Punjab-Pakpattan

Introduction

The district is located between 30° 06′ to 30° 38′ north latitudes, and 73° 03′ to 73° 36′ east longitudes. The district is bounded on the northwest by Sahiwal district, on the north by Okara district, on the south by the Sutlej River as well as Bahawalnagar district, and on the southwest by Vehari district.

Figure 1.3 A Panoramic view of Pakpattan

District at a Glance

Name of District Pakpattan District
District Headquarter Pakpattan City
Population[1] 1,823,687 persons
Area[2] 2,724 km2
Population Density[3] 631.4 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 1.9%
Male Population[5] 50.9%
Female Population[6] 49.1%
Urban Population[7] 15.8%
Tehsils 02 Tehsils:

1.    Pakpattan Tehsil

2.    Arifwala Tehsil

Main Towns Malka Hans, Nurpur, Bunga Hayat, Qabula, Ahmad Yar, Mohammad Nagar, Pakpattan, and Arifwala
Literacy Rate[8] 51%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 63%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 40%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 60.6%
Construction 16.9%
Wholesale/retail trade, hotels/restaurant 6.9%
Manufacturing 2.1%
Community, Social & personal Services 10.8%
Others 2.7%
Main Crops Sugarcane, maize, wheat, rice, cotton, bajra, moong, maash, masoor, gram, jowar, oil seeds (such as rapeseed & mustard), barley, groundnut, sesanum, sugarbeet, guarseed, linseed, sunflower, and sunn hemp
Major Fruits Citrus, guavas, bananas, mango, ber, mulberry, watermelon, musk melon, and apple
Major Vegetables Chilies, potatoes, cauliflower, onions, garlic, bottle gourd, brinjal, turnips, peas, okra, tomatoes, radish, carrots, tinda, bitter gourd, spinach, pumpkin, cabbage, sweet potatoes, and pumpkin
Forests (Area)[12] 1,000 HA[13]
Total Black Topped Roads[14] 1,467.0 km
National Highways[15] – km
Motorways[16] – km
Provincial Highways[17] 1,361.9 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] 105.1 km
No. of Grid Stations[19] 06 grid stations of 132 KV capacity each
No. of Telephone Exchanges[20] 09 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 300 lines to 5,000 lines.
Industrial Estates[21] There is no industrial estate but there are 201 small, medium, and large enterprises operating in the district
Major Industry[22] Rice Mills 77 Units
Cold Storage 46 Units
Cotton Ginning & Pressing 36 Units
Chip Straw Boards 8 Units
Soaps & Detergents 8 Units
Flour Mills 5 Units
Poultry Feeds 4 Units
Agricultural Implements, Dairy Products, Fertilizers, Polypropylene Bags, Sugar, Textile Weaving 1 Unit Each
Seed Processing 10 Units
Household Size[23] 6.4 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[24] 15%
Houses with Electricity[25] 54.5%

Table 1.1 Pakpattan District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics reports 0 HA land under Forests.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Pakpattan District 2012; Latest available.

[20] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Pakpattan District 2012; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Pakpattan District 2012; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Pakpattan District 2012; Latest available.

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage/ Historical Sites and Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the District

Pakpattan’s original name was Ajudhan which is presumed to have been derived from the name of the Yaudheya tribe (modern: Johiya tribe), which has been mentioned in the Mahabharata. This tribe is purported to have ruled areas of the Punjab till the Gupta Empire (319-605 CE). Pakpattan itself was, for centuries, a place of importance as the principal point for crossing the River Sutlej with a ferry, and as the meeting place of the major western roads from Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan.[1] The first route traveled to the region via Mankera, Shorkot and Harappa, and the second via Multan. Pakpattan is the point at which conquerors of the subcontinent like Mahmud Ghaznavi, and Taimur (Tamerlane) as well as travelers like Ibn-e-Batuta (1334) crossed the River Sutlej.

Pakpattan city was enroute to Multan State and the Delhi Sultanate; hence, all armies traveling through to Delhi passed this city. The fort built to defend the city was once captured by Sebuktigin in 977–78 and then by Ibrahim Ghaznavi[2] in 1079–80.

The word Pakpattan is made up of two words: Pak and Pattan. Together, they mean clean dockland or holy ferry (Pak means clean and Pattan means a dockland or place where ships or boats stop). The city was given this name by the Sufi saint Farid-ud Din Masud Ganjshakar (1175-1265), commonly known as Baba Farid. It is said that when Baba Farid was performing ablution on the bank of the River Sutlej, one local man told him that the water was unclean and the place dirty; Baba Farid is said to have replied that the water was clean as was the place. This, in the local language, amounted to Pak Pattan or a clean dockland/ ferry. Baba Farid died in 1265 and was buried in the city. His shrine was built in 1267.

The name Pakpattan was made official by Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great.

Amir Taimur or Tamerlane invaded India (1398-99) and captured Delhi in 1398. When he was approaching Pakpattan, a majority of the population fled to Bhatner, for fear of annihilation by the invader, but the people who remained in the city were spared by Tamerlane in deference to Baba Farid’s holy status.

It is believed that the city was destroyed 17 times in the course of history and rebuilt each time on the existing ruins. Hence, the present day city is built on a huge mound known as Dhaki (which means something hidden). A road known as the Delhi-Multan Road was constructed by Sher Shah Suri (1486-1545), the remains of which are still in use. During Sher Shah Suri’s rule, his General, Haibat Khan, built a fort in the region the ruins of which are still visible. When danger from attacks from the north reduced during Mughal rule, the town lost its defensive significance.

One of the major ruling families of the region is the Hans tribe, which claims descent from Hazrat Hani Bin Arwa[3] who was martyred by Abaidullah Ibn-e-Ziyad, the Umayyad ruler of Basra, Kufa and Khurasan (Iran). After the martyrdom, his followers migrated from Iraq to Afghanistan and then to India, and settled in various areas like district Hissar (in the Haryana State of India) and Pakka Sidhar in Sahiwal district. During Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir’s rule, Sheikh Qutab Hans—a learned member of the Hans family from Pakka Sidhar—served as the Ataliq (teacher) of some of the nobility in Delhi and thus, became prominent in the Mughal courts. A new pargana (district) was created near the estates of Qutab Hans by Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir, which was called Alamgirpur. After the death of Emperor Alamgir, the Mughal Empire started declining, and various small tribes started declaring independence. The Hans tribe also announced its independence from the Mughal Empire in 1764 under Muhammad Azim Hans and founded a state called Tappa Hansan which was a part of Pargana Alamgirpur. The town Alamgirpur was then renamed Azim Wala. The Hans developed many towns like Salim Kot Hans, Malka Hans, Chak Shafi Hans (Pakpattan district), and Pakka Sidhar (Sahiwal district).[4]

The Hans State was attacked by Sikh invaders in 1767, and the chief of the Hans clan, Muhammad Azim, was killed in the attack. He was buried in Azim Wala (Kamir) and his brother, Muhammad Hayat, succeeded him, but the Hans lost their independence.

Between 1804 and 1810 Maharaja Ranjit Singh (the Sikh leader) held most of the area, except for a strip on the Sutlej, which was held by the Nawab of Bahawalpur on payment of a tribute to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. However, even that region was ultimately occupied by Maharaja Ranjit Singh when the Nawab defaulted on the payment. British influence was first exercised in the district in 1847, when an officer was deputed to effect a summary settlement of the land revenue. The area was annexed to the British Empire after the Second Anglo Sikh War in 1849.

During British Rule, Pakpattan Town was the headquarters of the tehsil of the same name in Montgomery[5] district. The municipality was created in 1867.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India shows that

Pakpattan is a town of some commercial importance importing wheat, cotton, oilseeds and pulses from the surrounding villages, gur and refined sugar from Amritsar, Jullandar and the United Provinces (UP), piece goods from Amritsar, Delhi and Karachi, and fruits from Afghanistan. The Exports consist principally of cotton, wheat and oilseeds. The town has a local manufacture of silk lungis and lacquer work. It contains a vernacular middle school and a dispensary. From 1849 to 1852 it was the headquarters of the District.[6] (v. 19, p. 333)

Pakpattan remained a tehsil of Montgomery (later Sahiwal) district till 1990, when it was upgraded to a district. It had only one tehsil till 1995.

Arifwala was a small village called Chak no. 61/EB in the 19th century. This name was changed, and the village was named Arifwala, after the name of its landlord: Arif. The village developed into a city by 1908. In 1987, Arifwala was raised to the status of subdivision and in 1995 it was attached as a tehsil to district Pakpattan.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Pakpattan district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 3
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 5

Under the Local Government and Community Development Pakpattan district has 1 District Council and 2 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Pakpattan
  • Arifwala

Administrative Divisions

Pakpattan district covers an area of 2,724 km² and is subdivided into 2 tehsils as follows:

Arifwala 30 Union Councils
Pakpattan 33 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Pakpattan Administrative Divisions

Figure 1.5 Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMA) Office, Pakpattan

[1] Imperial Gazetteer of India v.19 p. 332.

[2] Ibrahim Ghaznavi was the son of Mahmud Ghaznavi’s twin brother, Masud, who took the reins of the Ghaznavid Empire in 1058.

[3] Hani Bin Arwa was a supporter of Muslim Bin Aqeel (who supported Hazrat Imam Husain, the Prophet Muhammad’s grandson, at Karbala).

[4] Lost Pages of History: The Hans Dynasty of Sahiwal Region by Kamran Aziz Khan, 2014

[5] Montgomery was the name of Sahiwal district during British Rule.

[6] At that time, the district was called Gugera. When Montgomery town was developed in 1865 (after the completion of the railway line), the headquarters was moved to Montgomery and the name was also changed to Montgomery district.

Heritage/ Historical Buildings and Tourist Attractions 

Even though a number of historically important shrines and buildings are found in the district, none of these buildings are protected under Pakistan Laws and are thus, falling into disrepair. Some of these shrines are:

  • Shrine of Hazrat Baba Farid Ganjshakar: Baba Farid is a descendant of Hazrat Omar bin Abdul Khattab (Hazrat Umar Farooq). He was born in 1188 AD and died in 1265. His shrine is located in Pakpattan. The shrine has two doors, namely Noori darwaza, and Bahishti darwaza. Bahishti darwaza opens once a year to allow thousands of people to pass through it during the annual fair. The door is made of silver and floral designs are laid in gold sheet. Thousands of devotees come to visit the shrine daily from within the country as well as from abroad. He is the most revered Saint in Pakpattan, and his Urs is celebrated every year. Mughal King Akbar, on the eve of his visit to the shrine to pay homage to the saint, declared Pakpattan as the official name of the town
  • Darbar Khwaja Aziz Makki
  • Shrine of Syed Amoor-ul Hassan Shah
  • Shrine of Baba Farid’s grandson, Ala-ud Din Mouj Darya, which was built by Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq

There are a number of parks and gardens where families and children can spend quality time together, including Lange Khan Garden, Sukh Chayn Garden, Fareed Park  (in Fareed town, Pakpattan), Seerga park (in Pakpattan), Park of Canal Colony (in Pakpattan), Gulshan-e-Iqbal Park, (in Pakpattan), and Fun Land (in Pakpattan).

Other places of historical importance include:

  • Arifwala also known as Arifwala Mandi (market): This market received its name based on a hundred years old tradition, initiated during the British reign. Cattle from this colorful Mandi were traded all over Pakistan and this tradition is ongoing, making it one of the biggest markets in Punjab, Pakistan
  • Pakpattan city consists of crooked and narrow streets, dense housing, intricate woodwork on Jharokas (small windows overlooking the street), bay windows, and doors, all of which are remnants of ancient buildings
  • A major portion of the fortification wall of Pakpattan has disappeared, but at places, the wall has been utilized as a part of residences. 4 gates out of the original 6 (Shahedi, Rehimun, Abuand Mori) have survived, but they are all crumbling. Thin red bricks from the centuries old wall are seen being used in new houses all over the town. The portion of the settlement that sits on the mound can be compared to the walled part of Multan City
  • A grand mandir(Hindu temple), the ruins of which can still be seen, was once built as a substitute for the temple destroyed by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi at Somnath[1] in Malka Hans

Figure 1.10 Tomb of Baba Farid Ganjshakar

Figure 1.11 A Street View of Malka Hans

Figure 1.13 Lal Qila Restaurant, Pakpattan

Figure 1.14 A Mosque in Pakpattan

[1] Lost Pages of History: The Hans Dynasty of Sahiwal Region by Kamran Aziz Khan, 2014

Topography

Pakpattan district is a flat plain, bounded on the north by the old bed of River Beas and on the southeast by the Sutlej River which creates a natural boundary between India and Pakistan. The general elevation of the area is about 150 m above mean sea level. Haveli Lakha (Okara district) is located on its east. There are no other physical features of note in the district.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

There are two major rivers flowing in the district: the River Sutlej and River Beas. The right to the waters of Sutlej River was given to India under the terms of the Indus Basin Treaty, and hence very little water is available for use in the river. The Beas river waters were also given to India and hence the bed remains dry through most of the year, except during the rainy season.

There are a few small streams that flow near Pakpattan; the notable ones are the Ding Nullah and Busharat Nullah.

Forests

According to Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19, the total area under forest in Pakpattan district is 1,000 HA. The following table shows the forestry statistics of the district:

Total Forest Area 1,576 A Under Provincial Govt. 1,576 A
Reserved Forests – A Un-classed Forests – A
Linear Plantation – km Reserved Forests – A

Table 1.3 Pakpattan Forest Statistics

Important forests of the district are the Arifwala Plantation and Jamlera Plantation, both of which are in Arifwala tehsil.

Soils

The soils are impregnated with soda and other salts and are known as Kallarathi, found in the northeastern part of Pakpattan district. The local name of the Sutlej River is Nili (blue), on account of its blue colored waters. The bed of the river is broad and sandy, and the banks are generally abrupt. The silt deposited by the river is small in quantity and deficient in fertilizing quality.

Climate

The climate of Pakpattan district is hot and dry. The summer season starts from April and continues till October. May, June, and July are the hottest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures of these months are about 42 °C and 28 °C respectively. The winter season lasts from November to March. December, January, and February are the coldest months. Minimum and maximum temperatures for this period are about 5 °C to 22 °C respectively. Dry, hot, and dusty winds are common during summer. The average rainfall of district Pakpattan is about 11.20 inches (approximately 300 mm).

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means there will be minor to no damage to property due to earthquakes.

Population

The following table shows the population figures for Pakpattan district as per the 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Pakpattan District 2,724 1,823,687 50.9 49.1 15.8 1.85
Arifwala Tehsil 1,241 854,462
Pakpattan Tehsil 1,483 969,225

Table 1.4 Pakpattan Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslim 99.2%
Christian 0.7%
Hindu Negligible %
Ahmadis Negligible %
Scheduled castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Pakpattan Religious distribution

Languages[2]

Urdu 3.7%
Punjabi 95.9%
Sindhi Negligible %
Balochi Negligible %
Pushto 0.3%
Seraiki Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.6 Pakpattan Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The economy of the district is based on agriculture. The major industrial occupations[1] in the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing (60.6%)
  • Construction (16.9%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail Trade, Hotels/ Restaurant (6.9%)
  • Manufacturing (2.1%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (10.8%)
  • Others (2.7%)

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Land Use

The following table shows the major land use statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 272,400 HA Reported Area 272,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 248,000 HA Net Sown 225,000 HA
Current Fallow 23,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 24,000 HA
Culturable waste 1,000 HA Forest Area – HA

Table 1.7 Pakpattan Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

Part of the district belongs to the Sandy Desert and another part to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zones of Pakistan. Agriculture is the dominant sector of the economy. Almost 61% of the population is engaged in agriculture. The irrigated area is irrigated through tube wells and canals.

Major crops of the district are sugarcane, maize, wheat, rice, cotton, bajra, moong, maash, masoor, gram, jowar, oil seeds (such as rapeseed & mustard), barley, groundnut, sesanum, sugarbeet, guarseed, linseed, sunflower, and sunn hemp.

Fruits of the district include citrus, guavas, bananas, mango, ber, mulberry, watermelon, musk melon, and apple.

Main vegetables are chilies, potatoes, cauliflower, onions, garlic, bottle gourd, brinjal, turnips, peas, okra, tomatoes, radish, carrots, tinda, bitter gourd, spinach, pumpkin, cabbage, sweet potatoes, and pumpkin.

Figure 1.6 Potato Crop, Arifwala

                                          Figure 1.7 Tunnel Farming, Arifwala

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is the second most important economic activity of the district.

The following table shows the livestock population as of the 2010 Livestock Census (quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 183,000 Heads Buffaloes 500,000 Heads Sheep 22,000 Heads
Goats 170,000 Heads Camels 87 Heads Horses 1,496 Heads
Mules 1,096 Heads Asses 25,536 Heads

Table 1.8 Pakpattan Livestock Statistics

Nili ravi, a milk breed of buffalo, is native to the district. In addition, cross breed cattle is found all over Pakistan, including Pakpattan.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock), there are a total of 449 poultry farms in the district.Privately owned poultry farms in the District as per Punjab Development Statistics are 150 broiler farms, 203 layer farms and 04 poultry breeding farms.

Fishing

There is very little fishing activity in the district, and the rural population is mainly engaged in catching fish in various canals and other water bodies. This fish is consumed locally. Fishing is carried out in River Sutlej, Pakpattan Canal, and Khaddar Branch canal.[1]

Bee Keeping

In Pakistan, honey bee colonies were introduced in the 1980s, and since then, more than 300,000 honey bee colonies have been established in Pakistan, with some located in Pakpattan.

[1] Fish Manual. Fisheries Department, Punjab

Irrigation

Main sources of irrigation are canals and tube wells. Depalpur Canal, originating from Ganda Singh Wala Headworks in Kasur district, enters Pakpattan from the east and irrigates the northern half of the district. Pakpattan Canal off-takes from Sulemanki Headworks and, with its Khadir Branch, irrigates a large area of the district.

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and the area that is served by the system as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area Sown 406,000 HA Irrigated Area 406,000 HA
Un-Irrigated Area – HA Canal Irrigated – HA
Dug Wells 1,000 HA Tube Well Irrigated 43,000 HA
Canal Well Irrigated 1,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 361,000 HA
Others – HA

Table 1.11 Pakpattan Irrigation Statistics

Some of the smaller irrigation canals include Malikpur Distributary, Wasil Wah, Faridpur Minor, and Suchan Distributary.[1]

Figure 1.18 Pakpattan Canal, Arifwala

[1] Travelingluck.com

Minerals and Mining

There is a negligible amount of mining activity in the district.

Industry

There is no industrial estate in the district, but there are 201 small, medium, and large enterprises[1] operating in the district. Major industries of the area include rice mills, cold storage, and cotton ginning, and pressing. The following table shows the type and number of industrial units in the district:

Type of Industry Number Type of Industry Number
Agriculture Implements 01 Chip/Straw Board 08
Cold Storage 46 Cotton Ginning & Pressing 36
Dairy Products 01 Fertilizer 01
Flour Mills 05 Polypropylene Bags 01
Poultry Feed 04 Rice Mills 77
Seed Processing 10 Soaps & Detergents 08
Sugar 01 Textile Weaving 01

Table 1.9 Pakpattan Industries

Trade

The district trades in agricultural produce and manufactured goods like agriculture implements, and poultry feed.

Handicrafts

Major handicrafts of the district include wooden, traditional, charpoys (string cots), and various kinds of decorative mats made of wood called Dhib. In addition, various household items made with clay, ceramics, and glass are produced in Pakpattan.

Figure 1.8 Handcrafted Wooden Jharokas and Motifs, Pakpattan

Figure 1.9 Workers Weaving Traditional Charpoys (String Cots)

[1] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Pakpattan District 2012; Latest available.

Economic Infrastructure

The district is linked by road to Okara, Sahiwal, and Bahawalnagar districts through black topped roads. The district is also linked with Kasur and Vehari districts through the Pakistan Railway network.

Figure 1.15 Public Library, Pakpattan

Roads

The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road Length 1,467.0 km
National Highways – km
Provincial Highways 1,361.9 km
Motorways – km
Sugar Cess Roads 105.1 km

Table 1.10 Pakpattan Road Statistics

The important road links of the district include:

  • Pakpattan-Depalpur-Okara Road
  • Pakpattan-Arifwala Road
  • Pakpattan-Sahiwal Road
  • Gaimbar-Pakpattan Road
  • Pakpattan-Kamir Road
  • Pakpattan-Manchinabad Road

Figure 1.17 Road in the District

Rail and Airways

The district is linked with Kasur and Vehari districts through Pakistan Railways. The main railway station in the district is the Pakpattan railway station. In all, there are 07 railway stations[1] in the district.

There is no airport in the district. The nearest airport is the Bahawalnagar Airport in Bahawalnagar district, which is not an international airport. The nearest international airport is the Faisalabad International Airport.

Radio and Television

There is no television station in Pakpattan, but TV can be viewed through boosters and cable. There is one privately-owned FM radio station in the district.

Telecommunications

Pakistan Telecommunication Ltd. has established a network of telephone lines. There are 09 telephone exchanges[2] operating in the district. The capacity of these exchanges ranges from 300 lines to 5,000 lines. In addition, a number of cellular companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 13 offices[3] of Pakistan Post in the district, with 07 branches in Pakpattan tehsil, and 06 in Arifwala tehsil.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are a total of 48 branches[4] of various banks in the district, with 26 in Pakpattan tehsil and 22 in Arifwala tehsil.

According to the List of Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan the following banks all have their branches in the district:

  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.
  • Al Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • The Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd.

In all there are 63 branches of various conventional banks and 09 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Multan Electric Supply Corporation looks after the electric supply in the district. There are 6 grid stations[5] of 132 KV each in the district.

There is no gas supply for domestic use.

[1] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Pakpattan District 2012; Latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Pakpattan District 2012; Latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Pakpattan District 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Pakpattan District 2012; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Pakpattan District 2012; Latest available.

Education

The following table shows the details of educational facilities of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility Boy/Girl Facility Boys/girl
Primary Schools 350/298 Middle Schools 70/84
Secondary Schools 54/34 Higher Secondary 09/05
Degree Colleges 09/09 Other Higher Secondary[1] 02/03
Other Degree Colleges[2] 04/06 Technical Training Institutes[3] 02/-
Vocational Institutes[4] -/- Commercial Training[5] 02/-
University[6] 02 Government Mosque Schools 03/-
Medical College[7] 02 Agriculture College
Engineering Colleges Law Colleges

Table 1.12 Pakpattan Educational Institutions

There is a Post Graduate College in Pakpattan, called Government Faridia Post Graduate College.

Figure 1.19 University of Lahore, Pakpattan Campus

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. The DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health care institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 06/275 Dispensaries 11/-
Rural Health Centers (RHC) 05/100 Basic Health Units (BHU) 54/108
T B Clinics 01/- Mother Child Health Centers 02/-
Private Hospitals -/- Sub-Health Centers 08/-
Private Health Providers[8] 55/NA

Table 1.13 Pakpattan Health Institutions

Figure 1.20 Arifwala Hospital

Policing

Pakpattan district comes under the jurisdiction of Sahiwal region for policing, which comprises of Sahiwal, Pakpattan, and Okara districts. The region is headed by Deputy Inspector General Police (DIGP). The district force is headed by a District Police Officer (DPO). One DPO is generally in charge of one district. Pakpattan district is divided into 3 subdivisions and has a total of 12 police stations.[9]

[1] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF

[2] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Pakpattan District, 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Pakpattan District, 2012; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Pakpattan District, 2012; Latest available.

[6] Sub-Campus of Virtual University, Allama Iqbal Open University, and University of Lahore, Pakpattan Campus

[7] Homeopathic Colleges

[8] Three Years Rolling Plan 2010-13 Pakpattan District (No. of Beds Not Available) ; Latest available.

 

[9] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

Environment and Biodiversity

The air quality of the district is good, since it is mostly rural in nature, with very few industries. The only source of air pollution at present is suspended air particles. The district is dominated by rural suburbs that are full of productive fields of various agricultural produce.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Many trees have been planted in large numbers on canal banks and along roads. These include jand (Prosopis spicigera), vann (Salvadora oleoides), shisham (Dalbergera sissoo), kikar (Acacia arabica), peepal (Ficus religiosa), frash (tamarix aphylla), ber (Zizyphus jujuba), lai (Tamarix dioca), mesquite (prosopis juliflora, prosopis glandulosa), bhan/ poplar (Populus euphratica), and sufaida (Eucalyptus).

Common grasses and shrubs include pilchi (Tamarix gallica), khabbal (Cynodon dactylon), munj (Erianthus munja), kia (Sacchrum spontaneum), kunder (Typha elephantine), dab (Desmostachya bipinnata), chimber (Dicanthium annulatum), (Sporobolus sp.), seer (Imperata cylindrical), timber or fern leaf acacia (Acacia filicoides), jawain or camel thorn (Alhagi maurorum), lani or salt bush (Atriplex canescens), shamshad or boxwood (Buxus papillosa), katkaranj or fever nut (Caesalpinia bonduc), kasondi or coffee weed (Cassia occidentalis), canicha or prickly sesban (Sesbania bispinosa), niazbo or basil (Ocimum basilicum), lajwanti or touch-me-not (Mimosa pudica), and khip or broom bush (Leptadenia pyrotechnica).

Fauna

The mammalian fauna found in the reserved forests of the district include mongoose, porcupine, hedgehog, fox, jackal, wild boar, horse, rat, and hare.

The reptiles and amphibians include frogs, toads, sand boa, checkered keel-backed snake, dark bellied marsh snake, Indian monitor lizard, other varieties of lizards, kraits and vipers, Indian flap shell turtles, and brown river turtle.

Avifauna includes kingfishers, egrets, herons, bittern, bulbuls, starling, myna, wagtails, doves, rollers, robins, barn owl, spotted owlet, blue rock pigeon, sparrows, river terns, stilts, coots, and sand piper.

Protected Wildlife Areas, and Endangered Fauna

Following are the protected wildlife areas in Pakpattan:

  • Arifwala Reserve Forest (irrigated plantation)
  • Part of the 5 mile Border Belt Game Reserve.

Most of the Border Belt Game Reserve falls in the Narowal district, but a small part is included in the Pakpattan district as well. These areas provide sanctuary and protection to mammalian fauna like hog deer, hedgehog, jackals, jungle cats, palm squirrels, and rhesus monkeys. Game birds and the spotted owlet, as well as the barn owl are also provided protection.