Punjab-Lahore

Introduction

Lahore district is located between 31° 15Ꞌ and 31° 45Ꞌ north latitudes and 74° 10Ꞌ and 74° 39Ꞌ east longitude. The district is bounded on the north and west by Sheikhupura district, on the east by India’s Amritsar district, and on the south by Kasur district. River Ravi flows on the northern side of Lahore, and separates it from Sheikhupura district.

District at a Glance

Name of District District Lahore
District Headquarter No headquarters, but 9 autonomous towns.
Population[1] 11,126,285 persons
Area[2] 1,772 km2
Population Density 6,278.9 persons per km2
Population Growth Rate[3] 3.0%
Male Population[4] 52.3%
Female Population[5] 47.7%
Urban Population[6] 100%
Tehsils/towns 9 towns:

1.    Aziz Bhatti Town

2.    Data Ganj Baksh Town

3.    Iqbal Town

4.    Nishtar Town

5.    Ravi Town

6.    Shalimar Town

7.    Gulberg Town

8.    Samanabad Town

9.    Wagha Town

10. Cantonment Area

Main Towns Same as above, including Wagha Town, Samanabad Town, Gulberg Town, and Cantonment Area
Literacy Rate[7] 78%
Male Literacy Rate[8] 81%
Female Literacy Rate[9] 74%
Major Economic Activity[10] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing, Forestry 5.7%
Manufacture 9.6%
Construction 30%
Wholesale/ Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant 15.6%
Transport, Storage & Communication 6.7%
Community, Social & Personal Services 17.1%
Financing, Insurance, Real Estate etc. 5.4%
Activities not Adequately Defined 9.4%
Electricity, Gas & Water 0.5%
Main Crops Wheat, rice, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, tobacco, moong, mash, masoor, maize, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower
Major Fruits Citrus, guavas, mango, leechee, pomegranate, jaamun, peaches, dates, phalsa, bananas
Major Vegetables Potatoes, carrots, cauliflower, cabbage, turnip, okra, onions, tomatoes, bottle gourd, bitter gourd, peas, garlic, chilies
Forests (area)[11] 1,000 HA[12]
Total Black Topped Roads[13] 1309.93 km
National Highways[14] 48.43 km
Motorways[15] – km
Provincial Roads[16] 1261.5 km
Sugar Cess[17] Roads[18] 0.0 km
No of Grid Stations[19] 46 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 132 KV to 220 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[20] 69 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 1,000 to 55,752 lines
Industrial Zones[21] 2 industrial estates with 3,007 small, medium, and large enterprises
No. of Industrial Units and Major Industry[22] Ready Made Garments 210 units
Auto parts 274 units
Light Engineering 131 units
Tractor parts 141 units
Textile Processing 119 units
Drugs & Pharmaceuticals 84 units
Cold Storage 82 units
Packages 74 units
Leather footwear 61 units
Wire & Cable 52 units
Industrial Machinery 46 units
Paints & Varnishes 51 units
Rice Mills 42 units
Knitted Textile 42 units
Electric Goods 110 units
Flour Mills 43 units
Household Size[23] 7.2 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[24] 75.16%
Houses with Electricity[25] 95.87%

Table 1.1 Lahore District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 2017 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2013-14 (PSLM); Latest Available

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2013-14 (PSLM); Latest Available

[9] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2013-14 (PSLM); Latest Available

[10] District Census Report 1998; @017 Census results have not been made public yet.

[11] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[12] Land Utilization Statistics has 75,000 HA marked under forests

[13] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Sugar Cess roads are roads constructed leading to sugar industry (Cess means sugar cane development)

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Lahore District; Latest available

[20] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Lahore District; Latest available

[21] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Lahore District; Latest available

[22] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Lahore District; for a detailed list, please see section on Industry in this chapter

[23] District Census Report 1998; 2017 Census Data has not been made public as yet.

[24] District Census Report 1998; 2017 Census Data has not been made public as yet.

[25] District Census Report 1998; 2017 Census Data has not been made public as yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative UnitsHeritage Buildings and Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the District

The Lahore City District is sometimes referred to as the cultural capital, or the Heart of Pakistan; the city was the capital of Punjab in Mahmud Ghaznavi’s 11th century empire, a seat of the Mughal Empire as well as the Sikh Empire, and the capital of the Punjab during the British Empire. Presently, it is the capital of the Punjab province of Pakistan. It has played an important role in Pakistani history. Pakistan’s Independence declaration was made during the annual meeting of the All India Muslim League in this city, and at the time of Partition, it was the largest city in the newly formed Pakistan, providing the easiest access to India, with its porous border near the Indian city of Amritsar only 48 km (30 miles) to the east.

Lahore’s history dates back to antiquity; according to legend, the city was originally called Lohawarana[1] and was founded about 4,000 years ago by Loh or Lava, son of Rama, the hero of the Hindu epic, Ramayana. To date, there is a vacant temple dedicated to Rama, in the northern part of the Royal Fort (Lahore Fort, or Shahi Qila). According to the Ramayana, Lord Rama had two sons, Lav or Loh and Kash, both of whom founded the neighboring cities of Lahore and Kasur.

A mention of Lahore, or any city with a name that can be closely linked to Lahore, has not been found in the writings of the historians of Alexander or Strabo, nor have any coins of Indo-Bactrian or Indo-Scythic dynasties been discovered at Lahore or its neighborhood, a fact that has led scholars to conclude that the city, if it existed at the time of the Greek invasion, was of no importance, at least, up to the 1st century AD.

In the middle of the 2nd century AD, Claudius Ptolemus, nicknamed Ptolemy, the celebrated astronomer and geographer, mentioned a city called Labokla in his geography, which, according to him, was situated on the route between the Indus River and Pataliputra (Patna), in a tract of country called Kaspera (Kashmir), described as extending along the rivers Bidastes (Jhelum River), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab River), and Adris (River Ravi). This place, from its name and locality, can be identified with Lahore. General Cunningham also identifies Lahore with the Labokla of Ptolemy by taking the first two syllables, Labo, to represent the name of Lav (or Loh), the son of Rama.

The first historical evidence of the city is found in the journals of the Chinese traveler Hiuen-Tsang, who mentions it as a large Brahmanical city which he visited in 630 AD; thus, it has been concluded that the city of Lahore has a Rajput origin. The earliest princes were said to be Rajputs, with traditional Punjabi tribal origins. Hieun-Tsang records details of a large city, containing many thousands of families, chiefly Brahmans, situated on the eastern frontier of the kingdom of Cheka, which, he says, extended from the Indus to the Beas River.

Before the Muslim invasions of India, Punjab was ruled by the Hindu/ Brahman Shahis of Kabul (4th Century AD to around 870 AD). Their kingdom extended from Kubha (modern Kabul) in eastern Afghanistan and comprised of the provinces of Kapisa on the western side of the Hindu Kush Ranges and Punjab on the eastern side.

At the time of the first Muslim invasion in the late 7th century, Lahore was ruled by a Chouhan Prince belonging to a family of Ajmer. For 2 centuries, the Hindu rulers of Lahore withstood the Muslim onslaught, preventing the invaders from advancing further into the country.

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:

However in 998 AD, Jaipal the reigning monarch was decisively beaten by the son of Sabuktagin. Mahmood did not visit Lahore again for more than 20 years, after his first invasion of the Punjab, though he defeated Jaipal in 1001 and Anandpal in 1008. […] In 1034 Lahore was seized by Nialtigin, the governor of Multan. He however, was expelled and in 1036 Lahore was made the capital of the Ghaznavid dominion east of Indus. A final insurrection by the Hindus at Lahore in 1042 was quelled by Maudud[2] and the city was left in charge of Malik Ayaz. During the reign of the first 8 Ghaznavid princes Lahore was governed by viceroys as the headquarters of a province, but during the reign of Masud III[3] (1009-1114) it was made the seat of government of the Empire. After Masud’s death Muhammad Bahlim, Governor of Lahore, rebelled against Bahram Shah[4] in 1119, but was defeated; and in 1153 Khusru Shah[5] again transferred the seat of government to Lahore, where it remained till 1193. The city was put to ransom by Muhammad of Ghor in 1181, and taken in 1186. From this time onwards Lahore was the center of opposition to the authorities at Delhi, while subject to the constant incursions of the Khokars, who devastated the country in 1205. On the death of Muhammad of Ghor in 1206 Kutb Uddin Aibak was crowned at Lahore; his lieutenant Kubbacha lost the city to Taj Uddin Yalduz in 1206, but it was regained by Kutb Uddin in the same year. From the death of Arum Shah in 1211 the province of Lahore became the bone of contention between Altamsh at Delhi, Nasir Uddin Kubbacha at Multan and Taj Uddin Yalduz at Ghazni, Yalduz in 1215 took Lahore from Nasir Uddin; but Altamsh defeated him in the following year and made himself master of the city in 1217. On the death of Altamsh in 1236, Malik Ala Uddin Jani of Lahore broke out in revolt; and after he had been defeated and killed, Kabi Khan-e-Ayaz of Lahore likewise rebelled in 1238, but submitted later.

Then follows a century during which Lahore lay at the mercy of incessant Mongol raids. It was taken by them in 1241 and put to ransom in 1246. The city was rebuilt by Balban [Ghyias-ud Din Balban Sultan of Delhi from 1266-87 AD] in 1270; but in 1285 Mongols returned and Balban’s son Prince Muhammad was slain in an encounter on the Banks of Ravi. His son was appointed Governor of Punjab, but he too was killed in 1287. The suburbs of Mughalpura were founded about this time by Mongol Settlers. Under Alauddin Khilji (1296-1326), Ghazi Malik, received charge of the territories of Dipalpur and Lahore was warden of the marches against Mongols. […] [Ghazi Malik was later made Emperor and named Tughlaq Shah] The Khokars took Lahore in 1342 and again in 1394. In 1398 Lahore was taken by a detachment of Timur’s army and seems to have laid desolate till it was rebuilt by Mubarrak Shah in 1422. […]

In 1441 AD Bahlol Khan Lodhi was appointed to the fiefs of Lahore and Dipalpur, and turned against his master Muhammad Shah. Lahore enjoyed a period of peace under the Pathans; but in the reign of Ibrahim Lodhi, Daulat Khan Lodhi revolted and called in the aid of Babar. (v.16, page 106-107)

Babar, the first Mughal Emperor and founder of the Mughal dynasty, captured Lahore in 1524 AD. A major battle was fought between the armies of Babar and Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi in 1526 AD at Panipat (popularly known as the First Battle of Panipat). Having won the battle, Babur ascended the throne of Delhi and laid the foundations of the Mughal Empire. After his death in 1530, his son Humayun became the Emperor. A few years later, an imminent attack by Sher Shah Suri compelled Humayun to flee from Delhi and seek refuge in Lahore. From here, he went to Umerkot (Sindh Province), where his son Akbar was born. In 1554 AD, he re-entered Lahore, triumphantly, and his army captured Agra and Delhi. After Humayun’s death in 1556, Akbar became the Emperor, having defeated the Hindu army led by General Hemu at Panipat (known as the Second Battle of Panipat). In 1584 AD, Akbar made Lahore his headquarters and stayed there. He appointed Todar Mal as Dewan (Chief Officer of the State) of Lahore. Todar Mal belonged to Chunian (now in Kasur), and he introduced a logical system of land measurement and revenue accounts. He also gave Lahore a new rent roll. During Akbar’s reign, many gardens were raised, grapes and melons were cultivated, and Lahore City became a seat of learning and knowledge, as well as arts and crafts for the Mughal Empire.

Akbar died in 1605 AD and his son Noor-ud-Din Jehangir became Emperor of India. Under his orders, shady trees were planted along the road to Agra, minarets were constructed at a distance of one kos[6] from each other (known as Kos Minars) and pucca (permanent) wells were sunk. He died in 1627 AD, and was buried in Lahore. In 1641, his brother-in-law, Asif Jah, died and in 1645, his favorite wife Noor Jehan died, both of whom were then laid to rest near his mausoleum. After Jehangir’s death, his son Prince Khurram, subsequently known as Shahjahan (Shah Jehan), took over. In 1638 he appointed Ali Mardan Khan to be the Governor of Punjab and Kashmir.

Shahjahan built the Shalamar Garden, reconstructed the Lahore Fort and a lot of new buildings. Upon his death, Aurangzeb took over the reign of the Mughal Empire. He was formally coroneted in 1659 AD; he visited Lahore and, in the same year, appointed Khalil Ullah Khan as the viceroy of Lahore. He ordered the construction of the Badshahi mosque and built a 4 mile long embankment to protect the city of Lahore from floods in 1707, called Band-e-Alamgiri (Alamgir’s dam).

During Aurangzeb’s rule, Lahore played very little, or no, role in the politics of the time since the Emperor’s attention was focused on controlling the ruling powers of the Marathas in the Deccan region and quashing the rebellion of the Rajputana tribes. Aurangzeb’s death in 1707 saw the rise of successor states and new powers like the Marathas, the British, and the Sikhs. The Sikhs were the main contestants for power in the Punjab. In 1708, Banda Singh led an uprising against the Mughals, and, in 1709, he defeated the Mughal Army in the Battle of Samana and declared Khalsa Rule.[7] Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah himself marched towards Punjab to subdue Banda Singh. Even though the imperial army recaptured Samana, it failed to capture Banda Singh. In 1715, the Mughal forces again stormed the Sikh strongholds at Gurdaspur, where, after a fierce battle, Banda Singh was captured, and executed in Delhi.

The Sikhs then fled and hid in the recesses of the mountains and in the woods. From 1716 to 1738, the Sikhs carried out guerrilla warfare against the Mughals/ Muslims. During the invasions of Nadir Shah, the Sikhs rallied in small bands and plundered both the stragglers of the Persian army and the wealthy inhabitants who fled into the mountains on hearing about the advancing Persian army. The impunity with which they were able to successfully conduct these raids made them bolder and they ultimately built a fort in Dhalwal, near Ravi. A large number of Sikhs were able to successfully use the fort as their stronghold, and, gaining strength in this unity, the Sikhs started levying contributions around Eminabad near Lahore, leading to the re-establishment of their control over the region in and around Lahore.[8]

In 1738, Nadir Shah of Iran invaded India; his troops made their way through the Khyber Pass and across the Punjab plains to Delhi, successfully invading and plundering the royal courts. By the time Nadir Shah retired from India with his plunder in 1739, he had dealt the death blow to an already weakened Mughal Empire.

By 1748, one of the most able Sikh leaders, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia,[9] took control of the Sikhs. He was given the title of Sultan-ul-Quam (king of the nation), as he helped unite the 65 bands or Misls of the Sikhs under one banner, calling the united front Dal Khalsa, and taking over its command. The Dal Khalsa became increasingly powerful in the Punjab under this leadership, and successfully resisted invaders like Ahmed Shah Abdali. Jassa Singh was declared King of Lahore in 1761.

Also in 1748, Kabul’s Ahmad Shah Abdali, after conquering Lahore, marched towards Delhi. His advance was checked at Sirhind by the Mughal forces which were led by Qamar-ud Din, resulting in the retreat of Ahmad Shah back to Kabul. In 1760, Ahmad Shah Abdali returned in an attempt to re-conquer the region, and succeeded in defeating the Marhattas at Panipat (known as the Third Battle of Panipat). Once they were defeated, the only forces resisting Abdali were the Sikhs who had been constantly assailing Ahmad Shah Abdali’s lines of communication. Abdali’s next expedition was, thus, directed against the Sikhs.

By 1762, the forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali had routed the Sikh forces completely, but the Sikhs rose once again as their conquerors withdrew. In 1767, Abdali adopted a conciliatory policy towards the Sikhs, confirmed Lehna Singh as the ruler of Lahore and returned to Kabul. Lehna Singh and his followers then ruled Lahore for three decades. The city, in fact, has deep cultural and religious significance for the Sikhs of South Asia; Guru Ram Das, for example, was born at Bazaar Chuna Mandi, Lahore in 1534 AD. Guru Arjan Dev, the fifth Sikh Guru, wanted to construct a holy tank of water and a Gurdwara called Sir Harmandir Sahib in the city of Amritsar. He asked his friend, a Muslim Saint, Hazrat Mian Mir Ji of Lahore, to lay its foundation stone in December 1588. Mian Mir Ji traveled to Amritsar for this purpose. The Gurdwara Dehra Sahib and the Samadhi/ Mausoleum of Ranjit Singh are also located in Lahore.

Ranjit Singh’s reign over Lahore began in 1799 AD; he destroyed Muslim places of worship, demolished monuments and buildings, and confiscated Muslim properties, distributing them among Sikhs. After his death in 1839, his eldest son, Kharak Singh, came into power. He died under suspicious circumstances¾with some claiming he died of poison¾and was succeeded by his son Naunehal Singh in 1840. After Naunehal’s death, the Sikhs’ dynasties fell victim to internal strife, but they managed to both resist, and push back, the British invasion, ultimately fighting in, and losing, the First Sikh War in 1845, which weakened the Sikh power in the region considerably. After the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1848-49 (which started when 2 British Officers were killed in Multan by Sikh soldiers), Sikh power in the region was annihilated, and Punjab was annexed by the British in 1849.

In 1857, the Indian troops in Meerut revolted against the British, and soon this war (locally called the “war of independence”, and called the “Mutiny” by the British) engulfed all the major towns in India. During this war, Lahore fought against the British Forces, and the 26th Native Infantry Regiment “mutinied” at Mian Mir.[10] They were overtaken while fleeing on the banks of River Ravi, and destroyed by a force commanded by Mr. Cooper. The Muslims, however, continued the struggle for Independence till the fall of Delhi, and in 1858, India ultimately became a part of the British Empire.

During their reign, the British improved the infrastructure at Lahore, opening the Bari Doab Canal in 1859, and constructing the Lahore Junction Railway station in 1860. In 1862, the Municipal Committee for Lahore was established, and the Government College was established in 1864. Lahore University College was established in 1868, which later became the Punjab University. A law school was also established. In 1870, the Mayo Hospital was constructed and became operational. In 1872 a zoo was constructed. The Lahore Electric Supply Company was established in 1912. In 1913, Kinnaird College was opened, and in 1917 King Edwards Medical College was inaugurated. In 1919, the Chief Court of Lahore was raised to the status of a High Court.

The city also played a major role in the Independence movement, and held central importance for the Muslims of the subcontinent. The Punjab branch of the All India Muslim League, for example, held its first session at Lahore in 1907. In 1909, the 24th session of the All India National Congress was also held in Lahore.

In March 1919, agitation began in Lahore against Rowlett’s Bill.[11] This protest gained momentum after the massacre at Jallianwala Bagh. Martial Law was imposed in Lahore on 15 April 1919. This martial law was lifted in August 1919.

In 1924, the All India Muslim League held its annual session at Lahore, presided over by Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. In 1927, the British Forces vacated the Lahore Fort which had been occupied by them in 1849, and handed it over to the government’s Archaeological Department. Hindu-Muslim riots in the city also began in 1927. In 1929 the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress launched the Civil Disobedience Movement, and declared that the ultimate goal of the Congress was to achieve complete freedom. In the year 1930, with the Nationalist movement in full swing, the British Government executed Bhagat Singh[12] and his fellow revolutionaries. The Civil Disobedience Movement ended in 1931, after an agreement was reached between Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin, the British Viceroy.

In 1933, Chaudhry Rehmat Ali, a Muslim scholar, founded the Pakistan National Movement and established its propaganda all over India including Lahore.

In 1940, the Punjab Government banned all non-official military parades. The Khaksars[13] decided to defy the ban and marched on the streets of Lahore, on 19th March 1940. They clashed with the police and many people were killed. The All India Muslim League held its three-day general session in Lahore on 22–24 March 1940, during which the Lahore (Pakistan) Resolution[14] was passed. The text of this Resolution was written by Muhammad Zafarullah Khan and presented by A. K. Fazlul Haq, the prime minister of Bengal; it became a formal political statement adopted by the All India Muslim League on 23rd March, 1940.

The text of the Lahore Resolution reads:

that it is a considered view of this session of All India Muslim League that no constitutional plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to the Muslims unless it is designed on the following basic principles, viz the geographically contiguous units be demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial re-adjustments as may be necessary that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority, as in the North Western and Eastern Zones of India, should be grouped to constitute ‘Independent States’ in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign.

This Resolution changed the nature of the demand for Pakistan and created the impression in Muslim India that all Muslims were united to rise as one nation. It also proved to be the final blow to the Indian National Congress and gave the All India Muslim League a firm footing in Lahore. Thus, in the elections to the Provincial Assembly of Punjab held in 1945, the Muslim League won 78 seats out of the total 90 seats reserved for Muslims, establishing the Muslim League as the unequivocal majority party representing the Muslims of India. In an attempt to counter this majority, the Hindus and Sikhs arranged the revival of the Unionist Party which had 13 Muslim Members in a house of 175, and with the support of Congress and the Akali Sikhs in Lahore, enabled Khizer Hayat to form a Coalition Ministry with the backing of 95 members. The Muslims, represented by the Muslim League, rebelled against this arrangement, leading to the arrest of many Muslim leaders. This agitation continued for one year.

In 1941, the Municipal Committee of Lahore was raised to the status of a Municipal Corporation and its limits were extended.

When the British announced that power would be transferred to Indians by June 1948 at the latest, rapid developments were made in Lahore and elsewhere in India. The Muslim League intensified its campaign for a separate homeland for the Muslims, and the Sikhs started organizing what was called the Akali Fauj (the Akali army), while the Hindus secretly alerted and re-organized the Rashtriya Swayamsehwak Sangh-RSS, both of which were the militant wings of the political parties representing Sikhs and Hindus. Giorgio Shani has shown that these “armies” provided employment opportunities to the de-mobbed soldiers,[15] which helps explain the systematic and military nature of the ethnic killings that followed the announcement of the Partition of the subcontinent. Unable to face the mounting agitation, Khizer Hayat, the Premier of Lahore, resigned on 2 March 1947. On 3 March 1947, Akali leader, Master Tara Singh, announced the beginning of an “open fight”[16] against Muslims in Lahore. Many Hindu leaders also joined the Akali call. On 5 March 1947, about 200 to 300 Hindus and Sikhs took out a procession and marched through Anarkali Bazaar, raising anti-Pakistan slogans and forcibly pulling down Muslim League flags from Muslim shops. Muslims reacted similarly, using force against force. With a population of 100,000 Sikhs, 500,000 Hindus and 600,000 Muslims, Lahore became the site of intense communal violence.

In July 1947, the British Government passed the Indian Independence Act, which had a provision for the creation of independent dominions in India on 14th August 1947 and Lahore officially became a part of the newly formed independent state, Pakistan. The city became the capital of West Punjab province.

In 1955, when “one unit” was announced, Lahore was made the capital of the newly created West Pakistan province. In 1970, the “one unit” was dissolved, and Punjab province was formed. Lahore was again made the capital of Punjab.

In 2001, according to the Local Government Act, Lahore was declared a City District with 6 towns. The local Government of Punjab 2013, dis not repeal this act.

Figure 1.4 Streets of Lahore 1890

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Lahore City District is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 13
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 25

The Punjab Government has adopted the Local Government Act 2013, amended up to 2016. According to this act, Lahore City District has one Metropolitan Corporation (headed by a Mayor) and is divided into 9 zones; each zone is headed by a Deputy Mayor,[17] all of whom are elected by the Metropolitan Corporation Lahore (MCL). The Lahore District areas have Municipal Corporations instead of the union councils/ district councils that are typical of other districts. The MCL comprises of 200 elected members, 9 deputy mayors, 25 women members, 10 worker members, and 10 minority members.

Administrative Units

Lahore City District covers an area of 1,772 km². Prior to the Local Government Act 2001, Lahore District was divided into 2 Tehsils i.e. Lahore City Tehsil and Lahore Cantonment Tehsil. In 2013, Punjab Government adopted the Local Government Act 2013 (amended up to 2016), which restructured the administrative divisions significantly.

Lahore City District is subdivided into 09 towns and 152 union councils as follows:

Aziz Bhatti Town 11 Union Councils
Data Ganj Baksh Town 18 Union Councils
Iqbal Town 15 Union Councils
Nishtar Town 21 Union Councils
Ravi Town 30 Union Councils
Shalimar Town 11 Union Councils
Gulberg Town 15 Union Councils
Samanabad Town 19 Union Councils
Wagha Town 12 Union Councils
Cantonment Area

Table 1.2 Lahore Administrative Units

Heritage Buildings and Tourist Attractions

There are a large number of buildings/ monuments in Lahore which are protected under Government of Pakistan and Provincial Government Laws. Following are important heritage sites/ buildings of the district:

  • Emperor Jehangir’s tomb, and Akbari Serai (c1630 AD)
  • Royal Fort Lahore (also on the list of World Heritage Sites)
  • Shalamar Gardens (also on the list of World Heritage Sites)
  • Tomb of Noor Jehan (c1615 AD; the tomb of Emperor Jehangir’s beloved)
  • Tomb of Asif Khan (Tomb of the brother of Noor Jehan and father of Mumtaz Mahal)
  • Ali Mardan Khan’s Tomb and Gateway (c1657 AD; Ali Mardan Khan was a General in Shahjahan’s army)
  • Badshahi Mosque (1672-74; built by Emperor Aurangzeb)
  • Tomb of Anarkali
  • Buddu’s Tomb (Buddu was the royal brick maker for Shahjahan)
  • Chauburji Gate
  • Saru-wala Maqbara (Cypress Tomb/ Tomb of Sharf-ul-Nisa)
  • Tiled gateway and two bastions, Nawankot, Lahore
  • Tomb of French Lady Marie Charlotte (Kuri Bagh) Lahore
  • Tomb of Khawaja Sabir (Nawab Nusrat Khan) Mughalpura, Lahore
  • Shrine of Mahabat Khan and boundary wall, Baghbanpura, Lahore
  • Tomb of Nawab Bahadur Khan, Baghbanpura, Lahore
  • Islamic Summit Minar, Punjab Assembly, Lahore
  • Lahore Museum
  • Kos Minars. A series of small towers constructed by Emperor Sher Shah Suri in the 16th century to be used as milestones
  • Wazir Khan’s Hammam and Baradari
  • Roshni Gate, Lahore
  • Tomb of Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal
  • Gulabi Bagh Gateway
  • Qutb-ud-din Aybak’s Tomb
  • Nadira Begum’s Tomb and Tank
  • Javed Manzil, Lahore or Allama Iqbal’s museum
  • Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, Karak Singh, and Naunehal Singh
  • Baradari and Samadhi of Maharaja Sher Singh Lahore
  • Chitta Gate Chowk Wazir Khan, inside Delhi Gate, Lahore
  • Well of Raja Dina Nath, Chowk Wazir Khan, Lahore
  • City gates: Masti Gate, Bhatti Gate, Sheranwala Gate, Kashmiri Gate, Lahori Gate, and Delhi Gate. The city originally had a total of 13 gates; most of these were destroyed during the British Colonial period, leaving only a few surviving gates
  • Jani Khan’s Tomb
  • Dai Anga’s Mosque, Naulakha, Lahore
  • Mosque of Nawab Zakariya Khan, Begumpura, Lahore
  • Inayat Bagh and Angori Bagh, opposite Shalamar Gardens
  • Marium Zaman Mosque, inside Masti Gate

The district is known as the City of Gardens; some of the notable gardens include: Airport Park, Bagh-e-Jinnah, China Park, Gulistan-e-Zehra Garden, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Park, Huzuri Bagh, Iqbal Park, Islamia Park, Jam-e-Shirin Park, Jilani Park, Model Town Park, Mochi Bagh, Nasir Bagh, National Bank Park, Nawaz Sharif Park, Oasis Golf and Aqua Resort, Riwaz Garden, Shahdara Bagh, Shalamar Gardens, Sukh Chayn Garden, Zaman Park, Sajawal Park, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Amusement Park, Jallo Amusement Park, Jilani amusement Park, Joyland Amusement Park, Sozo Water Park, Skyland Water Park, Danishmandan Botanical Garden, Government College University Botanical Garden, Lahore Botanical Garden, Wildlife Safari Park, Changa Manga Wildlife Park, Jallo Wildlife Park, Lahore Zoo, and Lahore Zoo Safari.

There are a number of museums in Lahore such as Allama Iqbal Museum, Lahore Fort Museum, Faqir Khana Museum, Holy Museum of Badshahi Mosque, Museum of Science and Technology, and Zoological Museum.

The daily changing of the Guards at Wagah Border is a very interesting ceremony and an important event of the district. The people of Lahore also celebrate many festivals and events throughout the year, blending Mughal, Western, and other traditions. An annual urs is held as a big festival at the mausoleum of Hazrat Data Ganj Bakhsh or Data Sahib, and a Basant festival marks the coming of spring, centered in Lahore. Kite-flying competitions traditionally take place on city rooftops during Basant.

The Festival of Lamps, or Mela Chiraghan, is another important and popular event in Lahore. This is celebrated at the same time as Basant, every spring on the last Friday of March, outside the Shalamar Gardens.

The National Horse and Cattle Show is one of the most famous annual festivals held in spring in the Fortress Stadium. The week-long activities include a livestock display, horse and camel dances, tent pegging, colorful folk dances from all regions of Pakistan, mass-band displays, and tattoo shows in the evenings.

Figure 1.5 Noor Jahan’s Tomb

Figure 1.6 Shalamar Gardens, Lahore

Figure 1.7 Sozo Water Park, Lahore

Figure 1.8 Elephant at Lahore Zoo

Figure 1.9 Minar-e-Pakistan, Lahore

Figure 1.10 Kashmiri Gate, Lahore

Figure 1.11 Badshahi Mosque, Lahore

 

[1] Imperial Gazetteer of India v.16 p.106

[2] Maudud of Ghazna was a Ghaznavid Sultan from 1041-50

[3]Masud III was also a Ghaznavid ruler

[4] Bahram Shah of Ghaznavid dynasty

[5] Khusro Shah, Ghaznavid dynasty

[6] A kos is an ancient measure of distance in India; one kos equals 2.25 miles.

[7] The word “Khalsa” means ‘pure’, Khalsas are Sikhs who have undergone the sacred ‘Amrit Ceremony’ initiated by the 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh.

[8] Cunningham, Joseph Davey. History of the Sikhs 1853.

[9] Jassa Singh was one of the leaders of the Sikhs engaged in the guerrilla warfare.

[10] Imperial Gazetteer of India v.16 p.97

[11] This bill gave extensive rights to the police. It also affected the courts, since any accused could be punished at the earliest without sufficient evidence.

[12] Bhagat Singh was a student revolutionary who fought for freedom and was executed when he was only 23 years old.

[13] The Khaksar Movement was a social movement based in Lahore with the aim of freeing India from the British and establishing Hindu-Muslim rule.

[14] The Lahore Resolution was passed on 23rd March 1940. It was called the Pakistan Resolution after Independence in 1947.

[15] Giorgio Shani. Sikh Nationalism and Identity in a Global Age. New York: Routledge, 2008.

[16] This is often read as a call-to-arms against Muslims in Lahore and elsewhere. See: Bakhshish Singh Nijjar. History of the United Panjab, Volume 3

[17] Press Reader, July 29 2013

Topography

Topographically, Lahore City District comprises of level, and nearly level, surfaces. These surfaces had been used for irrigated-agriculture in the past. Currently, most of them are being urbanized at a rapid pace.

The district is divided into 2 parts topographically:

  • The low-lying areas along River Ravi (called hithar)
  • The upland areas in the east of River Ravi (called uttar)

The lowlands, known as hithar are generally inundated by the waters of River Ravi which flows in the west of the district. The hithar areas are a part of the old bed of River Beas and, thus, usually receive inundation waters of the River Ravi during the Monsoons. The general height of the area is approximately 150-200 m above sea level.

Uttar areas (upland) are situated in the north and form two-thirds of the entire land of the district, comprised mostly of fertile loamy soils.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The Ravi is the only river that flows through the district. It enters the district from the direction of Amritsar, and after following a course of 55 km, exits the district on the borders of Kasur district. The waters of River Ravi have been ceded to India under the Indus Water Treaty 1960. In order to divert water to this area, river link canals were constructed. These are:

  • Marala-Ravi Link Canal which connects River Chenab and River Ravi, off-taking from Marala Headworks, Chenab River
  • Bambanwala-Ravi-Bedian Link (simply called BRB), connectingrivers Chenab-Ravi-Sutlej, off-taking from the Upper Chenab Canal
  • Qadirabad-Balloki Link, connectingChenab and Ravi rivers, off-taking from Qadirabad Barrage on River Chenab fed by waters of River Jhelum
  • Trimmu-Sidhnai Link, connecting Chenab and Ravi rivers, off-taking from Trimmu Barrage in Jhang District
  • Balloki-Sulemanki Link, connectingRavi and Sutlej Rivers, off-taking from Balloki Headworks to provide water to Sutlej River (the waters of Sutlej were also ceded to India)
  • Sidhnai-Mailsi Link, connecting Ravi and Sutlej rivers, off-taking from Sidhnai Barrage located on River Ravi, feeds River Sutlej

The Hudyara Rohi or nullah enters the district from Amritsar and after flowing parallel to Ravi for some time joins it at village Khudpur. This is the only other natural stream in the district. There are minor drains which connect 8 minor drains each, and after collecting the waters, ultimately flow into River Ravi. The main drains are Satto Kattle drain, Mian Mir drain, Lakshmi drain, Suk Nehar drain, Upper Chotta Ravi drain, Lower Chota Ravi drain, Siddique Pura drain, and Shahdara drain.

Forests

Lahore City District is home to irrigated plantations and riverine forests. The major flora includes kikar (Acacia Arabica), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), beri (Zizyphus jujube), mulberry or shahtoot (Morus alba), sirin (Albizzia lebbek), dharek (Melia azaderachta), phulai (Acacia modesta), peepal (Ficus religiosa) and bohr or banyan (ficus bengalansis), jand (Prosopis spicigera), karir (Capparis aphylla) and vann (Salvadora oleoides).

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Lahore City District as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 2,391 A Under Provincial Govt. – A
District Govt. – A Reserved Forests 2,119 A
Linear Plantation 2,504 km Resumed Land 272 A

Table 1.3 Lahore Forest Statistics

Shahdara Reserve Forest, Jhoke Reserved Forest, and Buchoki Forest are important riverine forests of the district.

Soils

The soil of the district is entirely alluvial and rich in potential plant nutrients. The soils of the hithar areas are soft alluvial and loam, but in some places, the soils are too sandy to be fertile.

Climate

The district has an extreme climate, with hot summers and cold winters. The summer season starts in April and continues till September. May, June, and July are very hot, and the heat feels oppressive. June is the hottest month, with mean temperatures between 40 °C maximum and 27 °C minimum. Dust storms occur occasionally. Towards the end of June, the Monsoon starts, and during the following two and a half months, spells of rainy weather alternate with the intensity of hot weather.

The winter season lasts from November to December, with January being the coldest month. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this month are 20 °C and 6 °C respectively. Temperatures in winter can sometimes go down to zero °C.

The mean average rainfall in the district is 630 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means there will be minor to moderate damage to property due to earthquakes.

Population

After the Local Government Act of 2013, Lahore District was divided into 9 towns and one cantonment.

For 2017 Census the City District was divided into Tehsils with population as follows:

Town Population
Lahore City Tehsil 3,655,774
Lahore Cant. Tehsil 1,636,342
Model Town Tehsil 2,698,235
Shalimar Tehsil 2,280,308
Raiwind Tehsil 855,626
Lahore District 11,126,285

Table 1.4 Lahore Population Statistics: Towns

Religions[1]

The religious composition of the district as per the 1998 Census is as follows:

Muslims 93.9%
Christians 5.8%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.2%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Lahore Religions

Languages[2]

Languages spoken in the district include

Urdu 10.2%
Punjabi 86.2%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 1.9%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.4%
Others 1.2%

Table 1.6 Lahore Languages

[1] 2017 Census Data has not been made Public as yet.

[2] 2017 Census Data has not been made Public as yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The economy of Lahore has a diversified base, including telecommunications, information technology, manufacturing industry, engineering, pharmaceuticals, steel, chemicals, and construction material. The economy of Lahore is prosperous, as it is a major urban center. Lahore is one of the more industrialized districts of Pakistan and is home to the largest IT Park[1] in the country, which is called the Arfa Software Technology Park. Lahore is the country’s second largest economic hub and also the commercial capital of Punjab. The Lahore Stock Exchange is Pakistan’s second largest stock exchange, with the Karachi Stock Exchange being the largest.

According to the 1998[2] Lahore District Census Report, the major industrial occupations in the district include:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing, Forestry (5.7%)
  • Manufacture (9.6%)
  • Construction (30%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant (15.6%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (6.7%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (17.1%)
  • Financing, Insurance, Real Estate (5.4%)
  • Activities not Adequately Defined (9.4%)
  • Electricity, Gas & Water (0.5%)

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. The crops grown in the district include wheat, rice, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, tobacco, moong, maash, masoor, maize, rapeseed & mustard, and sunflower.

The vegetable crops include potatoes, carrots, cauliflower, cabbage, turnip, okra, onions, tomatoes, bottle gourd, bitter gourd, peas, garlic, and chilies.

The fruit crops are citrus, guavas, mangoes, leechee, pomegranate, jaamun, peaches, dates, phalsa, and bananas.

Land Use

The following table shows the major land use statistics of the district, as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 177,200 HA Reported Area[1] 181,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 100,000 HA Net Sown 91,000 HA
Current Fallows[2] 9,000 HA Total uncultivated Area 81,000 HA
Culturable Waste 9,000 HA Forest Area[3] – HA[4]

Table 1.7 Lahore Land Use Statistics

[1] Total Physical Area of the Province

[2] The area that has not been cultivated during the reporting period

[3] Forest Area means the area of any land classed or administered as forest under any legal enactment dealing with forests.

[4] Forestry Statistics of the same document report 1000 HA under forests.

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is the second most important economic activity of the rural population of the district. The following table shows the total number of small ruminants of the district as per the 2019 Livestock Census and as quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Cattle 209,000 Heads Buffaloes 546,000 Heads Sheep 73,000 Heads
Goats 93,000 Heads Camels – Heads Horses 6,314 Heads
Mules 774 Heads Asses 27,066 Heads

Table 1.9 Lahore Livestock Statistics

Nili Ravi cow, lohi sheep, beetal goat, barbary goats, and thoroughbred horses are indigenous breeds of the district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock), there are 631 poultry farms in the district. According to the Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 there are 392 privately owned broiler, 35 layer and 49 poultry breeding farms in the District

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in the Head Balloki Pond Area except in the Reserved Areas, Dhand Laloo Khichhi, Chunian Tehsil, BRB Canal and Ravi Syphon Area.[3] Most of this fish is consumed locally.

Bee Keeping

In Pakistan, honey bee colonies were introduced in the 1980s, and since then, there are more than 300,000 honey bee colonies in Pakistan.

Irrigation

The BRB Link originates from the River Ravi in the north of the district and supplies irrigation waters to the agricultural lands of Dokri, Jallo, Barki, Heer, and Jahman, flowing along the southern borders of the district, ending in tehsil Chunian of Kasur district. A branch of this canal, known as Lahore Canal, irrigates the lands of Mughalpura, Walton, and Punjab University. Irrigation is also done through wells and tube wells. The following table shows the irrigation statistics as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Irrigated Area 151,000 HA Un-irrigated area 6,000 HA
Canal Irrigated 37,000 HA Wells Irrigated 9,000 HA
Tube Well Irrigated Area 13,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 72,000 HA
Canal Wells 19,000 HA Others 1,000 HA

Table 1.12 Lahore Irrigation

Figure 1.14 BRB Canal, Lahore

Figure 1.15 Boats on River Ravi, Lahore

Minerals and Mining

There are no minerals being mined in the district.

Industry

Punjab Small Industries Corporation has established one (1) Industrial Estate in Lahore District and another Industrial Estate has been established by the Housing and Planning Department. In total, there are 3,007 small, medium, and large industrial units in the district.[4] The industry-wise number of units in the district is as follows:

Type of Industry Number Type of Industry Number
A.C./Refrigerators 16 Batteries 03
Auto Parts 274 Bakery Products 16
Beverages 12 Bicycles 05
Biscuits 09 Boilers 03
Bulbs & Tubes 03 Carpets 16
Ceramic Products 02 Cold Storage 82
Chemical 33 Confectionary 09
Cosmetics 05 Cotton Tape 01
Crown Corks 02 Cycle Tires and Tubes 13
Dairy Products 08 Diesel Engines 07
Doubling of Yarn 16 Electric Goods 110
Drugs & Pharmaceuticals 84 Flour Mills 43
Electric Meters 05 Electric Transformers 12
Electroplating 01 Fiberglass Industry 08
Foam Manufacturing 07 Food Products 36
Forging 16 Gas Appliances 09
Fruit Juices 05 GI/MS Pipes 30
Hosiery Products 19 Industrial/Burn Gases 07
Industrial Machinery 45 Ice Cream 06
Ink Manufacturing 05 Knitted Textile 42
Leather Footwear 61 Light Engineering 131
Leather Products 06 Motor Cycle/Rickshaws 18
Mineral Water 07 Motor Cars 01
Paper/Paper Board 20 Packages 74
Paints & Varnishes 51 Pesticides & Insecticides 17
Petroleum Products 01 Power Generation 02
Rice Mills 42 Radio & TV 02
Razors/Safety Razors/ Blades 01 Ready Made Garments 210
Rubber Products 31 Sanitary Fittings 04
Seed Processing 02 Sewing Machines/Parts 06
Solvent Oil Extraction 01 Spring Manufacturing 01
Surgical Instruments 17 Textile Weaving 30
Textile Spinning 29 Thermopore (insulation) 08
Tanneries 03 Tents 13
Towels 07 Textile Made Ups 11
Textile Processing 119 Tractor Parts 141
Trucks 01 Tractors 01
Tires & Tubes 02 Unani Medicines 07
Vegetable Ghee/Oil 10 Wire & Cable 52
Washing Machines 02 Woolen Textile Spinning/ Weaving 20

Table 1.9 Lahore Industries

Trade

The head offices of many multinational and national corporations are located in Lahore. National corporations include WAPDA (Water and Power Development Authority), Pakistan Railway, Pakistan Cricket Board, Pakistan Hockey Federation, Pakistan Football Federation, SUI Northern gas, Packages Ltd., NesPak, Qurshi, and SUFI, and multinationals include Nestle Pakistan Ltd., ABB, McDonald’s, Metro, Makro and Hyperstar (Carrefour). The Lahore Expo Center, an organization specifically designed to promote trade, is one of the biggest projects in the history of the city and was inaugurated on 22 May 2010.

Handicrafts

Lahore city is well known for producing a wide variety of arts and crafts, namely embroidery work, silver and gold jewelry, brass and ivory inlay, and block/ screen printing on textiles. The district is also known for the production of hand-knotted carpets. At present, hand-knotted carpets produced in and around Lahore are among Pakistan’s leading export products, and their manufacturing is the second largest cottage and small industry. Craftsmen in Lahore produce almost every type of handmade carpet using popular motifs.

 

Economic Infrastructure

The district is linked with Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Okara, Kasur, and Narowal districts through metaled roads.

The main Peshawar-Karachi railway line passes through Lahore District, and it is linked with Sheikhupura, Narowal, Gujranwala, and Kasur Districts through the railway network. District Amritsar of India is also connected by rail with Lahore for international traffic only.

Lahore Transport Company (LTC) was established in 1984 to ease the traffic congestion in Lahore and improve bus services. LTC was given all the transport responsibilities of Lahore in December 2009. A Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) fleet of 650 buses was introduced, and named TransLahore. However, the BRTS did not have dedicated lanes and had to share the roads with regular traffic, with no right-of-way privileges. This resulted in a system that was a BRTS only in name. The Lahore Metro Bus Service was inaugurated on 10 February 2013. The first section consists of a 27 km road track, from Gajumata to Shahdara. It has 27 bus stations and incorporates e-ticketing.

Roads and Transport

There is a network of black topped roads in the district, and the district is connected to other major cities and towns with a very sophisticated network of roads. It is also connected with the capital of Pakistan and other major cities through the M 2 Motorway link.

The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road length 1,309.93 km
National Highways 48.43 km
Provincial Highways 1261.5 km
Motorways – km
Sugar Cess Roads – km

Table 1.10 Lahore Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district include:

  • National Highway N 5, which passes through the district
  • Lahore Ring Road
  • Motorway M 2 (Lahore-Islamabad Motorway)
  • Raiwind Road
  • Ferozepur Road
  • Lahore-Muridke-Gujranwala Road
  • Lahore-Kasur Road

Figure 1.12 Lahore Ring Road

Rail and Airways

The main Karachi-Peshawar railway line passes through the district.[1] Lahore Railway Station is one of the biggest railway stations in Pakistan. This station, built during the British Colonial era, is located in the heart of the city. In all, there are 13 railway stations in the district. Notable ones include Lahore Junction, Wagah, Mughalpura, Lahore Cantonment, Badami Bagh, Walton Station, Kot Lakhpat, Kahna Station, and Muslimabad Station.

The district is connected to India via train service, connecting Lahore with Amritsar, as mentioned previously.

The recently renamed Allama Iqbal International Airport located in Lahore is the second largest airport in the country.

Figure 1.13 Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore

Radio and Television

There are 2 AM and 2 FM radio broadcasting transmitters operated by Radio Pakistan in the district.

The Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, popularly called Radio Pakistan was first established as Pakistan Broadcasting Service on 14 August 1947 when Pakistan was founded. The Independence of Pakistan, in fact, was announced through Radio Pakistan on Aug 13, 1947 at 11:59 pm in Urdu, followed by a similar announcement in English. Mustafa Ali Hamdani (1909–1980) made the Urdu announcement; the English translation of this announcement is as follows:

Greetings!

Pakistan Broadcasting Service; we are speaking from Lahore; the night between the thirteen and fourteen of August, year forty seven; it is twelve o’clock; Dawn of Freedom.

At present there are 25 radio broadcasting stations in the district.

The headquarters of some major television stations of Pakistan like 92 News, City 42, Aaj News Network, Dunya News, Kohinoor TV, Samaa TV, Express TV, and Waqt News, as well as all the Punjabi regional language TV stations are located in Lahore.

Telecommunications

Pakistan Telecommunications Ltd. has established a network of telephone lines[2] in the district. In addition, a number of cellular companies also provide their services. In all, there are 69 telephone exchanges operating in the district (ranging in capacity from 1,000 lines to 55,752 lines).

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are nearly 86 offices of Pakistan Post in the district, with branches distributed as follows:

  • 20 branches in Ravi Town
  • 11 in Data Ganj Bakhsh Town
  • 06 in Aziz Bhatti Town
  • 13 in Gulberg Town
  • 07 in Allama Iqbal Town
  • 12 in Nishtar Town
  • 11 in Wagha Town
  • 07 in Shalimar Town
  • 11 in Samanabad Town[3]

Banking/ Financial Services

There are a total of 448 branches[4] of various banks in the district, distributed as follows:

  • 78 in Ravi Town
  • 107 in Data Ganj Baksh Town
  • 26 in Aziz Bhatti Town
  • 99 in Gulberg Town
  • 12 in Allama Iqbal Town
  • 23 in Nishtar Town
  • 12 in Wagha Town
  • 27 in Shalimar Town
  • 64 in Samanabad Town

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks operate in the district:

  • Al-Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Bank Islami Pakistan Ltd.
  • Barclays Bank (PLC)
  • Burj Bank Ltd.
  • Citibank
  • Deutsche Bank AG
  • Dubai Islamic Bank Pakistan Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • First Women Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Metropolitan Bank Ltd.
  • HSBC Bank Middle East Ltd.
  • Industrial Development Bank Ltd.
  • JS Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • National Investment Bank Ltd.
  • Samba Bank Ltd.
  • Silk Bank Ltd.
  • Sindh Bank Ltd.
  • SME Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Standard Chartered Bank (Pakistan) Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber
  • The Bank of Punjab
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 1,089 branches of various conventional banks and 436 branches of Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

There are 46 grid stations[5] in the district (ranging in capacity from 132 KV to 220 KV). Natural Gas is also easily available. Lahore Electric Supply Company looks after the transmission and distribution of electricity in the district.

Education

The following table shows the details of educational facilities of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility Boy/Girl Facility Boys/Girl
Primary Schools 329/281 Middle Schools 86/146
Secondary Schools 153/179 Higher Secondary 19/43
Degree Colleges 34/49 Other Higher Secondary[6] 10/07
Other Degree Colleges[7] 14/32 Technical Training Institutes[8] 09/04
Vocational Institutes[9] -/13 Commercial Training[10] 05/-
University[11] 36 Government Mosque Schools 45
Medical College[12] 19 Agriculture College 01
Engineering Colleges 22 Law Colleges 14
Homeopathy Schools 11 Mosque Schools 15/01
Post Graduate Colleges 10/10

Table 1.13 Lahore Educational Institutes

Figure 1.16 Government College University, Lahore

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) oversees all health services provided in the district. The DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health care institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility No./Beds Facility No./Beds
Government Hospitals 45/12,044 Dispensaries[13] 151/218
Rural Health Centers[14] 06/120 Basic Health Units[15] 36/72
T.B. Clinics[16] 22/- Sub-Health Centers 22/56
Mother Child Health Centers 60/- Private Hospitals 09/2,836

Table 1.14 Lahore Health Care Institutes

Policing

The Punjab Police operates under the Police Order 2002 and the Police Rules of 1934. There is a Central Police Office at Lahore which has a number of functional units like Finance & Welfare, Establishment, Headquarters, Operations, Training, and Punjab Constabulary. Some of these units report to the Inspector General of Police directly, while others report to the Additional Inspector General of Police Punjab, who reports to the Inspector General. The Regional Police Officers/ Range Deputy Inspectors General of Police report to the Inspector General of Police directly and they do not form a part of the Central Police Office. The Punjab Police is an attached department of the Home Department, Government of Punjab, however, the Inspector General of Police is an ex-officio secretary to the Government of Punjab.

The Punjab Police is staffed by officers of the Punjab Police and the Police Service of Pakistan. The officers of the Punjab Police are grouped into 6 specialized cadres, which include Head Quarters, Investigation, Training, Establishment, Welfare & Finance and Operations.

Capital City District, Lahore Police is headed by an officer of the rank of the Additional Inspector General of Police (Addl. IGP). The Addl. IGP (Capital City Police Officer) Lahore is assisted by 2 Deputy Inspectors General of Police and Superintendents of Police. Superintendents of Police of Operation and Investigation report to their respective Deputy Inspectors General of Police.

There are 77 Police Stations in Lahore District.

Figure 1.17 Lahore High Court

[1] Pre-investment Study, Lahore 2012, Directorate of Industries, Punjab

[2] Pre-investment Study, Lahore 2012, Directorate of Industries, Punjab

[3] Pre-investment Study, Lahore 2012, Directorate of Industries, Punjab

[4] Pre-investment Study, Lahore 2012, Directorate of Industries, Punjab

[5] Pre-investment Study, Lahore 2012, Directorate of Industries, Punjab

[6] Includes Private, Federal, and Schools owned by PAF and other Organizations

[7] Includes Private, Federal, and Schools owned by PAF and other Organizations

[8] Pre-Investment Study District Lahore, 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available

[9] Pre-Investment Study District Lahore, 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available

[10] Pre-Investment Study District Lahore, 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available

[11] there are 20 Universities in Private Sector and 15 in Public Sector and 1 university needs recognition by HEC

[12] 6 Medical Schools in Public Sector, 12 in Private sector, 1 needs recognition by HEC

[13] Include owned by Private Sector also.

[14]. Include owned by Private Sector also.

[15]. Include owned by Private Sector also.

[16] Include owned by Private Sector also.

 

[1] Punjab Information Technology Board

[2] 2017 Census Data has not been made Public as yet.

[3] Department of Fisheries Punjab Manual

[4] Directorate of Industry—Punjab, Pre-investment Study, Lahore District 2012

Environment and Biodiversity

The landscape of Lahore District consists mostly of a plain area. It is a treasure trove of monuments, historical relics and remains of the Mughal, Sikh, and British empires. It is known as the City of Gardens, and is a highly urbanized district, with all the problems of an urban area. A joint air quality study of Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Islamabad by the Pak-EPA and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), showed that the average suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the districts included in the study was 6.4 times higher than the WHO[1] Guideline Values for acceptable SPM. The levels of sulfur-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen also exceeded the acceptable standards in some areas, but the average levels were below the Guideline Values.[2]

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The dominant vegetation of Lahore consists of vann or peelu/ tooth brush tree (Salvadora oleoides), jhand or long tree (Prosopis cineraria), farash (Tamarix aphylla), karir or kair (Capparis deciduas), arjun or white marudah (Terminalia arjuna), dhak or flame tree (Butea frondosa), mahwa or Indian butter tree (Bassia latifolia), bahara or beech almond (Terminalia bellerica), amaltas (Cassia fistula), gul-e-nishtar or corky coral tree (Erythrina suberosa), barringtonia/ Indian oak or fresh water Mangrove (Barringtonia acutangula), neem (Melia indica), gab or white/ black ebony (Diospyoros embryopteris), berna or sacred garlic pear (Crataeva religiosa), khark or nettle wood (Celtis australis), putajia or lucky bean tree (Putranjiva roxburgii), fiddle wood/ Kashmir lagotis (Erithroxyllum rubber ratum), gul-e-mast or elephant apple (Dillenia indica), gul-e-mohr or flame tree (Poinciana regia; now rare), chattian or dita bark tree (Alstonia scholaris), ashoka tree (Saraca indica; now rare), sheesham (Dalbergio sissoo), alata or bonfire tree (Sterculia colorata), kenair or oleander (Nerium grandiflora), weeping willow (Salix babylonica), kikar or jellybean tree (Parkinsonia aculeata), blue jacaranda or blue gul mohar (Jacaranda mimosifolia), kechnar or orchid tree (Bauhinia purpurea), molsary or Spanish cherry (Mimosa elengi), bel giri or bael fruit (Aegle marmelos), siris (Albizia lebbek), tun or red cedar (Cedrela toona), jaamun or black plum (Eugenia jambolana), moor pankh (Thuja orientalis), silk oak (Grevillea robusta), sufaida or lemon scented gum (Eucalyptus citriodora), peepal (Ficus religiosa), simbal or hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis), berri or eastern ebony (Diospyros melanoxylon), sukh chain or Indian beech tree (Pongamia glabra), poplar (Populus alba), aam or mango (Mangifera indica), shehtoot or mulberry (Morus alba), banyan (Ficus bengalensis), bottle palm (Cocos species), and bottle brush (Callistemon lanceolatus).

The shrubs include tecoma or yellow bells (Tecoma stans), queen of night or raat ki raani (Cestrum nocturnum), motia (Jasminum sambac), haar singhaar (Nyctanthes arbotrists), henna (Lawsonia inermis), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora), golden durant (Duranta plumier), gul-e-fanoos (Lagerstromia indica), bottle brush (Calistimon linciolatus), and bougain bail (bougainvillea glabra).

Fauna

Since the district is fully urbanized, the only mammalian fauna are dogs, cats, house rats, and bats. Small Indian mongoose and Indian palm squirrel have also been seen. Reptiles such as cobra, and kraits were once common but are now rare.

Avifauna of Lahore include bank myna, blackbird, black drongo, rock pigeon, common babbler, common myna, garden warbler, Indian robin, white-rowed wagtail, little green bee-eater, Asian pied starling, red-vented bulbul, ring-necked dove, long-tailed strike, great spotted woodpecker, white-browed wagtail, Asian koel, common hawk-cuckoo, common koel, pied cuckoo, red turtle dove, dove, rose-ring parakeet, white-backed vulture, white‑breasted kingfisher, finch, and lark.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Wildlife

Following are the wildlife protected areas of the district:

  • Game Reserve, a part of 5-Mile Border Strip
  • Jallo Wildlife Park
  • Tehra Plantation Wildlife Sanctuary

Mammals found and protected in Jallo Park include Asian black bear, Bactrian camel, cheetal, chinkara, and sambar deer. Reptiles given sanctuary are Indian cobra, and mugger crocodile. Birds that are protected include Indian pea fowl and game birds.

[1] World Health Organization

[2] Pakistan, Punjab Irrigated-Agriculture Productivity Improvement Project