Punjab-Jhelum

Introduction

Jhelum district is located between 32° 27′ to 33° 15′ north latitudes and 72° 32′ to 73° 48′ east longitudes. It is bounded on the west by Rawalpindi and Chakwal districts, and in the southwest by Khushab district; in its east is River Jhelum, across which, in the southeast and east, are Mandi Bahauddin and Gujrat districts, and in its north is the Mirpur district of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, from which it is separated by the mountain range called the Kohistan-e-Namak or the Salt Range. Jhelum is also known as the “City of Soldiers” or “land of martyrs and warriors” because a large number of the soldiers of both the British (Colonial) Army and the Pakistan Army hail from this region. Jhelum has the second highest Human Development Index (HDI) at 0.770 (after Karachi). In the past few years, the city has experienced rapid expansion and has become a vibrant economic and cultural center.

District at a Glance

Name of District Jhelum District
District Headquarter Jhelum City
Population[1] 1,222,650 persons
Area[2] 3,587 km2
Population Density[3] 341.6 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 1.4%
Male Population[5] 49.2%
Female Population[6] 50.8%
Urban Population[7] 29.0%
Tehsils 4 Tehsils:

1.    Jhelum Tehsil

2.    Dina Tehsil

3.    Sohawa Tehsil

4.    Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil

Main Towns Dhamiak, Jhelum city, Pind Dadan Khan, Dina, Sohawa, Nakka Khurd, Domeli, Jalalpur Sharif, and Mangla Cantonment
Literacy Rate[8] 79%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 86%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 72%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing etc. 27.2%

 

Manufacture 5.7%
Construction 20.2%
Wholesale/ Retail Trade, Hotel & Restaurant 11.5%
Transport, Storage & Communication 6.0%
Community, Social & Personal Services 19.4%
Activities not Adequately Defined 8.5%
Others 1.5%
Main Crops Wheat, maize, cotton, bajra, sugarcane, rice, moong, maash, masoor, gram, groundnut, jowar, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, barley, sesanum, guar seed, sunhemp, castor seed, and fodder
Major Fruits Citrus, guavas, bananas, loquat, jaamun, mulberry, and ber
Major Vegetables Potatoes, turnip, bottle gourd, pumpkin, okra, cauliflower, onion, peas, tomatoes, garlic, and coriander
Forests (area)[12] 47,000 HA[13]
Total Black Topped Roads[14] 1,410.95 km
National Highways[15] 52.3 km
Motorways[16] 20.0 km
Provincial Roads[17] 1,338.6 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] – km
No of Grid Stations[19] 07 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[20] 37 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 102 lines to 10,852 lines
No. of Industrial Units[21] One small Industrial estate and 38 large, medium, and small units.
Major Industry[22] Auto Parts 1 unit
Cement 3 units
Flour Mills 16 Units
Cold Storage 7 units
Chemical 1 unit
PVC Pipes 2 units
Chip/Straw Board 3 unit
Gypsum Powder 1unit
Soda Ash, Textile Composite, Tobacco, Vegetable Ghee/ Oil 1 unit each
Household Size[23] 6.2 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[24] 27.2%
Houses with Electricity[25] 83.1%

Table 1.1 Jhelum District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey. 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics report 43,000 HA under forests.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Jhelum District; Latest available.

[20] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Jhelum District; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Jhelum District; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Jhelum District; Latest available.

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage/ Historical Buildings, Tourist Attractions, and Picnic Areas

Brief History of the District

In antiquity, Jhelum was known as Jalham, which is a combination of two words: “Jal” (pure water) and “Ham” (snow). This name presumably refers to the iced waters of River Jhelum flowing from the snowy peaks of the Himalayas. Over time, the name Jalham became Jhelum.

Jhelum district is located in the northeastern part of Pakistan. The history of the district dates back to the Hindu mythological period of the Mahabharata. The epic represents the Salt Range as the refuge of the five Pandava brethren during the period of their exile; in fact, many of the salient points in the district’s scenery are clearly identified with specific legends and other stories of national heroes told and recounted over the centuries. Modern research has, in fact, fixed the site of the conflict between Alexander and Porus as being within Jhelum district, “though the exact spot at which the Macedonian King effected the passage of the Jhelum (or Hydespes) has been hotly disputed” (Imperial Gazetteer of India v. 14, p.152).

The Imperial Gazetteer of India claims that “Sir Alexander Cunningham supposed that the crossing was at Jalalpur, which he identified with the city of Bucephala; and that the battle with Porus¾a Greek corruption of the name Purusha¾took place at Mong, on the Gujrat side close to the field of Chilianwala. A later writer (Mr. V.A. Smith) holds that the battle field was ten miles northeast of Jhelum Town” (vol. 14, page 152). The article continues, and shows that:

After this event, we have little information with regard to the condition of the district until the Muslim conquest brought back literature and history to Upper India. In the interval it must have passed through much of the same vicissitude as other parts of Punjab. The Janjuas and Jats, who now hold the Salt Range and its northern plateau respectively, appear to have been the earliest inhabitants. […]

[…] The Gakhars, who appear to represent an early wave of conquest from the west, and they still inhabit a large tract in the east of the District; while the Awans, who now cluster in the western plain, are apparently later invaders. The Gakhars were the dominant race during the early Muslim era and they long continued to retain their independence, both in Jhelum itself and in the neighboring District of Rawalpindi.[1]

Mughal Era

During the Mughal Dynasty, the Gakkar chieftains were among the most prosperous and loyal vassals of the house of Emperor Babar and his descendants. After the collapse of the Delhi Empire, however, Jhelum came under the rule of the Sikhs like its neighbors.

Sikh Era

In 1765 Gujar Singh defeated the last independent Gakkar Chief, Muqarrab Khan, and subjugated the wild mountaineers of the Salt Range and the Murree Hills. His son succeeded to his dominions until 1810, when it fell to Ranjit Singh who had made Lahore his capital. Under the Lahore government, the dominant classes of Jhelum suffered much from fiscal actions and the Janjua, Gakkar, and Awan families gradually lost their landed estates, which passed into the hands of their Jat dependents.

British Era

In 1849 Jhelum passed, with the rest of the Sikh territories, into the dominion of the British. In 1857 the 14th Native Infantry stationed at Jhelum town mutinied, and made a vigorous defense against a force sent from Rawalpindi but were ultimately defeated. The main contingent of soldiers was arrested by the Kashmir Authorities, into whose territory they had escaped.

The British constituted the Jhelum territory as a district, with Pind Dadan Khan as its headquarters in 1849. It consisted of 3 tehsils: Pind Dadan Khan, Chakwal, and Jabbi. Later in the same year, Rohtas Tehsil from Rawalpindi was added to the district. In 1850 Makhad and Pindi Gheb area of this tehsil were added to Talagang Tehsil. Jabbi Tehsil was abolished and a new tehsil, Jhelum, was constituted. The district headquarters was transferred to Jhelum city in the same year.

During British rule, Jhelum was a district of Rawalpindi Division, and was larger in area than the current district of Jhelum. On April 1, 1914, the tehsil of Talagang was detached from the district and incorporated with the newly constituted district of Attock.

The old Jhelum district (without Talagang) covered an area of 7,285 km2 (2,813 miles2) and included Chakwal Tehsil, which was bounded by Shahpur and Attock to the west, and by Rawalpindi to the north. The Jhelum River separated it from Kashmir in the northeast and from Gujrat and Shahpur in the southeast and south.

Post Partition

At the time of Partition, Jhelum district consisted of 3 tehsils: Jhelum, Pind Dadan Khan, and Chakwal. In 1992, Chakwal district was created, and a substantial part of Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil was made part of the new district. At the same time, Jhelum Tehsil was divided into 2 tehsils, creating a new tehsil: Sohawa. At present, the district consists of 4 tehsils: Jhelum, Pind Dadan Khan, Sohawa, and Dina.

Figure 1.3 Rohtas Fort, Jhelum

Figure 1.4 Boat Bridge on Jhelum River, 1877. St. John’s Church is visible in the Background

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Jhelum district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 2
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 4

Under the Local Government and Community Development Jhelum district has 1 District Council, and 5 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Jhelum
  • Dina
  • Sohawa
  • Pind Dadan Khan
  • Khewra

Administrative Divisions

Jhelum district covers an area of 3,587 km² and is subdivided into 4 tehsils as follows:

Jhelum Tehsil 25 Union Councils
Dina Tehsil 02 Union Councils
Sohawa Tehsil 10 Union Councils
Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil 16 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Jhelum Administrative Divisions

[1] Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. 14, page 152

Heritage/ Historical Buildings, Tourist Attractions, and Picnic Areas

Following are the protected heritage sites of the district:

  • Rohtas Fort (Protected): It is located 7 km east of Dina Town. It was built byRaja Todar Mal, under the orders of Emperor Sher Shah Suri, in the 16th century
  • Raja Man Singh’s Haveli (Protected): Located in the Rohtas Fort, this building was built on the highest point of the fortress and is not an original part of the fortress. Man Singh was the Kacchwaha King of Amber, a state more commonly known as Jaipur. He was a trusted general of the Mughal Emperor Akbar
  • Ruined Temple with Gateway (Malot temple/ Malot fort), Malot, Jhelum: Malot fort was built in the 10th Century (around 980 AD) and has the synthesis of Kashmiri and Greek architecture. It is built of local red sandstones from theSalt Range Mountains and is located on the road leading to Malot village
  • The hill and ruins of a Jain (Buddhist) temple (Protected): The hill called Murti is located in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil and measures 7.62 m x 58 m. There is a mound which is 13 m high at the top of the hill; it marks the site of an ancient Buddhist temple
  • Two ancient temples, Bhagan Wala (Protected): These temples are located 17.7 km (11 miles) from Haranpur Railway Station, Jhelum
  • Ruins of Nandana, Fort Bhagan Wala (Protected): Situated on a hilltop near Bhagan Wala, these are extensive ruins of a fort and a town; the temple still exists. Nandana once had a strategic location at the entrance to the Salt Range, and thus a strong fortress was built to guard it. The remains of that fort are now completely smothered by the vegetation of the hill.  Nandana Fort is located on the original route taken by all famous invaders of the subcontinent. Alexander the Great is known to have come this way from Taxila before descending to Jhelum for his battle with Porus

Other places of interest include:

  • Khewra Salt Mines: Located in Khewra, these are the largest Salt Mines in Pakistan. They house a tourist resort, an asthma hospital, and a mosque
  • Mangla Dam: Even though the dam is located in the Mirpur district of Azad Kashmir, it can be reached easily from Jhelum
  • Major Akram Shaheed Memorial Park, Jhelum city
  • Rasool Barrage, 72 km downstream of Mangla Dam
  • Lehri Nature Park, 30 km northwest of Jhelum city
  • CMH Hospital with Masjid, Jhelum Cantonment
  • Masjid Afghan, Jhelum city
  • Tilla Jogian: This is the highest peak of the Salt Range in Jhelum
  • Ancient Greek Graveyard: It is believed that Alexander’s horse Becaphallus died in Jalalpur near the modern city of Jhelum and had to be buried here; Alexander built a city at the location, and called it Bucephala. The ancient graveyard is said to contain graves of the Greeks who died near the location

Figure 1.12 Ancient Greek Graveyard

Figure 1.13 Hindu Temples, Tilla Jogian

Figure 1.14 Tourist Rest House, Khewra Salt Mines

Figure 1.15 Ruins of Hindu Temple, Nandana

Figure 1.16 CMH Hospital Mosque, Jhelum Cantonment

Figure 1.17 Mosque in the Khewra Salt Mines

Topography

Jhelum district forms part of the Sindh Sagar Doab,[1] and stretches from the River Jhelum to close to River Indus. Geographically, Jhelum is divided into 3 regions:[2] the Riverine Area, Upland, and Plateau.

Riverine Area

The Riverine region possesses alluvial soil and is situated between the River Jhelum and the hills in the southern part of the district. Its length is 160 km and stretches from Pindori in Jhelum Tehsil to Phitrote in Sargodha district. Its average breadth is about 13 km. Near Jalalpur, it is reduced to a very narrow strip. It serves as a bed for hill torrents flowing from the adjoining mountains. Sometimes, these torrents spread fertile soil in this region, but generally, they sweep away the fertile ground or bury it in a layer of unproductive soil. The narrow plain between the Salt Range and the Jhelum situated beyond Jalalpur Girjak contains the most fertile land. This area is very productive and produces all types of crops.

Upland Region

The Upland region is the tract that is between the main hill ranges: the Salt Range and Pabbi Hills, which are a continuation of the Salt Range. The uplands of the Salt Range are located in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, while those which are situated between the Tilla Jogian[3] and the Nilli hills (one of the spurs of the Salt Range mountains) are surrounded by mountains from all sides. In some places, the surface is too stony to be productive, but generally, the soil is of good quality.

Figure 1.5 Tilla Jogian Hill, Jhelum

Plateau

The Plateau is generally known as Khudder or area of ravines; the torrents of the Khudder, with the single exception of the Bunha torrent, drain into the Soan River. The surface of the tract is broken and distorted. The altitude of this Plateau ranges from 400 m to 580 m, sloping towards the northwest. There is a long stretch of level plain around Jhelum itself, which is prolonged into a narrower strip along the course of the River Jhelum. The Plateau culminates in the Salt Range, which is a series of 2 main ridges from east to west, that divide the district into 2 distinct lines of hills generally situated at a distance of about 8 km from each other. The ridges are mostly parallel to each other, but after an interval of 16 km, converge to meet in a mass of peaks east of Katas, Chakwal district, after which they run parallel again.[4]

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

There are 2 rivers flowing in the district: the River Jhelum and River Kaushi. Jhelum River is the most northerly of the five rivers which give Punjab its name. The river is still known by its old name of Vehat in the countryside. Jhelum River enters the district from its northeast side and follows a winding course, ending in a confluence with River Chenab at Trimmu. River Kaushi enters the district from Rawalpindi, and its course is confined to the northern borders of Jhelum Tehsil.

There are a large number of perennial and intermittent streams/ hill torrents which descend from the hills or issue from the ravines. These torrents are called kas or kasi locally. Two major torrents which flow into River Jhelum are the Kahan and Bunha. The Kahan drains the center and East Jhelum Tehsil, and is formed of many branches which join one another near Domeli and eventually flow into Jhelum River just below Sadar Cantonment. The Bunha receives the drainage of the eastern part of District Chakwal and a considerable portion of the northern Salt Range. It falls into Jhelum River between Darapur and Bhambar. Many other small nullahs, like Gander in Jalalpur Sharif, as well as many other kasis flow in to the River Jhelum.

Some of the smaller streams flowing in Pind Dadan Khan are Chitta, Bhalogimar, Gandhala, Nawabi Kas, Dhaohar, and Kas Kaura. Rasool Barrage on River Jhelum (located in Jhelum and Gujrat districts) is a major water reservoir in the district.

Forests

The forests of the district are mostly of the deciduous type. There are both Riverine forests and Scrub forests in the district. The trees of these forests shed their leaves at a time when the amount of rainfall and temperature is insufficient during any of the seasons. The forests mainly comprise of phulai (Acacia modesta) but on higher altitudes wild olive (Olea ferruginea) and sanatha (Dodonaea viscosa) also exist. Other important shrub species are bhekar (Justicia adhatoda), pataki (Maytenus rawlins) and malla (Zizyphus nummularia). Important grass species include Chrysopogon serrulatus, Hetropogon contortus, Digitaria sanguinalis, Dichanthium foveolatum, and Dactyloctenium scindicum.

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Jhelum district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-18:

Total Forest Area 115,959 A Un-classed Forests 29,998 A
District Govt. – HA Reserved Forests 83,831 A
Resumed Land 2,130 A Linear Plantation 275 km

Table 1.3 Jhelum Forests

Riverine forests of the district include Bela Pira Ghaib and Bela Sagharpur. Scrub forests of the district include Nili Reserved Forest (RF), Tilla RF, Lehri RF, Garat RF, Ban Ismail RF, Jalalpur Unclassed Forests (UCF), and Dandot UCF.

Soil

The soil of the district near the banks of the Kahan stream near Rohtas is very rich and fertile. On both sides of the Bund Stream, the land is high and sandy. Near Baragowah, the soil is mixed with clay. Between Lehri and Langarpur hills, the soil is black in colour. The ravines naturally restrict the area for cultivation but at the same time they serve as a catchment area for the supply of water to the cultivated fields below.

Climate

The climate of the district is extreme, with summer being very hot and humid, and winter being very cold and dry. The summer season starts in April and ends in June. July and August are the Monsoon months, while November, December, January, and February are considered the winter months. June is the hottest month, when mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 46 °C and 22 °C. In winter, the mean maximum and minimum temperatures range between 23 °C and 7 °C respectively, but can go down to 1 °C.

The average annual precipitation in the district varies between 1,219 mm to 1,753 mm, with more than three-fourths of this rain falling in the Monsoon period.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] Sindh Sagar Doab is the area between River Indus and River Jhelum

[2] District Profile Jhelum by Go Pakistan; 1998 Census

[3] This is the highest peak of the Salt Range in Jhelum district, and reaches a height of 975 m

[4] Jhelum District Gazetteer 1907

Population

The following table shows the population of Jhelum district as per the 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area Km2 Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Jhelum District 3,587 1,222,650 49.2 50.8 29.0 1.41
Jhelum Tehsil 1,062 455190
Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil 1,267 336,852
Sohawa Tehsil 1,258 201,948
Dina Tehsil Created out of Jhelum Tehsil 238,660

Table 1.4 Jhelum Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 98.5%
Christians 1.4%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.1%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Jhelum Religious Composition

Languages[2]

Urdu 1.9%
Punjabi 96.6%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 1.2%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.1%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.6 Jhelum Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The major industrial occupations of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing etc. (27.2%)
  • Manufacture (5.7%)
  • Construction (20.2%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail Trade, Hotel & Restaurant (11.5%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (6.0%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (19.4%)
  • Activities not Adequately Defined (8.5%)
  • Others (1.5%)

Land Use

The following table shows the major land use statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 358,700 HA Reported Area 357,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 125,000 HA Net Sown 94,000 HA
Current Fallows 31,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 232,000 HA
Culturable Waste 56,000 HA Forest area 43,000 HA

Table 1.7 Jhelum Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Barani Areas Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture is the dominant sector of the economy, with almost 41.9% of the rural population of the district engaged in agriculture and its allied livestock breeding. Agriculture depends upon rains; irrigated areas are irrigated mainly through tube wells. Main crops of the district include wheat, maize, cotton, bajra, sugarcane, rice, moong, maash, masoor, gram, groundnut, jowar, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, barley, sesanum, guar seed, sun hemp, castor seed, and fodder.

Fruits of the district include citrus, guavas, bananas, loquat, jaamun, mulberry, and ber.

Main vegetables are potatoes, turnip, bottle gourd, pumpkin, okra, cauliflower, onion, peas, tomatoes, garlic, and coriander.

Livestock

Livestock breeding is the second most important economic activity of the district. Nearly all farmers keep a few heads of cattle and poultry to help increase the family’s income.

The following table shows the livestock population as of the 2010 Census of Livestock (quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 105,000 Heads Buffaloes 93,000 Heads Sheep 13,000 Heads
Goats 133,000 Heads Camels 1,252 Heads Horses 1,538 Heads
Mules 637 Heads Asses 17,597 Heads

Table 1.8 Jhelum Livestock Statistics

Dhanni cow, beetal goat, beetal spotted goat, and teddy goat are the indigenous breeds of the district.

Figure 1.6 Dhanni Cow

Figure 1.7 Beetal Spotted Goat

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) there are 598 poultry farms in the district. In addition there are 111 broiler and 22 layer poultry farms (privately owned) in the District.[1]

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in the lakes of the small dams especially the Garat Dam Lake, Jamargal Dam Lake, and Tainpura I and II Dams, as well as River Jhelum.[2] This fish is mostly consumed locally.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

In Pakistan, honey bee colonies were introduced in the 1980s; since then more than 300,000 honey bee colonies have been established in Pakistan, including Jhelum.

[1] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[2] Manual of fish, Fisheries Department Punjab

Irrigation

The agriculture in Jhelum district depends upon rains and the major mode of irrigation in the district is tube wells.

The following table shows the irrigation statistics as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Irrigated Area 36,000 HA Un-irrigated area 70,000 HA
Canal Irrigated 2,000 HA Wells Irrigated 7,000 HA
Tube Well Irrigated Area 25,000 HA Canal Tube Wells – HA
Canal Wells – HA Others 2,000 HA

Table 1.11 Jhelum Irrigation Statistics

The main sources of water are ground, surface run-offs, and rainfall. In order to collect and store this water, a number of small dams and reservoirs have been built, which include:

  • Garat
  • Jamargal
  • Tainpura I and II
  • Lehri (Baral) Dam
  • Salial Dam
  • Domeli Dam
  • Shah Habib Dam
  • Gurha Utam Singh Dam
  • Fatehpur Dam

Minerals and Mining

Bentonite, salt, coal, dolomite, fireclay, gypsum, limestone, marble, rock salt, and silica sand are being mined in the district. Khewra salt mines in Jhelum district are the largest salt mines in Pakistan. Salt has been mined in Khewra since 320 BC, following its discovery by Alexander’s troops.

Oil and gas are also being mined in the district.

Industry

At present, there is 1 Industrial Estate in Jhelum, and there are 38 small, medium, and large industrial units[1] in the district. Industry-wise number of units in the district is as follows:

Type of Industry Number Type of Industry Number
Auto Parts 01 Cement 03
Chemical 01 Chip/Straw Boards 03
Cold Storage 07 Gypsum Powder 01
Flour Mills 16 PVC Pipes 02
Soda Ash 01 Textile Composite 01
Tobacco 01 Vegetable Ghee/Oil 01

Table 1.9 Jhelum Industries

Trade

Rock salt extracted from the salt mines in Khewra (Pind Dadan Khan) is the main item of trade. Agricultural produce is also exported to various parts of Pakistan.

Handicrafts

Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil is famous for embroidered khussas (a type of flat soled shoe) as well as khes weaving. Khes is mat made of dried grasses, generally used as a floor-covering.

Making of salt lamps and other decorative items from rock salt are an important cottage industry of the district.

Figure 1.8 Different Types of Handicrafts using Rock Salt

Figure 1.9 Handwoven Khes of Jhelum District

[1] Directorate of Industry,Punjab: Pre-Investment Study, Jhelum District 2012; Latest available.

 

Economic Infrastructure

The economic infrastructure of the district is strong; all Tehsil headquarters are connected to each other and the district headquarters through black topped roads. The district is linked with Rawalpindi, Gujrat, Chakwal and Mirpur (Azad Kashmir) through metaled roads. Jhelum, Dina, Sohawa, Khewra, Haranpur, Pind Dadan Khan, Gharaibwal, and Lilla are the major railway stations in the district. The main Peshawar-Karachi railway line passes through Jhelum district, and the district is linked with Rawalpindi and Gujrat through the railway network.

Roads

The following table shows the type of roads and their lengths in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Black Topped Roads 1,410.9 km
National Highways 52.3 km
Motorways 20.0 km
Provincial Highways 1338.6 km
Sugar Cess Roads – km

Table 1.10 Jhelum Road Statistics

Some of the important road links of the district include:

  • Grand Trunk Road (GT Road), now called the National Highway N-5, which passes through the district
  • Rohtas Road
  • Serai Alamgir Road
  • Lahore-Islamabad Motorway
  • Islampura Road

Rail and Airways

In all, there are 23 railway stations[1] in the district. The main Karachi-Peshawar railway line links the district with other parts of Pakistan. The main Jhelum railway station was built in 1928. There are other, smaller, railway stations in Pind Dadan Khan and other tehsils of the district.

There is no commercial airport in the district but a small airport called Mangla Airport, located near Dina, is being used by the Aviation Wing of Pakistan Army. The nearest commercial airport is the Islamabad International Airport.

Figure 1.18 Khewra Railway Station Jhelum

Radio and Television

There is a private FM radio station in Jhelum. Even though there is no TV station in Jhelum, TV can be viewed via cable.

Telecommunications

Pakistan Telecommunications Ltd. has established a network of telephone lines. In all, there are 37 telephone exchanges[2] operating in the district, ranging in capacity from 102 lines to 10,852 lines. In addition, a number of cellular companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are nearly 76 offices[3] of Pakistan Post in the district, with 26 branches in Jhelum Tehsil, 20 in Sohawa Tehsil, 18 in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil and 12 in Dina Tehsil. In addition, all courier services extend their services to the entire district.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are a total of 95 branches[4] of various banks in the district, with 37 in Jhelum Tehsil, 25 in Sohawa, 21 in Pind Dadan Khan, and 12 in Dina.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have branches in the district:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Bank Islami Pakistan Ltd.
  • Dubai Islamic Bank Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • First Women Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • JS Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • National Investment Bank Ltd.
  • Silk Bank Ltd.
  • Sindh Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Standard Chartered Bank (Pakistan) Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 138 branches of various conventional banks and 14 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Islamabad Electric Supply Company (IESCO) looks after the supply and transmission of electricity to the district. There are 07 grid stations[5] in the district, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV.

Natural Gas is available in Jhelum city.

[1] Directorate of Industries Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Jhelum District 2012. Latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Jhelum District 2012. Latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Jhelum District 2012. Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Jhelum District 2012. Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Jhelum District 2012. Latest available.

Education

The following table shows the details of educational facilities of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility Boy/Girl Facility Boy/Girl
Primary Schools 223/317 Middle Schools 57/83
Secondary Schools 72/76 Higher Secondary 06/09
Degree colleges 17/23 Other Higher Secondary[1] 06/06
Other Degree Colleges[2] 09/13 Technical Training Institutes[3] 03/-
Vocational Institutes[4] -/04 Commercial Training[5] 02/01
University[6] 01 Government Mosque Schools -/-
Medical College Agriculture College
Engineering Colleges Law Colleges[7] 01

Table 1.12 Jhelum Educational Facilities

There is a Government Military College in Jhelum district which awards Engineering degrees.

There are a large number of private schools and colleges in the district.

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in-charge of health care services provided in the district. This DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health care institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 06/400 Dispensaries 3/-
Rural Health Centers 05/122 Basic Health Units 45/90
T B Clinics -/- Mother Child Health Centers 07/-
Private Hospitals 03/40 Sub-Health Centers 02/06
Private Hospitals/ Clinics[8] 59/NA

Table 1.13 Jhelum Health Institutions

Figure 1.19 DHQ Hospital, Jhelum

Figure 1.20 Asthma Center, Khewra Salt Mines

Policing

Deputy Inspector General Police looks after Rawalpindi region which comprises of Rawalpindi, Attock, Chakwal, and Jhelum districts. Jhelum district is further subdivided into 4 subdivisions and 11 police stations.[9] The police force in each region is headed by a District Police Officer who is assisted by a varying number of Superintendents and Deputy Superintendents of Police.

Figure 1.21 Stamp Paper Sellers’ Stalls outside District Courts, Jhelum

[1] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[2] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[3] Pre-investment Study District Jhelum 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab. Latest available.

[4] Pre-investment Study District Jhelum 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab. Latest available.

[5] Pre-investment Study District Jhelum 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab. Latest available.

[6] Campus of Virtual University, Pakistan.

[7] Jinnah Law College

[8] Three Years Rolling Plan 2010-13, Jhelum District (No. of Beds Not available) . Latest available.

[9] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

Environment and Biodiversity

Since the economy of the district is mainly agrarian with only a few industries, the main sources of emission in urban settlements in the district include vehicular exhaust, dust emissions, brick kilns, and emissions from solid waste burning, as well as industrial emissions. In general, the air quality is good.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Tree species of the district include phulai (Acacia modesta), poplar (populas alba), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), sanatha (Dodonaea viscose), kikar (Acacia nilotica), wild olives (Olea ferruginea), desert teak or roheda (Tecomella undulata) and flame of the forest or dhak/ palas (Butea frondosa).

Other plants include putkandda (Achyrathus aspera), baans (Adhatoda vasica Nees), camel thorn or jawansa (Alhagi maurorum), bhang or marijuana (Cannabis sativa), karir (Capparis deciduas), and desi aak (Calotropis gigantean).

There are a large number and different types of grasses growing in the forests of the district. The aquatic vegetation of Rasool Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary includes Carex fedia, Hydrilla verticillata, Nelumbo nucifera, Nymphaea lotus, Phragmites karka, Potamogeton crispus, P. pectinatus, Typha angustata, Vallisneria spiralis, and Zannichellia palustris. The hills of the Salt Range to the northwest support a subtropical semi-evergreen forest dominated by wild olives (Olea ferruginea), phulai (Acacia modesta) and sanatha (Dodonea viscose). The natural vegetation of the plains to the southeast is tropical thorn forest with species such as kikar (Acacia nilotica), karir (Capparis deciduas), jhand (Prosopis cineraria), farash (Tamarix aphylla), ber (Zizyphus mauritiana), jujube (Z. nummularia), aak (Calotropis procera), Eleusine compressa (a type of grass), Panicum antidotale (a type of grass) while sarkanda (Saccharum spp), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) and babul (Acacia nilotica) have been extensively planted along roads and around agricultural land.

Figure 1.10 Aak Plant

Figure 1.11 Phragmite Karka Grass

Fauna

Mammalian fauna of the district (mostly found in the hills of the region) includes urial, chinkara, wild boar, wolves, foxes, wild cats, hare, and Indian grey mongoose.

The avifauna includes chakor, grey and black Partridge, see-see partridges, black kites, doves, blue tailed bee-eater, painted sand grouse, blossom headed parakeet, Indian courser, small button quail, spotted dove, brahminy starlings, and Asian pied starling. Other special species that migrate to the region annually include little grebe, red capped falcon, and the ruddy drake. Migratory ducks like teal pintail, mallard, and some geese visit during winter as well.

Reptiles include types of turtles, frogs, lizards, and snakes.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Wildlife

The following areas have been declared as Wildlife Protected Areas in the district:

  • Jalalpur Sharif Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Rakh Kundal Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Part of Rasool Barrage Game Reserve
  • Part of Dil Jabba/ Domeli Game Reserve
  • Lehri/ Mangla Nature Park
  • Tilla Jogian Game Reserve
  • Part of Chumbi Surla Nature Park

These areas provide sanctuary to mammalian species and avifauna associated with the region.