Punjab-Narowal

Introduction

Narowal is located between 31° 55Ꞌ to 32° 30Ꞌ north latitudes and 74° 35Ꞌ to 75° 21Ꞌ east longitudes. The district is bounded on the northwest by Sialkot district, on the north by Jammu State, on the east by Gurdaspur district (India) and on the south by Amritsar district (India) as well as Sheikhupura district (Pakistan).

District at a Glance

Name of District Narowal District
District Headquarter Narowal Town
Population[1] 1,709,757 persons
Area[2] 2,337 km2
Population Density[3] 735.8 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 1.6%
Male Population[5] 49.2%
Female Population[6] 50.8%
Urban Population[7] 85.0%
Tehsils 03 Tehsils:

1.    Narowal Tehsil

2.    Shakargarh Tehsil

3.    Zafarwal Tehsil[8]

Main Towns Narowal city, Shakargarh city, Qila Sobha Singh Town, Maingri, Baddomalhi town, Zafarwal Town, Ali Pur Saidan, Jassar, Bara Pind, Faridpur, and Ahmadabad
Literacy Rate[9] 70%
Male Literacy Rate[10] 78%
Female Literacy Rate[11] 63%
Major Economic Activity[12] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing etc. 41.3%
Service Workers, Shop Owners & Retail 8.7%
Elementary Occupation 35.1%
 Craft & Related Trades 4.7%
 Others 10.2%
Main Crops Wheat, rice, sugarcane, bajra, tobacco, jowar, maash, moong, masoor, gram, maize, oilseeds such as rapeseed & mustard, canola, sunflower, barley, sesanum, guar seed, linseed, and sunn hemp
Major Fruits Guavas, citrus, ber, mulberry, banana, mangoes, pears, and peaches
Major Vegetables Potatoes, turnips, cauliflower, brinjal, bottle gourd, ground nut, garlic, onion, carrots, radishes, peas, tomatoes, okra, sugarbeet, coriander, turmeric, garlic, cucumber, coriander, and bitter gourd
Forests (area)[13] 5,000 HA[14]
Total Roads 1,294.8 km
National Highways[15] – km
Motorways[16] – km
Provincial Highways[17] 1,294.8 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] – km
No. of Grid Stations[19] 04 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[20] 19 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 7,569 lines
Industrial Estates[21] No industrial estate, but 119 small, medium, and large enterprises operating in the district.
Industrial Units[22] Rice Mill 66 Units
Cold Storage 15 Units
Agriculture Implements 25 Units
Flour Mills 9 Units
Animal Feed, Sports Goods, Vegetable Ghee/oil and Vermicelli 1 Unit each
Household Size[23] 7.4 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[24] 12.2%
Houses with Electricity[25] 85%

Table 1.1Narowal District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Zafarwal was made a Tehsil in 2009, separated from Narowal Tehsil

[9] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[10] PSLM

[11] PSLM

[12] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been public yet.

[13] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[14] Land Utilization Statistics reports 3000 HA under forests.

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Narowal District 2012; Latest available.

[20] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Narowal District 2012; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Narowal District 2012; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Narowal District 2012; Latest available.

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage/ Historical Sites and Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the District

Before the partition of India in 1947, Narowal was a town in the Rayya Khas tehsil of Sialkot and present-day Narowal district’s Shakargarh tehsil was a part of the Gurdaspur district of India. With the Radcliffe Line/Award[1], Shakargarh tehsil became a part of Pakistan, and was made a part of Sialkot district, and after Partition, Narowal city became the capital of Rayya tehsil which was renamed Narowal tehsil. Rayya city, then, became a town in Narowal tehsil. In 1991, Narowal tehsil and Shakargarh tehsil were merged to form the Narowal district, with an additional tehsil (Zafarwal tehsil) added in 2009. Most of the early history of the district is, thus, the same as the history of Sialkot district, the details of which have been recounted in the Sialkot chapter. This section recounts the events that are pertinent to Narowal and Shakargarh.

Most of the areas belonging to Narowal district have been inhabited by the Bajwa clan,[2] who claim to be the descendants of the Sun God Suryavansh. Their ancestors used to live in Jaisalmer in Rajasthan, from where they migrated to Sialkot, Gujranwala, Jammu, Gurdaspur and northern (Indian) Punjab, with one tribe member (Raja Shilp) becoming the ruler of Multan before being ousted by Sikandar Lodhi.[3] The Bajwa Jats have 3 branches: the descendants of Manak occupy Pasrur (a tehsil in Sialkot district), Manga’s descendants inhabit Chowinda (Sialkot district) and those of Naru live in Narowal district.[4] According to local traditions, all of Naru’s children died in their infancy, so he consulted an astrologer who told him that a son born under the shade of a tree called chhichhara (Butea frondosa) would live. Naru made the arrangements, and his son born under the tree lived. Sometime afterwards he found another child under the same tree, and when nobody claimed the child, he was adopted by Naru as his second son.

Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh religion, died in Narowal on 22 September 1529. The city is also called Dera Nanak Baba.  Dera Sahib Railway Station, on the Lahore-Narowal section of Pakistan Railway serves this location. Guru Nanak’s shrine is located by the River Ravi within a distance of 9 km from the railway station. The current building of the railway station was built by a donation from Sardar Popindar Singh, the Maharaja of Patiala. It was restored and renovated by the Government of Pakistan in 1995.

Shakargarh, the tehsil headquarter of the same name, was the gateway to the Mughals entering Gordaspur and heading to Delhi. Shakargarh was also the gateway to Kashmir and was regarded as the resting place for travelers. One of the main reasons for its popularity was, and still is, its rich and fertile land that enables the wheat crop, and the top quality of the region’s rice crop. During British reign, Shakargarh tehsil was an administrative subdivision of Gurdaspur district, the majority of which, in 1947, went to India, with Pakistan retaining the tehsil of Shakargarh. This tehsil became a subdivision of Sialkot district.

As stated already, during British reign, Narowal city was a town of the Rayya Khas tehsil of Sialkot district. After independence from Britain in 1947, Narowal became the tehsil headquarters of Narowal tehsil, with Rayya as one of its towns. In 1991, the district of Sialkot was bifurcated, and Narowal became the capital of the newly formed Narowal district with 2 tehsils: Shakargarh and Narowal. In 2009, Zafarwal tehsil was created by bifurcating Narowal tehsil.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Narowal district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 3
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 5

Under the Local Government and Community Development Narowal district has 1 District Council and 3 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Narowal
  • Zafarwal
  • Shakargarh

Administrative Divisions

Narowal district is divided into 3 tehsils as follows:

Narowal Tehsil 28 Union Councils
Shakargarh Tehsil 28 Union Councils
Zafarwal Tehsil 18 Union Councils (sub-tehsil of Narowal tehsil)

Table 1.2 Narowal Administrative Divisions

[1] Radcliffe Line/ Award was published on August 17, 1947 (2 days after Partition) and defines the boundary between India and Pakistan. Since Punjab did not have an overwhelming majority of Muslims (55.7% Muslims) a part of it was awarded to India as East Punjab, and West Punjab was made part of Pakistan.

[2] The word Bajwa is derived from the term Baaj Wala, which can be translated to Clan of the Falcon. Baaz (pronounced as Baaj in colloquial Punjabi) is the Arabic word for hawk or falcon, while wala is an Urdu/ Hindi suffix indicating a person involved in some kind of activity.

Heritage Buildings, Tourist Attractions/ Picnic Areas 

Historical/ heritage sites of Narowal district include the following (the shrines are not protected by the Government of Pakistan):

  • Gurdwara Kartarpur Sahib: Built in 1522 AD, this is the first Gurdwara ever built by Guru Nanak
  • The shrine of Hazrat Pir Syed Jamat Ali Shah: This shrine is also known as Lasani Sahib, and is located in Ali Pur Saidan town
  • Tomb of Hazrat Pir Ghulam Mohiuddin Ahmad Khan Qadri Noshahi (Jalala Sharif) Shakargarh. He was the founder of Taleemat-e-Islamia in Shakargarh
  • Anwar-Ul Haq Park (Shakargarh City)

Figure 1.6 Gurdwara Darbar Sahib Kartarpur, Narowal

Figure 1.7 Tomb of Hazrat Pir Ghulam Mohiuddin Ahmad Khan Qadri Noshahi (Jalala Sharif) Shakargharh

Figure 1.8 A Park in Narowal City

Figure 1.9 Kabaddi (wrestling) Tournament

[3] Sikandar Lodhi (or Lodi) was the second ruler of the Lodhi Dynasty and ruled from Delhi from 1489 to 1517.

[4] Punjab District Gazetteer Sialkot District 1920

Topography

The district is part of Rechna Doab[1] and is a Plain, sloping down from the Uplands at the base of the Himalayas to a level country in the southwest. The general altitude of the district is 266 m above mean sea level.

The district is practically a level Plain throughout. Its north eastern boundary is at a distance of about 32 km from the outer line of the Himalayas, but the foothills stop short of the district and its surface is mainly a level Plain, broken only by the River Ravi and by the Aik and Dek (Deg) streams as well as a few nullahs.

There are differences in the water level, which facilitate well irrigation, but generally, the physical aspects of the district present little variety. It is fertile, and its dense population ensures that almost every available acre is brought under agriculture.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The River Ravi traverses the southeast of the district and provides surface water for irrigation and other purposes. The Ravi receives water from numerous nullahs and streams flowing down from the surrounding hills. The Ravi enters the district at its southeast corner and flows in a straight line down the entire length of the district’s southern border till it enters Sheikhupura district. Other nullahs include the Dek (also spelled as Deg), Basantar (a tributary of River Ravi), Bein Nullah, Jhajri, Ujh, and Kather.

There are numerous depressions locally known as Chhapur, in the northeastern part of the district that are fed by rains, surface drainage and small streams, and these are used as reservoirs for irrigating the surrounding lands.

Forests

The district is home to riverine forests, protected under the Government of Pakistan Laws.

Approximately 130 km length along the border with India of Narowal district was included in the Border Belt Game Reserve by the Government of Pakistan in 1995. The area is a complex consisting of both aquatic and terrestrial habitats because of River Ravi that flows through this area. It is surrounded by agricultural lands. The natural vegetation of the area is Tropical Thorn Forest with various species of trees, such as kikar (Acacia nilotica), shisham (Dalbergia Sisso), ber (Zizyphus mauritania), and sufaida (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). The main species of shrubs are kahi (Saccharum spontanium), kana (S.munja), frash (Tamarix aphylla), aak (Calotropis procera), lai (Tamarix dioica), and dila (Capparis decidua). Ground flora consists mainly of bhakhra (Tribulius oratus), medhana (Dactyloctenium aegytium), hermal (Peganum hermela), bathu (Chenopodium album), and mako (Solanum nigrum) which provide forage to wild animals.

Some of the important forests besides the Border Belt are Lalwan Reserve Forest (Shakargarh), Saniari Forest (Shakargarh), Baela Forest (Zafarwal), Badwal Forest (Shakargarh), Ghazipur (Narowal), and Sukhu Chak (Shakargarh).

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Narowal district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 12,192 A Forests Under Provincial Govt. – A
Reserved Forests – A Un-classed Forests – A
Linear Plantation – km Resumed Lands 12,192 A

Table 1.3 Narowal Forest Statistics

Soils

Bounded on the southeast by the River Ravi, the district is fringed on either side by a line of fresh alluvial soil, above which rise the low banks that form the limits of the riverbed. Narowal district consists of an Alluvial Plain with no rock formation. In a few villages of the district, the soil is nearly black in color (called Rohi soil). This soil breaks when dry. Sandy soils are found near the riverbeds and nullahs.

Climate

The district has a semi-arid climate. Generally, the summers are extremely hot and winters are quite cold. The summer season begins in April and continues till October. The hottest months are May, June, and July. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during these months are 40 °C and 24 °C degrees respectively. The months of October and March are usually pleasant. The winter months are November, December, January, and February, with January being the coldest month. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this month are 19 °C and 4 °C.

July and August are the Monsoon months, with more than 75% of the total annual rain occurring during these months. Average annual rainfall in the district is about 1,000 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] The area between River Ravi and River Chenab constitutes the Rechna Doab. The entire area comprises of 8 districts: Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Faisalabad, Toba Tek Singh, Jhang, Narowal, and Hafizabad.

Population

The following table shows the population statistics of the district and its tehsils as per 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Narowal District 2,337 1,709,757 49.2 50.8 15 1.59
Narowal Tehsil 818[1] 596,565
Shakargarh Tehsil 1,272 674,223
Zafarwal Tehsil 584 438,969

Table 1.4 Narowal Population Statistics

Religions[2]

Muslims 96%
Christians 3.3%
Hindus 0.08%
Ahmadis 0.5%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Narowal Religious Distribution

Languages[3]

Urdu 1.2%
Punjabi 98%
Sindhi 0.01%
Pushto 0.05%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.07%
Others 0.6%

Table 1.6 Narowal Languages

[1] The area of Narowal Tehsil & Zafarawal Tehsil has been extracted from the official website of the District Courts, Narowal, on May 27, 2012

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[3] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Major economic activity of the rural areas of the district is agriculture and its allied livestock breeding. The main employers[1] of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding (41.3%)
  • Service Workers, Shop Owners & Retail (8.7%)
  • Elementary Occupation (35.1%)
  • Craft & Related Trades (4.7%)
  • Others (10.2%)

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of Narowal district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 233,700 HA Reported Area 236,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 178,000 HA Net Sown 176,000 HA
Current Fallows 2,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 58,000 HA
Culturable Waste 1,000 HA Forest Area 3,000 HA

Table 1.7 Narowal Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The economy of the district revolves around agriculture and its allied livestock breeding and fishing. The district belongs to the Barani Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan, and is located in what is known as the rice belt of Pakistan.

Important crops of the district are wheat, rice, sugarcane, bajra, tobacco, jowar, maash, moong, masoor, gram, maize, oilseeds such as rapeseed & mustard, canola, sunflower, barley, sesanum, guar seed, linseed, and sunn hemp.

Fruits grown in the area include guavas, citrus, ber, mulberry, banana, mangoes, pears, peaches, and jaamun.

Vegetable produce of the area includes potatoes, turnips, cauliflower, brinjal, bottle gourd, ground nut, garlic, onion, carrots, radishes, peas, tomatoes, okra, sugarbeet, coriander, turmeric, garlic, cucumber, coriander, bitter gourd, and mint.

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is a very important allied activity of the agriculture sector of Pakistan. Nearly all farmers keep a few heads of cattle and poultry to help increase the family’s income.

The following table shows the livestock population as of the 2010 Census of Livestock (quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 127,000 Heads Buffaloes 262,000 Heads Sheep 18,000 Heads
Goats 84,000 Heads Camels 167 Heads Horses 2,007 Heads
Mules 2,016 Heads Asses 36,578 Heads

Table 1.8 Narowal Livestock Statistics

Beetal goats and beetal spotted goats are indigenous breeds of livestock, which are the same as Sialkot district.

Poultry

Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) states that, in total, there are 608 poultry farms in the district. In addition there are 278 broiler and 24 privately owned layer farms in the District (Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19).

Fishing

Fishing activity is carried out in water ponds and canals[1] of the district, but most of this fish is consumed locally. Fishing is carried out in River Ravi (Shakargarh tehsil and Narowal tehsil), Dhand Dauood Bhanian (Narowal tehsil), Marala-Ravi Link Canal (Narowal tehsil), and Dhands Kakeki and Karalanwali (Narowal tehsil).

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

Commercial bee keeping is carried out in various forests and farms in the district.

[1] Fish Manual, Fisheries Department, Punjab.

Irrigation

The Marala Headworks on River Chenab control the irrigation canal waters for the district. The Marala-Ravi Link Canal off-taking from Marala Headworks enters the district on its southwest border before joining River Ravi. The Talwandi Distributary from this link canal irrigates part of the district. Other smaller irrigation canals include Jiaz Minor, Bochra Minor, Gapwa Minor, Mallowal Distributary, Hayat Minor, Chitror Distributary, Khatwala Distributary, Pathan Minor, and New Rodian Minor.[1]

The following table shows the modes of irrigation and area irrigated by each mode as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area Sown 267,000 HA Irrigated Area 209,000 HA
Un-Irrigated Area 57,000 HA Canal Irrigated – HA
Dug Wells 1,000 HA Tube Well Irrigated 190,000 HA
Canal Well Irrigated 1,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 17,000 HA
Others – HA

Table 1.11 Narowal Irrigation Statistics

[1] From Travelingluck.com

Minerals and Mining

There is no mining activity in the district.

Industry

At present there is no industrial estate[1] in the district, but there are 119 different manufacturing industries scattered in various areas of the district as follows:

Type of Industry Number Type of Industry Number
Agricultural Implements 25 Animal Feed 01
Cold Storage 15 Flour Mills 09
Rice Mills 66 Sports Goods 01
Vermicelli 01 Vegetable Oil/Ghee 01

Table 1.9 Narowal Industries

Figure 1.3 A Brick Kiln

Figure 1.4 Gram (Chana) Cultivation, Narowal

Trade

The district trades in rice since it is located in what is known as the rice belt of Pakistan. It also trades in other agricultural produce.

Figure 1.5 Fruit-seller in Main Market, Narowal

Handicrafts

The traditional crafts of the district include carpet making, hand embroidery on cloth, leather products, fabric painting, and candle making.

[1] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study for Narowal District 2012; Latest available.

Economic Infrastructure

Narowal district is linked with Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sheikhupura, and Sialkot districts through black topped roads and the railway system. The district headquarter is linked with its tehsil headquarters through black topped roads as well.

Roads

The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road Length 1,294.8 km
National Highways – km
Provincial Highways 1,294.8 km
Motorways – km
Sugar Cess Roads – km

Table 1.10 Narowal Road Statistics

Following are some of the important road links of the district:

  • Narowal-Shakargarh Road
  • Narowal-Muridke Road
  • Narowal-Zafarwal Road
  • Muridke-Sheikhupura Road

Figure 1.10 Narowal- Shakargarh Road

Figure 1.11 A view of the Indo-Pak Border from Narowal

Rail and Airways

The district is linked with Lahore and Sialkot through Pakistan Railways. There are 17 railway stations in the district, with 06 in Shakargarh tehsil, and 11 in Narowal tehsil.[1] There are no commercial or military airports in the district. The nearest airports are the international airports at Sialkot and Lahore.

Figure 1.12 Jassar Railway Station

Radio and Television

There is a private FM radio station in the district and TV can be viewed through cable and boosters.

Telecommunications

There are 19 telephone exchanges[2] operating in the district, each ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 7,569 lines. Nearly all of the major cellular companies also operate in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

Pakistan Post has its headquarters in Narowal city. There are 23 post offices[3] in the district, with 10 in Shakargarh tehsil, 8 in Narowal tehsil, and 5 in Zafarwal tehsil. Nearly all the courier services of Pakistan provide their services in the district.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

In all, a total of 20 branches[4] of various banks are operating in the district with 6 in Shakargarh tehsil, 8 in Narowal tehsil, and 6 in Zafarwal tehsil.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have branches in the district:

  • Allied Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • J S Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 76 branches of various conventional banks and 06 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Gujranwala Electric Power Company (GEPCO) looks after the supply of electricity in the district. There are 04 grid stations[5] ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV, and natural gas is not available in the district.

[1] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Narowal 2012; Latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Narowal 2012; Latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Narowal 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Narowal 2012; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Narowal 2012; Latest available.

Education

The following table shows the number of public/ government educational institutes in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility Boy/Girl Facility Boys/girl
Primary Schools 277/652 Middle Schools 54/84
Secondary Schools 95/100 Higher Secondary 12/10
Degree Colleges 04/07 Other Higher Secondary[1] 01/02
Other Degree Colleges[2] 02/04 Technical Training Institutes[3] 03/-
Vocational Institutes[4] -/03 Commercial Training[5] 02/-
Universities Government Mosque Schools -/-
Medical College Agriculture College (Campus)
Engineering Colleges Law Colleges

Table 1.12 Narowal Educational Institutions

Figure 1.14 Main gate of A Girls High School, Narowal

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health care services provided in the district. This DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 02/38 Dispensaries 10/20
Rural Health Centers (RHC) 06/140 Basic Health Units (BHU) 57/122
T B Clinics 01/- Mother Child Health Centers 04/-
Private Hospitals Sub-Health Centers 01/-
Private Health Care Providers[6] NA

Table 1.13 Narowal Health Institutions

There are private health care providers working in the district but data on number of private hospitals/beds, dispensaries, and clinics is not available.

Policing

The Inspector General Police (IGP) stationed at Lahore is responsible for policing in Punjab. The Regional Police officer (RPO) Gujranwala Region (Gujranwala Region is composed of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Narowal, Mandi Bahauddin and Hafizabad districts) reports to the IGP and is responsible for maintaining law and order in Narowal district. The District Police Officer (DPO) Narowal is in charge of 04 subdivisions, each headed by a Deputy Superintendent Police (DSP). These DSPs control a total of 14 police stations[7] in Narowal district.

[1] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF

[2] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Narowal District 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Narowal District 2012; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Narowal District 2012; Latest available.

[6] Three Years Rolling Plan 2012-13 by GoPunjab; Latest available.

[7] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

Environment and Biodiversity

Narowal district is mostly rural and has very little industrial pollution. The only source of air pollution is suspended dust particles.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Generally, the flora of the district consists of lasura (Teccomia undulata), ber (Zizyphus jujube), shisham (Delbergio sissoo), shirin (Albezzia lebbek), kikar (Acacia arabica), phulai (Acacia modesta), babul or prickly acacia (Acacia nilotica), Chilean mesquite or (Prosopis chilensis), ber (Ziziphus mauritiana), mahalaleb cherry (Prunus mahalaleb), river red gum or sufaida (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), rubber plant (Ficus elastica), neem (Azadirachta indica), mango (Mangifera indica), silver date palm (Phoenix sylvestris), athel pine (Tamarix aphylla), gaz (Tamarix dioica), karir (Capparis deciduas), bohar (Ficus indica), dhrek (Melia azedarach), toot or mulberry (Morus maraceae), jaamun or jambolon (Enginia jambolana), pipal (Ficus religosa), jhand (Prosopis spicigera), wan (Salvadora oleoides), rero (Acacia ieucophhloea), and farash (Tamarix articulata).

Some of the medicinal plants of the district include dhodak (E. prostrata), taramira (Euroca sativa), fig (Ficus carica), aniseed (Foeniculum vulgare), kali tori (Luffa acutangula), mint (Mentha piperata), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), and curry leaves (murraya exotica).

The common aquatic plants in the area of the Bein, Basantar, Dek Nala, temporary ponds, natural ponds and dirty water pools consist of blue and red water lily (Nymphaea nouchali Burm. F.), water spinach (Ipomoea rapens poir), cattail narrow-leaved (Typha angustata), common reed (Phragmites communis Trin.), and water fern (Salvinia auriculata; Mitch Syn.).

Fauna

The mammals found along the border belt of Narowal are hedgehog, rhesus monkeys, jackals, jungle cat, small Indian mongoose, wild boar, hog deer, Indian hare, five-striped palm squirrel, porcupine, house rat, and short-tailed mole rat.

Birds found in the same area include little grebe, little cormorant, grey heron, bar headed goose, pin tail, common teal, Eurasian widgeon, northern shoveler, spot-billed duck, common kite, black-winged kite, crested honey buzzard, laggar falcon, shaheen falcon, Indian pea fowl, green and red shank, common sand piper, blue rock pigeon, doves, rose-ringed parakeet, pied cuckoo, pheasants, owl, various types of kingfishers, hoopoe, spotted munia, house sparrow, various varieties of myna, baya weaver bird, blue rock thrush, Indian robin, and jungle babbler.

The reptiles and amphibians include various types of toads, krait snake, turtles, and pythons.

Wildlife Protected Areas and Endangered Wildlife

At present, the only wildlife protected area includes the sections of the Border Belt Game Reserve that fall in Narowal district. This game reserve provides sanctuary to a large variety of birds that are endangered.