Punjab-Layyah

Introduction

Layyah district is located between 30° 45Ꞌ to 31° 24Ꞌ north latitudes and 70° 44Ꞌ to 71° 50Ꞌ east longitudes. It consists of a semi-rectangular block of sandy land between the Indus and Chenab rivers in the Sindh Sagar Doab. The district is bordered on the north by district Bhakkar, and on the east by Jhang district; River Indus flows on its western side and separates the district from Dera Ghazi Khan district, while on the south of Layyah is the Muzaffargarh district.

District at a Glance

Name of District Layyah District
District Headquarter Layyah City
Population[1] 1,824,230 persons
Area[2] 6,291 km2
Population Density[3] 286.0 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.6%
Male Population[5] 50.7%
Female Population[6] 49.3%
Urban Population[7] 17.6%
Tehsils 3 Tehsils:

1.    Choubara Tehsil

2.    Karor Lal Esan Tehsil

3.    Layyah Tehsil

Main Towns Layyah, Choubara, Karor Lal Esan, Kot Sultan, Tibbi Khurd, Fatehpur, Chowk Azam, Ladhana, Siwag Sharif, Tail Indus, Dhori Adda, Qasba Balochan, Paharpur Thal, Basti Kharani, Kharal Azeem, Jamman Shah, Basti Mirani Kacha, Basti Mirani Pakka, Khan Chand Wala, and Nawan Kot
Literacy Rate[8] 64%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 77%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 49%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing etc. 52.2%

 

Construction 20.4%
Community, Social & Personal Services 14.9%
Wholesale/Retail, Hotel/Restaurant 7.5%
Transport, Storage & Communication 2.2%
Manufacturing 2.5%
Others 0.3%
Main Crops Sugarcane, wheat, cotton, gram, guar seed, jowar, bajra, maash, moong, masoor, rice, tobacco, ground nut, maize, rapeseed & mustard, barley, sesanum, linseed, sunflower, sunn hemp, castor seed, and fodder
Major Fruits Citrus, dates, mangoes, guavas, jaamun, watermelon, melon, musk melon, ber, and mulberry
Major Vegetables Onion, potatoes, turnip, garlic, chilies, carrot, cauliflower, peas, tomatoes, okra, sugar beet, and coriander
Forests (area)[12] 51,000 HA[13]
Total Black Topped Road[14] 2,668.0 km
National Highways[15] – km
Motorways[16] – km
Provincial Roads[17] 2,639.3 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] 28.6 km
No. of Grid Stations[19] 06 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[20] 16 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 100 lines to 5,000 lines
Industrial Zones[21] There is no industrial estate, but there are 25 large, medium, and small enterprises in the district
Industrial Units[22] Cotton Ginning and Pressing 8 Units
Cold Storage 4 Units
Flour Mills 8 Units
Sugar 1 Unit
Rice Mills 4 Units
Household Size[23] 7.3 Persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[24] 5.2%
Houses with Electricity[25] 46.6%

Table 1.1

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics report 11,000 HA under forests.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Layyah District 2012; Latest available.

[20] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Layyah District 2012; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Layyah District 2012; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Layyah District 2012; Latest available.

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Buildings, and Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the District

Layyah derives its name from a wild short-stature shrub of fuel-wood, commonly known as Layyan or jhao/ salt cedar (Tamarisk dioica); since the area was covered by this shrub, the local population started calling this area “layyan.” The name is also spelled as Leiah. Layyah was given the status of district on July 1, 1982. Prior to that, it was a tehsil of Muzaffargarh district (1909-1982), and before that it was a part of the Mianwali district (1849-1909), due to which the region shares most of its early history with Muzaffargarh and Mianwali.

Both the Imperial Gazetteer of India (v.16 p.159) and the 1998 District Profile of Layyah summarize the history of the Layyah district, and show that the town of Layyah was founded in 1550 AD by Kamal Khan, a Mirani Baloch and a descendant of Ghazi Khan (founder of Dera Ghazi Khan). The town continued to be ruled by the Mirani Baloch till 1620 AD, when the Jaskani Baloch conquered the town and established their rule. The Jaskani Baloch ruled the area till 1787 as vassals of Kaura Mal, the governor of Multan. After 1787, Timur Shah Durrani[1] appointed Abdul Nabi Sarai as governor of Layyah, but 3 years later, it was included in the governorship of Muhammad Khan Sadozai, after he had attacked and defeated Abdul Nabi Sarai and shifted the seat of government to Mankera. In recognition of this feat, he was conferred the name of Sarbuland Khan, and given the governorship of Dera Ismail Khan. He is mostly referred to as the Nawab of Thal. The Sarais’ rule was short, but it ended the rule of the Jaskanis.

Thus, the area which is now Layyah district was, at one point, under the Hindu Kingdoms of Sindh. For some time (till about the year 1010) it was under the rule of the Arab conquerors whose influence extended up to Multan. During the 14th century conflict between the Soomros and other tribes, this area was under anarchic rule (with no official leader or Head of State). After this anarchic rule, the area came under the rule of the Governors of Mankera, generally known as the Nawabs of Thal, as described above.

In 1821 AD, Ranjit Singh captured the towns of Layyah, Bhakkar, Khangarh and Maujgarh (now part of Choubara tehsil, Layyah district).

Under the Sikh government, the town became the center of administration for the neighboring tract. By 1837, Layyah became a part of the kingdom of Diwan Sawan Mal, the governor of Multan (who died in 1744). The Sikh Rule ended in Layyah when the British occupied the region in 1849. Layyah was a district at that time, but in 1861, the district was broken up, and Leiah (Layyah) became part of Dera Ismail Khan district. In 1901, it was transferred to the new district of Mianwali. The municipality was created in 1875. The chief industry of Layyah at that point was the manufacture of blankets. The town contained a dispensary and a municipal Anglo-vernacular middle school.

Layyah remained under British rule till 1947, when it became part of Pakistan. Prior to Independence, the district was, first, a tehsil of Dera Ismail Khan district. Then, in 1901, Layyah was made a part of the Mianwali district. In 1909 Layyah tehsil was made a part of Muzaffargarh district, and it remained as such until 1982, when Layyah tehsil was upgraded to district level, comprising of 3 tehsils.

Figure 1.3 A View of Layyah’s Old City

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Layyah district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 2
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 5

Under the Local Government and Community Development Layyah District has 1 District Council and 5 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Layyah
  • Choubara
  • Karor Lal Esan
  • Fatehpur
  • Chowk Azam

Administrative Divisions

The total area of the district is 6,291 km2 and is divided into 3 tehsils as follows:

Layyah Tehsil 23 Union Councils
Choubara Tehsil 07 Union Councils
Karor Lal Esan Tehsil 14 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Layyah Administrative Divisions

Heritage Buildings, and Tourist Attractions

Heritage buildings of the district protected under Government of Pakistan laws are:

  • Shrine of Hazrat Lal Esan at Karor Town: A 10 day fair is held annually at the shrine
  • Shrine of Hazrat Fajan Shah

Other buildings of note are:

  • Mud Forts of Karor Lal Esan, Choubara and Nawankot: These date back to Ranjit Singh’s time (the 19th Century)
  • Shrine of Pir Chattar
  • Shrine of Shah Habib
  • Shrine of Pir Siwag
  • Shrine of Pir Jaggi
  • Shrine of Jaman Shah
  • Shrine of Shah Ashraf
  • Shrine of Pir Rajan Shah

The banks of River Indus and the canals, parks, and gardens of the district provide good recreational areas. At present, there are 4 major parks in Layyah city:

  • Family Park
  • Jinnah Park
  • Manzoor Park
  • Municipal Ladies Park

Figure 1.12 Mosque Jilani Manzil

Figure 1.13 Dargah Sharif, Hazrat Sakhi Shah Habib

Figure 1.14 Football Ground, Layyah

Figure 1.15 Fawara Chowk, Layyah

Figure 1.4 Session Courts, Layyah

[1] Durranis were Afghan rulers who ruled Afghanistan and the areas now belonging to Pakistan from 1747 to 1823.

Topography

Layyah district is situated in the southeast part of Punjab, and so most of the area of the district consists of a semi-rectangular block of sandy land between the River Indus and River Chenab in the Sindh Sagar Doab area. Generally, the whole district is a plain with an average height of 1,525 m above mean sea level; there are no hills, mountains, or big depressions. The Indus River flows along the western boundary of Layyah district. The northern boundary is formed by the great Thal desert where the sand dunes rise in steep cliffs of up to 6 m in height. The sandy desert area covers nearly 60% of the district’s area.

The region along River Indus or the riverine area is subdivided into 3 zones:

  • Nasheb: The narrow strip along the Indus (western tract) is called nasheb, where the summer floods are so high that no summer crops (kharif crops) can be grown, while the rabi crops (winter crops) are matured using well irrigation. This area covers nearly 18% of the total land area of Layyah district
  • Flood Plain: The second zone is a Flood Plain; here, given the immense height, floods rarely occur, and some kharif crops are grown
  • Inundation plains: In the third zone or the inundation plains, the flood waters are brought in to irrigate the lands through inundation canals

Choubara tehsil[1] is mostly located in the Thal desert and is quite barren. This sandy desert area or the Thal is divided into Thal Kalan and Thal Jandi. The surface is uneven due to high sand dunes and ridges. It is made up of sands of the River Indus, which is inferior to the silt of River Chenab. The water table here is quite low.

Most of the area of the Thal desert was brought under cultivation after the construction of the Thal Canal from Jinnah Barrage at Kalabagh on Indus river. Some of the areas formerly covered with sand dunes have been developed for agricultural purposes by Thal Development Authority.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The River Indus runs longitudinally in the western portion of the district in a general east-west direction. The Lala Nullah passes through the district in its extreme west. There are other small dhands and creeks in the district formed by the Indus River.

Forests

The forests of the district are Tropical Sandy Thorn Forests. The flora consists of trees including kikar/babul (Acacia nilotica), jhand (Prosopis cineraria), peelu (Salvadora oleoides), and farash (Tamarix aphylla), and shrubs like phog (Calligonum polygonoides), jhao (Tamarix dioca), milkweed (Calotropis procera), and ber (Zizyphus nummularia). The grass cover includes Eleusine compressa, Lasirus hirsutus, Saccharum benglense, and Panicum antidotale.

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Layyah district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 125,609 A Compact forests Under Provincial Govt. – HA
Reserved Forests under Province. – A Un-Classed Forests 125,609 A
Linear Plantation 1,965 km

Table 1.3 Layyah Forests

Inayat Reserve Forest, Machu Plantation and Rajan Shah Plantation (all Irrigated Plantations) are some of the important Reserve Forests and Wildlife Sanctuaries of Layyah district.

Soils

The area/ strip situated along River Indus and parts of its flood plain are composed of loamy soil, as well as some stratified sandy soils that are found in young flood plains. The area next to this is part of the Thal desert. Here, rolling to hilly sandy soils of Aeolian deserts are found.

Climate

Layyah district falls in the Sub-Tropical Continental Plain Zone of the Climatic Map of Pakistan. The summers are very hot and the winters are cold. Dust storms are common in the months of May, June, and July, which may, at times, begin earlier and last longer. Rains normally preceded by thunderstorms are not very severe. Sometimes, the district gets hailstorms.

The summer season begins in April and continues till October. June is the hottest month, with annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures of 42 °C and 29 °C respectively. December, January, and February are the winter months, with January being the coldest, when the annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures reach 21 °C and 4 °C respectively.

In the absence of a meteorological station at Layyah, rainfall data of Multan (the nearest station) has been taken, which is 187 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to no damage due to earthquakes.

[1] Thal Desert: A Research Study on Desert Ecology and Livelihood Patterns 2013. Lok Sanjh Foundation

Population

Population figures for Layyah district as per the 2017 Census are as follows:

District/ Tehsil Area km2 Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Layyah District 6,291 1,824,230 50.7 49.3 17.6 2.59
Karor Lal Esan 1,824 594,639
Layyah Tehsil 1,712 977,391
Choubara Tehsil 2,755 252,200

Table 1.4 Layyah Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 98.7%
Christians 0.9%
Hindus 0.1%
Ahmadis 0.2%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others 0.2%

Table 1.5 Layyah Religious Distribution

Languages[2]

Urdu 3.1%
Punjabi 32.6%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 1.5%
Balochi 0.1%
Seraiki 62.3%
Others 0.4%

Table 1.6 Layyah Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The main industrial occupations of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing (52.2%)
  • Construction (20.4%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (14.9%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant (7.5%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (2.2%)
  • Manufacturing (2.5%)
  • Others (0.3%)

Land Use

The land use statistics of Layyah district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 are shown in the following table

Total Area 6,291,00 HA Reported Area 628,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 491,000 HA Net Sown 380,000 HA
Current Fallows 111,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 137,000 HA
Culturable Waste 103,000 HA Forest Area 11,000 HA

Table 1.7 Layyah Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

Agriculture and its allied livestock breeding is the main occupation of the rural areas of the district. Nearly 52.2% of the population is engaged in this occupation. Part of the district belongs to the Barani Area and the other part belongs to the Sandy Desert Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan.

Sugarcane, wheat, cotton, gram, guar seed, jowar, bajra, maash, moong, masoor, rice, tobacco, ground nut, maize, rapeseed & mustard, barley, sesanum, linseed, sunflower, sunn hemp, and castor seed are the crops of the district.

Major fruits of the district include citrus, dates, mango, guavas, jaamun, watermelon, melon, musk melon, ber, and mulberry.

Major vegetables are onion, potatoes, turnip, garlic, chilies, carrot, cauliflower, peas, tomatoes, okra, sugar beet, and coriander.

Figure 1.5 Date Orchard, Layyah

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is an important economic activity of the district.

The following table shows the livestock population as of the 2010 Census of Livestock (quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 678,000 Heads Buffaloes 320,000 Heads Sheep 439,000 Heads
Goats 811,000 Heads Camels 7,990 Heads Horses 3,232 Heads
Mules 293 Heads Asses 36,737 Heads

Table 1.8 Layyah Livestock Population

Awasi sheep, angora sheep, and nachi goat are indigenous breeds of Layyah district.

Figure 1.6 Awasi Sheep

Figure 1.7 Angora Sheep

Poultry

Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) states that there are 321 poultry farms in the district. According to Punjab Development Statistics there are 330 broiler, 25 layer and 01 poultry breeding farm in the District (all privately owned).

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in the Indus River in both Layyah and Karor Lal Esan tehsils and Dholewala Canal unit. Most of this fish is consumed locally.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

In Pakistan, honey bee colonies were introduced in the 1980s, and since then, more than 300,000 honey bee colonies have been successfully established in Pakistan, including Layyah district.

Figure 1.8 Products Made from Bee Honey

Irrigation

The Thal Canal, originating from Jinnah Barrage, located on River Indus in Mianwali district is the main source of irrigation for Layyah district. Hayat Distributary, Layyah Distributary, Bhaghal Distributary, and Inayat Distributary are all smaller canals supplying irrigation waters to the district.

Irrigation statistics as per the Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 are shown in the following table:

Total Irrigated Area 439,000 HA Un-Irrigated Area 119,000 HA
Canal Irrigated 16,000 HA Wells Irrigated 13,000 HA
Tube Well Irrigated area 144,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 264,000 HA
Canal Wells 2,000 HA Others – HA

Table 1.11 Layyah Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.16 Solar Irrigation System Installed in Layyah

Figure 1.17 Layyah Minor Canal, Layyah

Minerals and Mining

Minerals are not being mined in the district.

The possibility of natural gas deposits is being explored at Rechna Block and the Multan North Block of which Layyah district is a part. Petroleum exploration is being taken up by Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. in the district.

Industry

There are no Industrial Estates in Layyah district. There are a total of 25 small, medium, and large size[1] industrial units in the district. The following table shows the existing industrial units in Layyah:

Type of Industry Number Type of Industry Number
Cold Storage 04 Cotton Pressing & Ginning 08
Flour Mills 08 Sugar 01
Rice Mills 04

Table 1.9 Layyah Industrial Units

Figure 1.9 Sugar Mill Colony, Layyah City

Figure 1.10 A Flour Mill, Layyah City

Trade

The district trades mostly in agricultural produce both locally and nationally, given its agricultural economy.

Handicrafts

Cotton cloth made on handlooms, khes (a type of thick bedsheet), woolen blankets woven on handlooms, and embroidery work are the main cottage industries of the district.

Figure 1.11 Khes Weaving

 

Economic Infrastructure

The economic infrastructure of the district is good. All tehsil headquarters of the district are connected with district headquarter Layyah through black topped roads. The district is linked with Bhakkar, Jhang, DG Khan, and Muzaffargarh districts through metaled roads. The district is linked with Bhakkar and Muzaffargarh through the main railway network as well.

Roads

The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road Length 2,667.9 km
National Highways – km
Motorways – km
Provincial Highways 2,639.3 km
Sugar Cess Roads 28.6 km

Table 1.10 Layyah Road Statistics

Some of the important road links of the district include:

  • Layyah-Kot Addu Road
  • Layyah-Faisalabad Road/ Choubara Road
  • Layyah-Karor Road
  • Choubara-Mankera Road
  • Khokharwala-Layyah Road

Rail and Airways

Layyah district is linked with Bhakkar and Muzaffargarh through the main railway network. There are a total of 07 railway stations in the district.[1]

There is no commercial or military airport/airbase in the district, and the closest commercial airport is the Multan International Airport.

Radio and Television

There is a private FM radio station in Layyah district. Even though there is no TV station, TV can be viewed through boosters and cable.

Telecommunications

Pakistan Telecommunications Ltd. has established a network of telephone lines. In all, there are 16 telephone exchanges[2] operating in the district, ranging in capacity from 100 lines to 5,000 lines. In addition, a number of cellular companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 15 offices of Pakistan Post[3] in the district, with 10 offices in Layyah tehsil, 4 in Karor tehsil, and 1 in Choubara tehsil.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are 26 branches[4] of various banks in the district, with 17 in Layyah tehsil, 07 in Karor Lal Esan, and 2 in Choubara tehsil.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have branches in the district:

  • Allied Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Bank Al Falah Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • JS Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • The Bank of Punjab
  • The Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 58 branches of various conventional banks and 06 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

The district is served by Multan Electric Power Company (MEPCO). There are 6 grid stations[5] ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV in the district.

Gas connection for residential purposes is available in Layyah tehsil.

Education

The following table shows the number of educational institutes in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility Boy/Girl Facility boys/girl
Primary Schools 692/492 Middle Schools 107/141
Secondary Schools 73/82 Higher Secondary 08/06
Degree Colleges 09/10 Other Higher Secondary[6] 03/01
Other Degree Colleges[7] 02/09 Technical Training Institutes[8] 03/-
Vocational Institutes[9] -/03 Commercial Training[10] 03/02
University[11] 01 Government Mosque Schools 19/03
Medical College Agriculture College(Campus)
Engineering Colleges Law Colleges

Table 1.12 Layyah Educational Institutions

There are a large number of private schools and colleges in the district.

Figure 1.18 District Government School Layyah

Table 1.13 The Country School, a Private School, Layyah

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. The DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health care institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility No./Beds Facility No./Beds
Government Hospitals 08/552 Dispensaries 22/-
Rural Health Centers 03/60 Basic Health Units 39/78
T.B. Clinics -/- Sub-Health Centers 15/-
Mother Child Health Centers 02/- Private Hospitals -/-
Private Health Care Providers[12] 40

Table 1.14 Layyah Health Care Institutions

Figure 1.19 DHQ Hospital, Layyah

Figure 1.20 DHQ Hospital Mosque, Layyah

Policing

Deputy Inspector General Police looks after Dera Ghazi Khan region which comprises of Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh, Rajanpur, and Layyah districts. Layyah district is further subdivided into 3 subdivisions with 08[13] police stations. The police force in each region is headed by a District Police Officer who is assisted by a varying number of Superintendents and Deputy Superintendents of Police.

Figure 1.21 Police Station, Saddar, Layyah

 

[1] Pre-Investment Study, Layyah District 2012. Directorate of Industries, Punjab; latest available.

[2] Pre-Investment Study, Layyah District 2012. Directorate of Industries, Punjab; latest available.

[3] Pre-Investment Study, Layyah District 2012. Directorate of Industries, Punjab; latest available.

[4] Pre-Investment Study, Layyah District 2012. Directorate of Industries, Punjab; latest available.

[5] Pre-Investment Study, Layyah District 2012. Directorate of Industries, Punjab; latest available.

[6] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[7] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[8] Pre-investment Study Layyah district 2012, Directorate of Industries Lahore; latest available.

[9] Pre-investment Study Layyah district 2012, Directorate of Industries Lahore; latest available.

[10] Pre-investment Study Layyah district 2012, Directorate of Industries Lahore; latest available.

[11] Campus of Bahauddin Zakarya University

[12] Three Years Rolling Plan 2010-13, District Layyah; latest available.

[13] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[1] Directorate of Industries Punjab- Pre-Investment Study, Layyah District 2012; latest available.

Environment and Biodiversity

The major air quality issue is Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) due to gaseous emission from vehicles. A lot of dust accumulates in the air due to the district’s dry atmosphere. Since the industrial base of the district is not too high, the physical environment is considered to be good.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The natural floral species found in the riverine areas include lai or salt cedar (Tamarix dioica), pilchi or French tamarisk (Tamarix gallica), khaddar or elephant grass (Typha elephantina), sarkanda or Bengal cane (Saccharum munja), kai/kans or wild sugarcane (Saccharum spontaneum), navra or giant reed/Spanish cane (Arundo donax), kikar or prickly acacia (Acacia nilotica indica), shisham or Indian rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo), ber or jujube (Zizyphus jujuba), mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), jand (Prosopis cineraria), khabbal or Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), and bhan or Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica).

The natural floral species found in areas outside the riverine tract include jandi or chhenkur (Prosopis cineraria), karir (Capparis aphyla), vann (Salvadora oleoides), peelu (Salvadora persica), kikar (Acacia nilotica indica), lana or bush seepweed (Suaeda fructicosa), lani (Salsola foetida), and khabbal or Bermuda grass (Cynodon doctylon).

The vegetation of Thal desert consists of indigenous grasses like Aristida depresssa, Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogan jawarancusa, Dicanthium annulatum, Eleusine flagellifera, Elinurus hirsutus, Panicum antidotale, Penisetum orientale, Sorghum halepense, Saccharum munja, and shrub species like Acacia jaquemont, Calligonum polygonoides, Capparis aphylla, Haloxylon recurvum, Prosopis cineraria, P. juliflora, Solvadora oledis, Sudea fruticosa, and Tamarix aphylla.

Fauna

Wolves and wild pigs, hog deer, chinkara, hare, jackals, foxes, and hedgehogs are common mammals of the district. The common birds are doves, hoopoe, sparrows, woodpeckers, and peegit as well as sandpiper, pelican, Indian snake bird, lark, kites, parrots, butchbirds, king crows, swallows, kingfishers, egrets, owls, owlets, goat suckers, shikra, laghar, bulbul (nightingale), phiddi (humming bird), and tilyar. Game birds include sand grouse, partridges, quails, wild goose, mallards, spotted bill ducks, and gadwall.

The common fish species found in the rivers and streams of the area include mahsher, khaga/thaila or catla, mori or mrigal carp, gulfam or common carp, dahee or orange fin labeo, raho or rohu, singhari or long-whiskered catfish, bachuwa or river catfish, mullee or freshwater shark, and saul.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Fauna

Wildlife Protected Areas of the district include:

  • Inayat Reserve Forest (wildlife sanctuary)
  • Machu Plantation (wildlife sanctuary)
  • Rajan Shah Plantation (wildlife sanctuary)

These sanctuaries provide sanctuary to deer, hedgehog, jungle cat, and other mammals and game birds of the area.