of lowland about 13 km in width. This forms the wider valley of the Chenab
  • Old River Beds: The old river bed of Chenab in the Gujrat tehsil is high and the low lying lands have received a lot of silt. The old river bed of Jhelum is also present in the district
  • Fringes of the district: These are liable to river action and consist of a considerable area

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The River Jhelum enters the district from the Kashmir hills and forms the northwestern border with the Jhelum district. River Tawi flows from the Kashmir hills and joins River Chenab forming the eastern border of the district. The Bhimber and Jaba are other, smaller, hill torrents which flow from the northern slopes of the Pabbi into the Jhelum. Some of the nullahs of the district include Bhandar, Halsi, Dulli, and Doara. Two intermittent streams of the district are Mulanwali Kasi and Kharanawali Kasi.

Forests

Gujrat district houses some riverine forests along River Jhelum and tropical thorn forests. The forests are mainly used for grazing purposes, watershed protection, and fuel wood. Common species are vann (Salvadora oleoides), khejri (Prosopis cineraria), and karir (Capparis aphylla).

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Gujrat district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 42,577 A Reserved Forests under Provincial Govt. 39,695 A
District Govt. – HA Protected Forests 174 A
Resumed Lands 2,656 A Linear Plantation 1,829 Km
Unclassed Forests 52 A

Table 1.3 Gujrat Forests

Daphar Plantation Reserved Forest, and Pakhowāl Reserved Forest are major reserved forests maintained by the Provincial Government. Some of the riverine forests include Dhool Forest, Bahlolpur Forest, Pindi Tatar Forest, Natt Forest, Sadhoki Forest, Kotli Gohian Forest, and Sayan Forest.

Soils

The soils of the district are mostly sandy loam (more sandy than loamy) soils. The Central Bar consists of fertile clayey soils.

Climate

The climate of the district is hot in summer and cold in winter. During the peak summer months, the day temperature rises to 45 °C, but the hot spells are comparatively shorter due to the district’s proximity to the Azad Kashmir mountains. The hottest months are June, July, and August. June is the hottest month when the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 41 °C and 26 °C respectively. The winter months are dry and clear and thus, very pleasant, and the minimum temperature may, at times, fall below 2 °C. January is the coldest month, when the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 20 °C and 5 °C respectively. The average rainfall on the Kashmir border is more than 1,000 mm; at Kharian it is 750 mm; at Gujrat it is 670 mm; and at Dinga, 500 mm. The mean annual precipitation of the district is 850 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1]The information in this section has been taken from Imperial Gazetteer of India (v.12 p.364) and Gujrat District profile; 1998 Census

[2] River Tawi makes a confluence with River Chenab and is a major tributary of River Chenab

Population

Population figures for Gujrat district as per the 2017 Census are as follows:

District/Tehsil Area Km2 Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Gujrat District 3,192 2,756,110 48.5 51.5 30.0 1.57
Gujrat Tehsil 1,463 1,497,865
Kharian Tehsil 1,154 1,010,912
Serai Alamgir Tehsil 575 247,333

Table 1.4 Gujrat District Population Statistics

Religion[1]

Muslims 98.7%
Christians 1.1%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.3%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Gujrat Religious Composition

Languages[2]

Urdu 1.1%
Punjabi 98.1%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 0.7%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.1%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.6 Gujrat Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Gujrat is one of the major districts of Pakistan, and has an industrial and agriculture-based economy. Prior to Independence, the district had practically no large scale industry, but it is now known for its local industry, which feeds many other major industries of Pakistan. From processed rice to electrical fans as well as the best quality shoes and pottery, the items produced in Gujrat are exported nationally and internationally. The temperature and soil conditions of Gujrat are perfect for the production of rice and sugarcane.

Various small and large scale cottage industries operate in Gujrat district. Some of the best known items produced in these cottage industries are electrical motors, electrical goods, and small tools used in electrical industries as well as rice cleaning mills. Almost 90% of the economy of Gujrat is regulated and supported through this cottage industry.

According to the 1998 Census (2017 Census data has not been made public yet) major industrial groups of the district are:

  • Elementary occupations (36.3%)
  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing etc. (29.5%)
  • Service Workers & Shop/ Market Sales Workers (11.6%)
  • Craft & Related Trade Workers (7.2%)
  • Others (15.4%)

Land Use

The land use statistics of Gujrat are included in the following table (Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Area 319,200 HA Reported Area 321,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 235,000 HA Net Sown 141,000 HA
Current Fallow 94,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 86,000 HA
Culturable Waste 34,000 HA Forest Area 12,000 HA

Table 1.7 Gujrat Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plain Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Wheat, sugarcane, rice, tobacco, maize, jowar, bajra, maash, moong, masoor, gram, oil seeds such as rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, groundnut, sesanum, guar seed, linseed, sunn hemp, and fodder are some of the crops of the district.

Major fruits of the district include citrus, guavas, mango, melon, watermelon, papaya, jaamun, banana, ber, and mulberry.

Major vegetables are turnip, potatoes, cauliflower, peas, okra, brinjal, bottle gourd, carrots, peas, onions, garlic, chilies, bitter gourd, spinach, and cabbage.

Figure 1.4 Green Fields of Gujrat

Figure 1.5 A tractor working in fields of Gujrat

Livestock

The following table shows the livestock population as of 2006 and 2010 Census of Livestock (quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 139,000 Heads Buffaloes 320,000 Heads Sheep 12,000 Heads
Goats 243,000 Heads Camels 217 Heads Horses 2,853 Heads
Mules 2,562 Heads Asses 38,354 Heads

Table 1.8 Gujrat Livestock Statistics

Kankrej cow, kajli sheep, beetal goats, beetal spotted goats, teddy goats, thorough bred horses, and cross breed cattle are all indigenous breeds of the district.

Figure 1.6 Kajli Sheep of Gujrat

Figure 1.7 Teddy Goat of Gujrat

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) there are 1,074 poultry farms in the district.

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in the Chenab River, Bhimber Nullah, Upper Jhelum Canal, Qadirabad dhand, River Jhelum, Government fish farm at Khanki Headworks, Rasool Barrage Pond area, and Rasool-Qadirabad Link Canal.[1] This fish is consumed locally.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

In Pakistan, honeybee colonies were introduced in the 1980s; since then there are more than 300,000 honeybee colonies in Pakistan, some of which are located in Gujrat.

Irrigation

The Marala Headworks and Khanki Headworks control the irrigation waters for the district. The Gujrat Branch off-taking from Upper Jhelum Canal[1] through its 13 distributaries and 427 water courses irrigates the western half of the district.

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and the area irrigated by each mode as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Irrigated Area 181,000 HA Un-Irrigated Area 115,000 HA
Canal Irrigated 35,000 HA Dug Wells Irrigated 6,000 HA
Tube Wells Irrigated 116,000 HA Canal Wells Irrigated 1,000 HA
Canal Tube Well Irrigated 22,000 HA Others 1,000 HA

Table 1.11 Gujrat Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.14 Upper Jhelum Canal Headworks, Gujrat

Minerals and Mining

Minerals are not being mined in the district.

Industry

Gujrat is a district of factories and mills, which are spread all over the district and that are not confined to industrial estates. Some of these factories are located in residential areas. There is 1 fully occupied Industrial Estate set up by Punjab Small Industries Corporation (PSIC) in Gujrat district.

There are a total of 703 small, medium, and large size industrial units in Gujrat district. The following table shows the position of existing industry in Gujrat district:[1]

Type of Industry Number of Units Type of Industry Number of Units
Carpets 01 Ceramic Products 05
Cold Storage 07 Cycle Tires / Tubes 03
Fans/ Coolers 345 Flour Mills 19
Foundry Products 30 Glass & Glass Products 01
Leather Foot Wear 09 Melamine Utensils 14
Motor Cycle/ Rickshaws 01 Motor Pumps 02
Paper/ Paper Board 04 Pins/ Clips 01
Pottery 128 Poultry Feed 01
Power Generation 01 Rice Mills 41
Sizing of Yarn 06 Soaps & Detergents 19
Textile Spinning 02 Tires/ Tubes 02
Washing Machines 07 Wire & Cable 02

Table 1.9 Gujrat Industrial Units

Figure 1.8 A Blacksmith in Gujrat City

Trade

The district trades in industrial goods and agricultural produce.

Handicrafts

Gujrat district has been famous for the manufacture of low temperature pottery and ceramic goods. Pyala (pot) pottery originated in Gujrat and is known for its marvelously light, bright colors.  Apart from pottery, district Gujrat is also famous for the production of elegant Hookas. Moreover, Gujrat is famous for its beautiful and artistic handicrafts which include flower pots, Changairian (made by leaves of palm and date trees), cotton mats, Dhusse, and woolen shawls.

Economic Infrastructure

The district is linked with Gujranwala, Jhelum, and Mandi Bahauddin districts through black topped roads and with Jhelum, Mandi Bahauddin, Sargodha, and Gujranwala districts through Pakistan Railway Network. The main Peshawar-Karachi railway line passes through the city of Gujrat and it is one of the more important railway stations of this route.

Roads

The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road Length 3,531.9 km
National Highways 61.8 km
Provincial Highways 3443.2 km
Motorways – km
Sugar Cess Roads 26.8 km

Table 1.10 Gujrat Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district are:

  • National Highway N 5, also known as the Grand Trunk Road (GT Road)
  • Gujrat to Jalalpur Jattan Road
  • Gujrat to Kunjah Road
  • Gujrat to Phalia Road
  • Gujrat to Mandi Bahauddin Road
  • Gujrat to Kharian Road

Figure 1.13 A street view of Gujrat City

Rail and Airways

The main Peshawar-Karachi railway line passes through the city, and it is one of the more important railway stations of this route. The district is linked with Jhelum, Mandi Bahauddin, Sargodha, and Gujranwala districts through Pakistan Railway Network.

There is an international commercial airport in the district, called Gujrat International Airport.

Radio and Television

There is a private FM radio station in Gujrat. Even though there is no TV Station in the district, TV transmissions can be viewed through boosters and cable.

Telecommunications

Pakistan Telecommunications Ltd. has established a network of telephone lines.[1] In all, there are 61 telephone exchanges operating in the district (ranging in capacity from 110 lines to 18,133 lines). In addition, a number of cellular companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 360 offices of Pakistan Post[2] in the city district, with 110 offices in Kharian Tehsil, 60 in Sarai Alamgir Tehsil, and 190 in Gujrat Tehsil.

Banking/Financial Institutions

There are 163 branches[3] of various banks in the district, and all 163 branches are in Kharian Tehsil.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 the following banks all have their branches in the district:

  • Al Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Falah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Bank Islami Pakistan Ltd.
  • Burj Bank Ltd.
  • Dubai Islamic Bank Pakistan Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • First Women Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • J S Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • National Investment Bank Ltd.
  • Silk Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Standard Chartered Bank Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Tarqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 271 branches of various conventional banks and 50 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

There are 7 grid stations[4] ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV in the district.

Gas connection for residential purposes is available in Gujrat, Lala Musa, Jalalpur, Sarai Alamgir, Kharian Cantt., Shadiwal, Kunjah, Langar, Khojay Road, and Kharian city.

Education

The following table shows the details of educational facilities of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility Boy/Girl Facility Boys/girl
Primary Schools 352/604 Middle Schools 89/122
Secondary Schools 139/143 Higher Secondary 09/17
Degree colleges 12/19 Other Higher Secondary[1] 01/02
Other Degree Colleges[2] 09/15 Technical Training Institutes[3] 07/-
Vocational Institutes[4] -/04 Commercial Training[5] 02/01
University[6] 01 Government Mosque Schools 02/-
Medical College[7] 02 Agriculture College
Engineering Colleges Law Colleges[8] 01

Table 1.12 Gujrat Educational Institutions

There are a number of private schools and colleges that are affiliated with the University of Gujrat.

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. The DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility No./Beds Facility No./Beds
Government Hospitals 17/1,090 Dispensaries 26/-
Rural Health Centers 15/202 Basic Health Units 92/180
T.B. Clinics -/- Sub-Health Centers 30/-
Mother Child Health Centers 11/11 Private Hospitals 03/160

Table 1.13 Gujrat Health Institutions

In addition, there are private hospitals and clinics providing health care in the district. According to the Three Years Rolling Plan 2011-2013 Gujrat District, the “Private sector is also contributing in provision of health services in the district. In absence of any registration and regulatory mechanism, actual situation of private sector is not known. With the passage of time, role of private health care providers will expand and there is a need to develop an effective coordination between public and private sector” (p. 14).

Policing

The Deputy Inspector General Police (DIGP) looks after Gujranwala region which comprises of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Narowal, Mandi Bahauddin, and Hafizabad districts. Gujrat district is further subdivided into 5 subdivisions with 23 police stations.[9] The police force in each region is headed by the District Police Officer (DPO) who is assisted by a varying number of Superintendents and Deputy Superintendents of Police.

Figure 1.16 District Courts Building, Gujrat City

[1] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[2] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[3] Pre-Investment Study District Gujrat, 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab

[4] Pre-Investment Study District Gujrat, 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab

[5] Pre-Investment Study District Gujrat, 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab

[6] University of Gujrat

[7] Nawaz Sharif Medical College, The other has been recommended for closure

[8] Gujrat Law College

[9] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[1] Directorate of Industries Punjab, Pre-Investment study Gujrat District 2012; Latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries Punjab, Pre-Investment study Gujrat District 2012; Latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries Punjab, Pre-Investment study Gujrat District 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries Punjab, Pre-investment study Gujrat District 2012; Latest available.

 

 

[1] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-Investment Study Gujrat District 2012; Latest available

[1] Impact Assessment of Irrigation Infrastructure Development on Poverty Alleviation; A Case Study from Pakistan, by International Water Management Institute, JBIC report (Japan Bank of International Cooperation)

Environment and Biodiversity

Gujrat district is a major industrial district of Pakistan. There is heavy traffic on roads for most parts of the day, which adds to the air pollution. Common air pollutant sources in Gujrat City include respirable particulate matter from smoky diesel vehicles, two-stroke motorcycles, rickshaws, road dust, and industrial emissions.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The principal trees found in the forests of the district are the vann (Salvadora oleoides), jhand (Prosopis spicegera), karil (Capparis aphyla), malla or jhar beri (Zizyphus nummalaria), chichhra (Butea frondosa), wood apple or kath bal (Feronia elephantum), lasura (Tecoma undulate), phulai (Acacia modesta), beri (Zizipyphus jujube), kikar (Acacia Arabica), toot or mulberry (Morus alba), drek (Acacia), melia (Azedarach), shisham (Dilbergio sisoo), ganger (Lyceum europeeum), and farash (Tamarix articulata). Grasses found in the district include palwan dhaman, chhimar, khabel, and madhana.

Flora of the Khanki Headworks Pond Area

Common flora of the Khanki Headworks Pond Area include harmal (Peganum harmala), pohli (Argemone maxicana), khardar (Alhaji camelorum), khabbal (Cynodon dactylon), datura (Datura alba), phog (Calligonum polygnoides), malla (Zizyphus nummularia), laily (Convolvulus arvensis), shahtara (Fumaria parviflora), saunchal (Malva parviflora), dhodhak (Euphorbia sp.), it sit (Boerhauid diffusa), aak (Calotropis procera), aksin (Ipomea crassicaulis), dib koonder (Typha elephantina), deela (Cyperus rotundus), bhang (Cannabis sativa), bathu (Chenopodium album), datura (Datura inrokia), and jantar (Sesbania sesbans).

Fauna

Jackals, wolf, fox, wild boars, jungle cat, porcupine, hedgehog, hare, squirrel, mole rat, house rat, black rat, chamgadar/ bat, geese, and house shrew are still found in the forests of the district.

Birds found in the district include brahminy kite, black kite, white-breasted king fisher, ring-necked dove, common dove, varieties of finches, larks, weaver birds, Indian sand martins, black partridges, common babbler, wood peckers, storks, grey partridge, jungle pigeon, sun bird, house sparrow, Russian sparrow, crow, owl bubo or horned owl, parakeets, shrikes, tree-pies, fly catchers, neel kanth, house sparrow, mynas, bee-eaters, minivits, koel, parrot, quail, and black rock pigeon. Migratory birds include cattle egret, common coot, common pochard common sand piper, common teal, grey heron, pond heron, river tern, lesser whistling teal, little egret, little grebe, purple heron, red shank, and common starling. Reptiles include 2 varieties of snakes, Indian monitor lizard, and common house and field lizards.

Figure 1.9 Khanki Headworks

Figure 1.10 A Brick Kiln in Gujrat

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Species

The following areas of the district are Protected Wildlife Areas:

  • Border Belt along Indo-Pak Border, which includes the district. The Border Belt is 5 miles long
  • Daphar Reserved Forest: Wildlife sanctuary
  • Pakhowāl Reserved Forest: Wildlife sanctuary
  • Rasool Barrage Game Reserve: this lake/ reservoir is on the Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance

The Daphar Plantation houses 11 types of mammals, 35 bird species, 6 reptiles, and 2 amphibian species. The mammals being provided sanctuary in the wildlife areas are hog deer, Indian gerbil, field mouse, wild hare, porcupine, jackal, jungle cat, mongoose, wild boar, and hedgehog. Birds that are being protected include mallard ducks, Eurasian teal, ruddy shell duck, white storks, Eurasian spoonbill, and black and grey francolins. A large number of migratory birds come to Rasool Barrage reservoir, including grebes, cormorants, egrets, widgeons, herons, pintails, coots, water hems, moor hens, and snipes terns.