Punjab-Mandi Bahauddin

Introduction

The district Mandi Bahauddin is located between 30° 8′ to 32° 44′ north latitudes, and 73° 2′ to 73° 48′ east longitudes. It forms the central portion of the area called the Chaj Doab,[1] in the Gondal Bar[2] area. The district is shaped roughly like a parallelogram. It is bounded on the north by Jhelum River which separates it from Jhelum district, and on the west by district Sargodha; on its south flows the River Chenab separating Mandi Bahauddin from the districts of Gujranwala and Hafizabad; and on its east is district Gujrat.

Figure 1.3 Sunrise in Mandi Bahauddin City

District at a Glance

Name of District Mandi Bahauddin District
District Headquarter Mandi Bahauddin Town
Population[3] 1,593,292 persons
Area[4] 2,673 km2
Population Density[5] 577.5 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[6] 1.7%
Male Population[7] 48.7%
Female Population[8] 51.3%
Urban Population[9] 20.5%
Tehsils/towns 03 Tehsils:

1.    Mandi Bahauddin Tehsil

2.    Phalia Tehsil

3.    Malakwal Tehsil

Main Towns Mandi Bahauddin, Phalia, Malakwal, Helan, Rasul, Mong, Mangat, Qadirabad, Chillianwala, Kuthiala Sheikhan, Miana Gondal, Gojra, Rukkan, Bhikki, Bussal, and Dhok Kasib
Literacy Rate[10] 65%
Male Literacy Rate[11] 71%
Female Literacy Rate[12] 59%
Major Economic Activity[13] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing etc. 40.3%
Construction 36.5%
Service Workers, Shop/ Market Sales 6.2%
Transport, Storage & Communication 2.2%
Community, Social & Personal Services 8.3%
Manufacturing 3.6%
Others 2.9%
Main Crops Sugarcane, wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, tobacco, maash, masoor, moong, gram, maize, rapeseed & mustard, canola, cotton, sesanum, sugarbeet, guar seed, linseed, sunflower, and sun hemp
Major Fruits Citrus, mango, banana, guavas, ber, mulberry, loquat, melon, watermelon, musk melon, jaamun, and phalsa
Major Vegetables Chili, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, coriander, garlic, peas, carrots, turnips, radishes, cauliflower, and cabbage
Forests (area)[14] 5,000 HA[15]
Total Black Topped Roads[16] 2,133.6 km
National Highways[17] – km
Motorways[18] – km
Provincial Roads[19] 1,881.3 km
Sugar Cess Roads[20] 252.3 km
No. of Grid Stations[21] 05 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[22] 49 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 54,786 lines
Industrial Zones[23] No industrial estate but there are 113 small, medium, and large enterprises in the district
Major Industry[24] Rice Mills 75 Units
Cold Storage 16 Units
Flour Mills 15 Units
Sugar 2 Units
Chip/Straw Board 2 Units
Lubricants 1 Unit
Textile Spinning & Weaving 2 Units
Household Size[25] 6.7 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[26] 7.9%
Houses with Electricity[27] 79.1%

Table 1.1 Mandi Bahauddin District at a Glance

[1] Chaj Doab is the area between River Jhelum and River Chenab.

[2] Gondal Bar is the upland area which is the center of the tract between the Jhelum and Chenab rivers.

[3] District Profile by GoPakistan Mandi Bahauddin 1998

[4] 1998 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] 2017 Census

[9] 2017 Census

[10] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[11] PSLM

[12] PSLM

[13] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Land Utilization Statistics also reports 5,000 HA under forests.

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[20] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[21] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study 2012, Mandi Bahauddin District; Latest availsable.

[22] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study 2012, Mandi Bahauddin District; Latest availsable.

[23] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study 2012, Mandi Bahauddin District; Latest availsable.

[24] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study 2012, Mandi Bahauddin District; Latest availsable.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[26] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[27] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage/ Historical Sites and Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the District

Mandi Bahauddin was part of the Gujrat district till 1993. In 1960 Mandi Bahauddin town was given the status of a subdivision/ tehsil, prior to which it was part of the Phalia tehsil in Gujrat. In 1993, due to the socio-economic growth of the area after the completion of both the Rasul Barrage and the Rasul-Qadirabad Link Canal project, it was given the status of a district, with Phalia, Malakwal, and Mandi Bahauddin as its tehsils.

Most of the early history the district, thus, is the same as that of Gujrat district, and has been recounted in the chapter on Gujrat. According to most accounts in the earliest recorded history of the areas that are now part of the district, the famous Battle of the Hydaspes River[1] that occurred in 326 BC between Alexander the Great and Raja Porus, took place approximately 8 km northwest of modern-day Mandi Bahauddin town, on the southern bank of River Jhelum.

According to local lore, Raja Porus lost the war, and his kingdom, to Alexander’s forces and was badly wounded. When the wounded Raja Porus was brought before Alexander, he was asked how he expected to be treated, whereupon Porus is said to have replied: “As a king ought to be!” Alexander is reputed to have forgiven Porus, and to have also returned his kingdom to him, declaring him his chief ally.[2] This battle proved to be the last major war fought by Alexander, as the Macedonians/ Greeks refused to march further on hearing of the impending arrival of an army composed of 2,000 cavalry, 200 war elephants, and 300 chariots to aid Porus. Alexander is known to have founded two cities in the region: Nicaea (“Victory”) at the site of modern-day Mong town, and Bucephala[3] at the site (possibly) of Phalia.

In 997 AD, Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi took over the Ghaznavid Dynasty, and in 1005 conquered the Kabul Shahis,[4] following it with the conquests of Punjab region. The Ghaznavid Dynasty was followed by the Delhi Sultanate[5] (1206-1526) and the Mughals, whose reign ended with the British conquest.

In 1506, a Gondal Chief, Bahauddin, with his followers, migrated to this area from Pindi Shah Jahanian (now in Khanewal district) and established a settlement named Pindi Bahauddin,[6] in the northeastern corner of the region commonly known as Gondal Bar.[7] When a big market place or Mandi was established in the region, it became known as Mandi Bahauddin.

During the declining years of the Mughal Empire, the Sikhs invaded and occupied Gujranwala and its neighboring districts, including Mandi Bahauddin. The Sikhs shaped the entire area into talukas in the early 19th century. The taluka headquarters controlling the area presently forming district Mandi Bahauddin were at Phalia, Qadirabad, and Dinga. Under the Sikh reign, Muslims faced severe restrictions and hardships, and thus asked the help of Syed Ahmad Barelvi (1786-1831) in 1821. He was an Islamist leader who is considered to be the first leader in the subcontinent to successfully lead a populist/ Islamist movement that appealed to both common people and rulers for Jihad against “non-believers.” He spent 2 years recruiting and organizing his forces and getting material support for his Punjab campaign against the Sikh rulers. He carefully developed a network throughout the length and breadth of India, collecting funds and recruiting volunteers. In December 1826, Sayyid Ahmad, along with Shah Ismail (a Muslim scholar and warrior) and their followers clashed with Sikh troops at Okara but with no decisive result. In a major battle near the town of Balakot (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) in 1831, both Sayyid Ahmad and Shah Ismail, as well as their forces, were defeated and the two leaders were martyred by the Sikh army. Tombs of both Syed Ahmed and Shah Ismail have been built in Balakot.

The Second Anglo Sikh War of 1849 between the British and Sikhs took place in Chillianwala (Mandi Bahauddin) where the Sikhs lost and the area was annexed to the British Empire.

During British Rule, in 1916, the Pindi Bahauddin Railway Station was built to connect the town with other major cities via the Lala Musa Railway Junction. A town, Chak Bandi[8] was founded by Sir Malcolm Heley, and approximately 51 different Chaks were included. In these 51 Chaks, land was awarded to people who were loyal to the British Empire and had worked for British interests. Chak#51, thus, became the center of Chak Bandi. A famous grain market was set up in the center of the Chak, and soon afterwards, Chak#51 was called Mandi Bahauddin, since it was close to the Pindi Bahauddin settlement. In 1920, this name was made official. In 1924 the name of Pindi Bahauddin Railway Station was also officially changed to Mandi Bahauddin. In 1937, Mandi Bahauddin town was given the status of a Town Committee. In 1941, the town was given the status of a Municipal Committee. In 1946, 9 gates and a fortification wall surrounding the town were completed; the wall and at least one gate (Saddar Gate) are still intact.

After the 1947 Partition, when Sikhs and Hindus migrated to India, many Muslims from Indian Punjab and other provinces migrated to Mandi Bahauddin and settled in the town. In 1960, Phalia was given the status of subdivision/ tehsil in District Gujrat with Mandi Bahauddin as its capital.

In 1963, the Rasul Barrage and Rasul-Qadirabad Link Canal projects were both started under the Indus Basin Irrigation Project, and, in order to accommodate all engineers and workers involved in the project, a large colony for government employees and foreign contractors was constructed 2 km north of Mandi Bahauddin city. This project was completed in 1968 and helped the city grow exponentially.

In 1993, Mian Manzoor Ahmed Wattoo, then Chief Minister of Punjab, announced and notified Mandi Bahauddin city as the District Headquarter of a new district Mandi Bahauddin with 3 tehsils: Mandi Bahauddin, Phalia, and Malakwal.

Figure 1.4 Saddar Gate to Mandi Bahauddin

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Mandi Bahauddin district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 2
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 5

Under the Local Government and Community Development Mandi Bahauddin district has 1 District Council and 3 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Mandi Bahauddin
  • Phalia
  • Malakwal

Administrative Divisions

Mandi Bahauddin district covers an area of 7,623 km² and is subdivided into 3 tehsils and 65 Union Councils as follows:

Mandi Bahauddin Tehsil 27 Union Councils
Phalia Tehsil 21 Union Councils
Malakwal Tehsil 17 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Mandi Bahauddin Administrative Divisions

[1] River Jhelum was known as River Hydaspes by the Greeks, and the battle was referenced as Battle of Hydaspes by the Greeks and Battle of River Jhelum by the Indians.

[2] Kaushik Roy. India’s Historic Battles from Alexander the Great to Kargil. Published by Permanent Black, Delhi. p. 26

[3] Bucephala was the name of Alexander’s horse that died on the first day of the battle with Raja Porus.

[4] Kabul Shahis or Shahiyas ruled Kabul Valley and the old provinces of Gandhara, areas that are now in northern Pakistan

[5] The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim Empire that ruled from Delhi. It consisted of 5 dynasties: the Mamluks (1206-90), Khiljis (1290-1320), Tughlaq (1320-1414), Sayyids (1414-51) and Lodhis (1451-1526).

[6] Pindi Bahauddin is now known as Chak#51. Pind means village in the Punjabi language and so does chak.

[7]The area between River Jhelum and River Chenab is known as Chaj Doab; it is also called Gondal Bar because of the high concentration of members of the Gondal clan. This area is distributed between districts Sargodha and Mandi Bahauddin.

[8] Chak means “village”

Heritage/ Historical Sites and Tourist Attractions

There are no protected historical monuments in the district, but some unprotected (but important) historical monuments and buildings include

  • A 12 m high mound in Phalia, where old coins and parts of earthen kitchen utensils were found
  • A 700 year old Mosque and a Sikh Gurdwara in Mangat
  • Chillianwala monument built to commemorate the Chillianwala encounter in which a large number of innocent people were killed by the British and Sikh soldiers, also known as Qatalgarh or house of slaughter
  • Tomb of Nosha Ganj near village Ranmal
  • Shrines of Mian Saeed and Khwaja Shams-ud-din at Kadhar Tehsil Mandi Bahauddin
  • Shrine of Pir Yaqoob Shah at Rasul
  • Old ruins at Helan (a city believed to have been founded by Alexander the Great). Some coins bearing the date of 8th century Hijri[1] have been found at these ruins
  • Ruins of a tomb believed to be of Mirza Sheikh Ali Beg, who was an Amir of Emperor Akbar, killed fighting the Gakhars in 996 Hijri. He founded a village close to Helan; this village is still called Sheikh Alipur
  • Old mosque in Rasul. This contained an inscription which was taken away by the British and placed in the Crystal Palace, London, by Edward Clive Bayley
  • Mong and Rasul have been identified as towns built by Alexander the Great. Old wells abound in Mong and coins have also been discovered

Other tourist attractions of the district include

  • Rasul Barrage on River Jhelum
  • Banks of River Chenab and canal banks
  • Various parks and gardens in various parts of the district
  • Chalianwala Lake/ Dhand

Figure 1.9 Pink flamingoes Rasul Barrage

Figure 1.10 Rasul Barrage Flora

At present, there are 3 parks in Mandi Bahauddin Tehsil which provide good recreation spots for the entire family. Other important picnic spots are the Rasul Barrage Headworks area and the Qadirabad Barrage area, as well as the Daphar Plantation. Other places worth visiting include Railway Workshop Malakwal, the Engineering College at Rasul, and the Sikh Gurdwara at Khair Bawa. There are rest houses on canal banks in Rasul, Ahla, Chak Raib, Head Faqiran, and Chillianwala.

Figure 1.11 A Gurdwara in Phalia Tehsil

Figure 1.12 Mian Waheeduddin Park, Mandi Bahauddin district

Figure 1.13 Bab-Husain to Mandi Bahauddin

Figure 1.14 Riverside complex, Mandi Bahauddin

Figure 1.15 Chillian Wala Monument

[1] The date references the Muslim Calendar that begins with the Prophet Muhammad’s migration (hijrat) from Mecca to Medina, and so would be interpreted as 800 years after the migration.

Topography

District Mandi Bahauddin is located 204 m above mean sea level and forms a part of Chaj Doab. Topographically, the district can be divided into 4 parts as follows:

  • The sub-mountainous ravines in the northwest
  • The central plateau or bar
  • The old riverbeds on either sides
  • The fringes of the district liable to river action

The northern tip of the Gondal Bar (part of Chaj Doab, Mandi Bahauddin Tehsil) is near the Pabbi hills. This submontane tract is full of ravines and is unproductive. The Chambal hills are located in Mandi Bahauddin Tehsil.

The central plateau or the Gondal Bar area has fertile soil and is mostly flat. It extends from the eastern district boundary to its western border. The district edge towards the Chenab River is marked by the bank overhanging the old bed of the river, which, at some places, is as high as 6 m and at others forms a very gradual slope. The local name of the old bank is Nakka.

The old riverbed of Chenab can be seen in a well-marked high bank. At the border between Gujrat and Mandi Bahauddin, the original high bank can be seen plainly. There is a depression under the Nakka along its full course made by the final current of water as the river recedes. This effect can still be seen in the present river bed when it annually leaves the high bank.

Fringes of the district area which are still liable to river action form a sizable area. This area is inundated by floods from the rivers Jhelum and Chenab.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The district has 2 rivers: the Jhelum flows along the district’s northern boundary and the Chenab along its southern boundary. Both the rivers shrink to the size of a small stream during winter, but during summers, they swell, and may even cause flooding.

There are numerous streams which bring water from the Pabbi Range, the most important of these being the Budhi Nullah; others include Halkiwani, Saim Nullah, Rohi Nullah, Kas Jamarghal, Kas Saraggar, Khairiwala Kas, Kahan Kas, Bhabra Sem Nullah/ Rarka Sem Nullah, Qadirabad Sem Nullah, Miani Gondal Sem Nullah, Herya Sem Nullah, and the Sukhnain Nullah. One of the natural drainage canals of the district is Kot Baloch Drain.

Some lakes/ dhands of the district are Qadirabad Dhand (Tehsil Phalia), Government Fish Pond, and Rasul Barrage Reservoir.

Figure 1.6 A View of River Jhelum near Rasul Barrage, Mandi Bahauddin

Forests

Forests of the district are of two types: the Rakhs or rangelands which are government wastelands, and Belas/ Riverine Forests which are on the alluvial lands of River Chenab and River Jhelum. Flora of the forests and linear plantations in the district include shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), kikar (Acacia arabica), ber (Zizyphus jujube), poplar (Populus alba), simbal (Ceiba), willow (Salix alba), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus cinerea), mulberry (Morus maraceae), banyan (Ficus benghalensis), pipal (Ficus religosa), and dharaik (Melia azerdarah). There are a large number of plants that are grown for their medicinal properties, like akasbale, dodhak, itsit, bhang, and aak.

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Mandi Bahauddin district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 13,111 A Under Provincial Govt. – A
District Govt. – A Reserved Forests 13,111 A
Linear Plantation – km Resumed Lands – A

Table 1.3 Mandi Bahauddin Forests

The Daphar Irrigated Plantation and a plantation at Mona are being preserved by the Provincial Government.

Some of the forests of the district are Randiali Reserved Forest, Murid Reserved Forest, Bahri Reserved Forest, Kartarpur Reserved Forest, Barubgarh Reserved Forest, and Kala Shadian Reserved Forest are some of the forests[1] of the district.

Soils

The soils have been developed from the depositions of the alluvium of the Indus River System (i.e. Indus River and its 5 tributaries in Punjab) and are thus, fertile.

Climate

The district is situated at 244 m above mean sea level. The climate of Mandi Bahauddin district is extreme, but it also enjoys all four seasons. The district weather begins getting warmer from April, with the hotter months being May, June, and July, when the daytime temperature may go up to 45 °C. June is the hottest month, when the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 42 °C and 27 °C respectively. By October, hot weather starts switching to first autumn and then winter weather. The cold months are December, January, and February, with January being the coldest. In January and February, hoar frost is common, and temperatures may fall below freezing. The days are pleasant, and mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this period are 21.5 °C and 5.1 °C respectively. January is the coldest month when the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 20 °C and 4 °C.

July and August are the Monsoon months; the district receives its maximum amount of rainfall during this period. The average annual rainfall in the district is 435 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means there will be little to no damage in case of earthquakes.

[1] Travelingluck.com

Population

The following table shows the population of Mandi Bahauddin district as per the 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area km2 Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Mandi Bahauddin District 2,673 1,593,292 48.7 51.3 20.5 1.68
Mandi Bahauddin Tehsil 759 668,007
Phalia Tehsil 1,155 553,416
Malakwal Tehsil 759 371,869

Table 1.4 Mandi Bahauddin Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.1%
Christians 0.6%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.2%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Mandi Bahauddin Religious Distribution

Languages[2]

Urdu 2.5%
Punjabi 97%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 0.5%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.5%
Others Negligible %

Table 1.6 Mandi Bahauddin Languages

[1] 1998 Census; ; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The majority of the population of the district is engaged in agriculture. The major employers of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing (40.3%)
  • Construction (36.5%)
  • Service Workers, Shop/ Market Sales (6.2%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (2.2%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (8.3%)
  • Manufacturing (3.6%)
  • Others (2.9%)

Land Use

The following table shows the major land use statistics of Mandi Bahauddin district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Reported Area 268,000 HA Cultivated Area 221,000 HA
Net Sown 199,000 HA Current Fallow 22,000 HA
Un-Cultivated Area 47,000 HA Culturable Waste 11,000 HA
Forest Area 5,000 HA

Table 1.7 Mandi Bahauddin Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Almost 40.3% of the total population of the district is engaged in agriculture and its allied livestock breeding.

Main crops of the district include sugarcane, wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, tobacco, maash, masoor, moong, gram, maize, rapeseed & mustard, canola, cotton, sesanum, sugarbeet, guar seed, linseed, sunflower, sunn hemp, and chickpeas.

Fruits of the district include citrus, mango, banana, guavas, ber, mulberry, loquat, melon, watermelon, musk melon, jaamun, phalsa, pomegranate, and purslane.

Main vegetables are chilies, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, coriander, garlic, peas, carrots, turnips, radishes, cauliflower, cabbage, and bathu (a type of spinach).

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is the second most important economic activity of the district.

The following table shows the livestock population as of the 2010 Census of Livestock (quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 120,000 Heads Buffaloes 591,000 Heads Sheep 41,000 Heads
Goats 125,000 Heads Camels 272 Heads Horses 5,362 Heads
Mules 3,066 Heads Asses 36,974 Heads

Table 1.8 Mandi Bahauddin Livestock Statistics

Kajli sheep, beetal goat, and beetal-spotted goats are the indigenous breeds of livestock in Mandi Bahauddin district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) there are 388 poultry farms in the district. According to Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 there are no privately owned poultry farms in the District.

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in the Pond Area of Rasul Barrage[1] except the Reserved Areas. It is also carried out in Qadirabad Dhand (Tehsil Phalia), River Chenab (Tehsil Phalia), Rasul-Qadirabad Link Canal, Lower Jhelum Canal, Budhi Nallah, Saim Nullah, Jodhpur-Bangla Canal (Tehsil Malakwal), Bhabra/Rarka Saim Nullah (Tehsil Phalia), Halki Sem Nullah, Qadirabad Saim Nullah (Tehsil Malakwal), Power Supply Channel (Tehsil Mandi Bahauddin), Sugar Mill Saim Nullah (Tehsil Mandi Bahauddin), Chota Drain with Mona Drain (Tehsil Phalia), Miana Gondal Saim Nullah (Tehsil Malakwal), Herya Saim Nullah (Tehsil Malakwal), River Jhelum (Mandi Bahauddin), and Government Fish Farm, Headworks Rasul. Most of this fish is consumed locally, but some is exported to other parts of Pakistan as well.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

In Pakistan, honey bee colonies were introduced in the 1980s, and since then, more than 300,000 honey bee colonies have been successfully established in Pakistan, including the Mandi Bahauddin district.

[1] Department of Fisheries Punjab Manual

Irrigation

The Upper Jhelum Canal emanating from Mangla Dam and Lower Jhelum Canal from the Rasul Barrage are the main canals irrigating the district. Upper Jhelum Canal irrigates the eastern, central, and a major portion of the western part of the district, through Gujrat branch and a network of distributaries and minors. The Lower Jhelum Canal irrigates a part of Malakwal Tehsil before flowing into Sargodha district. Some smaller distributaries irrigating the district are Sultanpur Minor, Wara Alam Shah Minor, Harla Minor, Chillianwala, and Nihalsinghwala Minor.

The following table shows the irrigation statistics as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Irrigated Area 310,000 HA Un-irrigated Area 3,000 HA
Canal Irrigated 11,000 HA Canal Wells Irrigated 12,000 HA
Tube Well Irrigated Area 53,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 225,000 HA
Dug Wells 9,000 HA Others – HA

Table 1.11 Mandi Bahauddin Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.18 Irrigation Lines for crops through a Farm, Mandi Bahauddin

Minerals and Mining

There are no minerals currently being mined in the district.

Industry

There is no industrial estate in the district, but there are 113 small, medium, and large industrial units[1] in the district. Industry-wise number of units in the district is as follows:

Type of Industry Number of Units Type of Industry Number of Units
Chip/ Straw board 02 Cold Storage 16
Flour Mills 15 Rice Mills 75
Sugar 02 Textile Spinning 01
Textile Weaving 01 Lubricants 01

Table 1.9 Mandi Bahauddin Industries

Figure 1.7 A Brick Kiln in Mandi Bahauddin

Figure 1.8 A Rice Mill

Trade

The major national and international exports of the district are rice, tobacco, sugarcane, and other agricultural produce.

Handicrafts

Handicrafts of the district include handmade gift items such as embroidered clothes, leather goods, and handbags.

[1] Directorate of Industry, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Mandi Bahauddin District 2012; Latest available.

Economic Infrastructure

The district is linked with Gujranwala, Sargodha, Hafizabad, Gujrat, and Jhelum districts through black topped roads. Even though Mandi Bahauddin city is not directly in the path of National Highway N 5 and Motorway M 2, it is connected to them through black topped roads and is, thus, connected to Karachi and other parts of Pakistan through black topped roads. The district is also connected to other areas of Pakistan via railway.

Roads

Total length of black topped roads in the district is 2,133.6 km. The following table shows the type of road and its length in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

National Highways – km
Motorways – km
Provincial Highways 1,881.3 km
Sugar Cess Roads 252.3 km

Table 1.10 Mandi Bahauddin Road Statistics

Some of the important road links of the district include:

  • Kharian Road (which links the city to the main Grand Trunk Road now N 5)
  • Mandi-Gujrat Road (linking the city to Motorway M 2)
  • Mohabbatpur Road
  • Mandi Bahauddin Bypass
  • Sargodha Road
  • Marala-Mandi-Bahauddin Road
  • Phalia Mandi Bahauddin Road

Figure 1.16 Victoria Bridge, Malakwal

Rail and Airways

The district is linked with Gujrat and Faisalabad district through the Pakistan Railway network. A major railway station was built during the British period in Mandi Bahauddin. There are 4 major railway stations, one each at Chak Sher Muhammad, Chillianwala, Mandi Bahauddin, and Ahla. Other smaller railway stations connecting various cities/ villages of the district to other parts of Pakistan also exist.[1]

There is no commercial or military airport in the district. The closest commercial airports are the Mangla Airport and Gujrat Airport.

Figure 1.17 Mandi Babahuddin Railway Station

Radio and Television

There is one privately owned Radio station in Mandi Bahauddin. There is no TV station in the district but TV channels can be viewed via cable.

Telecommunications

Pakistan Telecommunications Ltd. has established a network of telephone lines. In all, there are 49 telephone exchanges[2] operating in the district ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 54,786 lines. In addition, a number of cellular companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are nearly 176 offices of Pakistan Post in the district with 55 branches[3] in Mandi Bahauddin Tehsil, 45 in Malakwal Tehsil, and 76 in Phalia Tehsil.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are a total of 51 branches[4] of various banks in the district, with 23 in Mandi Bahauddin Tehsil, 12 in Malakwal Tehsil, and 16 in Phalia Tehsil.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have bank branches in Mandi Bahauddin:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Bank Al-Habib
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • National Investment Bank Ltd.
  • Silk Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab
  • The Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 81 branches of various conventional banks and 14 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

There are 5 grid stations[5] in the district ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV. Natural gas is available in all tehsil headquarters of the district.

[1] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment study Mandi Bahauddin District, 2012; Latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment study Mandi Bahauddin District 2012; Latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment study Mandi Bahauddin District 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment study Mandi Bahauddin District 2012; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment study Mandi Bahauddin District 2012; Latest available.

Education

The following table shows the educational facilities in the district (Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 323/225 Middle Schools 52/81
Secondary Schools 71/80 Higher Secondary 08/04
Degree Colleges 06/06 Other Higher Secondary[1] -/-
Other Degree Colleges[2] 05/05 Technical Training Institutes[3] 03/01
Vocational Institutes[4] -/02 Commercial Training Institutes[5] 02/-
Universities Govt. Mosque Schools -/-
Medical Schools Engineering Schools[6] 01

Table 1.12 Mandi Bahauddin Educational Institutions

There are a large number of private schools and colleges in the district.

Figure 1.19 A Degree College in Phalia; M B Din District

Figure 1.20 Government College of Technology, Rasul

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. The DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health care institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 06/241 Dispensaries 02/-
Rural Health Centers 09/160 Basic Health Units 49/98
T B Clinics -/- Mother Child Health Centers 05/-
Private Hospitals 01/10 Private Health Care Providers[7] 22/NA
Sub-Health Centers 21/-

Table 1.13 Mandi Bahauddin Health Statistics

Policing

The Deputy Inspector General Police looks after Gujranwala region which comprises of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Narowal, Mandi Bahauddin, and Hafizabad districts. Mandi Bahauddin district is further subdivided into 3 subdivisions and 11 police stations.[8] The police force in each region is headed by the District Police Officer who is assisted by a varying number of Superintendents and Deputy Superintendents of Police.

[1] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[2] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study 2012 Mandi Bahauddin District; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study 2012 Mandi Bahauddin District; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study 2012 Mandi Bahauddin District; Latest available.

[6] University of Engineering &Technology Mandi Bahauddin

[7] Three Years Rolling Plan District Mandi Bahauddin. 2011-13; Latest available.

 

[8] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

Environment and Biodiversity

The district lies in the Upper Indus Plain area of Punjab. Topography of Mandi Bahauddin city has an undulated surface with a level difference of 6.7 m (22 ft). The water table is 7.6 m below ground level. At present, since the district is not very industrialized, the only source of air pollution is dust particles and emissions from vehicular traffic.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Mandi Bahauddin district is host to a number of rakhs and belas (Riverine Forests) on alluvial lands on the banks of River Chenab and River Jhelum. The principal tree species found in these forests are shisham (Dalbergio Sissoo), kikar (Acacia Arabica), ber (Zizyphus jujube), poplar (Populus alba), simbal (Ceiba), willow (Salix alba), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus cinerea), mulberry (Morus maraceae), banyan (Ficus benghalensis), pipal (Ficus religosa), dharaik (Melia azerdarah), siris (Albizzia lebbeck), dodak (Melia azardech), white mulberry (Morus alba), and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris).

There are a large number of plants that are grown for their medicinal properties, like akasbale (Cuscuta reflexa), dhodak (Sonchus asper), itsit (Boerhavia procumbens), peeli buti (Abutilon indicum L.), chota aak (Withania coagulens L.), sanatha (Dodonaea viscose), and rose (Rosa indica).

The flora of the wetland areas (Rasul Barrage Pond Area and part of Qadirabad Pond Area) includes Carex fedia (a type of sedge), water thyme (Hydrilla verticillata), Indian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), water lily (Nymphaea lotus), common reeds like Phragmites karka, Potamogeton crispus, P. pectinatus, cattail weed (Typha angustata), eel grass (Vallisneria spiralis), and horned pond weed (Zannichellia palustris).

Fauna

According to the article “Wildlife Diversity in the Punjab (Pakistan)” by M. Anwar Maan and A. Aleem Chaudhry,[1] there are 11 species of mammals, 35 species of birds, 6 species of reptiles, 2 species of amphibians, and 28 species of insects found in the Daphar Plantation and other forests of the district. The mammalian species include nilgai, hog deer, jackals, fruit bat, palm squirrel, mongoose, wild hare, Indian mole rat, Indian gerbil, field mouse, porcupine, and otter.

Reptiles include viper snake, veranus snake, lizards, cobra, and krait snake.

Amphibians include common toads and common frogs.

Insects include various types of butterflies, moths, hoppers, and beetles.

Birds include Indian tree pie, common myna, little green bee-eater, doves of various types, parakeets, fan tail flycatcher, Indian robin, black drongo, reed warbler, shrike, spotted owlet, black and grey partridges, white-breasted king fisher, coot, mallard, common pochard, red-crested pochard, shoveler, gadwal, pintail, tufted duck, white-eyed pochard, common teal, flamingos, spoon bill, storks, cranes, ruddy shelduck, common shelduck, pheasant tailed jacana, gargany, lesser whistling teal, marbled teal, cormorants, egrets, herons, terns, gulls, grebes, lapwings, sand pipers, stints, shanks, plovers, curlews, kites, doves, parakeets, cuckoos, partridges, quails, and song birds.

Protected Areas and Endangered Wildlife

Daphar Irrigated Plantation has been declared a wildlife sanctuary, alongwith a part of Qadirabad Barrage Pond Area and Rasul Barrage Pond area. Both the Qadirabad Pond Area and Rasul Barrage Pond area are on the Ramsar list of wetlands of international importance. Endangered wildlife includes jungle cats, hog deer, nilgai or blue bull, mongoose, Indian mole rat, and otter.

[1] M. Anwar Maan and A. Aleem Chaudhry. “Wildlife Diversity in the Punjab (Pakistan)” Journal of Biological Sciences May 2001