Punjab-Rajanpur

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Introduction

Rajanpur district is located between 28° 25′ to 29° 48′ north latitudes, and 69° 19′ to 70° 45′ east longitudes. It is situated on the west bank of River Indus. The district is bounded on the north by Dera Ghazi Khan district, on the east by Muzaffargarh and Rahim Yar Khan districts (located across River Indus), on the south by Jacobabad district of Sindh province, and on the west by the districts of Dera Bugti and Barkhan of Balochistan province.

District at a Glance

Name of District Rajanpur District
District Headquarter Rajanpur City
Population[1] 1,995,958 persons
Area[2] 12,318 km2
Population Density[3] 159.3 persons per km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 3.2%
Male Population[5] 51.5%
Female Population[6] 48.5%
Urban Population[7] 16.9%
Tehsils 03 Tehsils and 1 Tribal Areas:

1.    Jampur Tehsil

2.    Rajanpur Tehsil

3.    Rojhan Tehsils

4.    De-Excluded Area

Main Towns Rajanpur, Jampur, Rojhan, Dajal, Mithankot, Fazilpur, Marri, Kotla Esan, Mohammadpur Dewan, Kotla Mughlan, Kotla Naseer, Kotla Dewan, Harand Lal Garh, Tibbi Solgi, Tibbi Lundan, Lundi Sadain, and Shahwali
Literacy Rate[8] 38%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 51%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 25%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 76.7%
Wholesale/Retail Trade, Hotels/ Restaurant 4.9%
Construction 9.0%
Community, Social & Personal Services 7.6%
Others 1.8%
Main Crops Cotton, wheat, sugarcane, groundnut, gram, guar seed, rice, jowar, bajra, maize, moong, maash, masoor, rapeseed, mustard, sunflower, sesanum, sugarbeet, linseed, and tobacco
Major Fruits Guavas, mangoes, citrus, dates, ber, loquat, mulberry, watermelon, and musk melon
Major Vegetables Onions, peas, turnip, okra, carrots, cauliflower, tomato, garlic, potatoes, cabbage, brinjal, coriander, garlic, spinach, cauliflower, and cabbage
Forests (area)[12] 14,000 HA[13]
Total Black Topped Roads[14] 1,418.8 km
National Highways[15] 191.0 km
Motorways[16] – km
Provincial Highways[17] 1,210.7 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] 17.2 km
No. of Grid Stations[19] 06 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Telephone Exchanges[20] 20 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 60 lines to 2,410 lines
Industrial Zones[21]  There is no industrial estate but 102 small, medium, and large enterprises are operating in various parts of the district
Major Industry[22] Cotton Ginning & Pressing 60 Units
Rice Mills 33 Units
Flour Mills 08 Units
Sugar Mills 1 Units
Household Size[23] 7.3 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[24] 8.5%
Houses with Electricity[25] 40.44%

Table 1.1 Rajanpur District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics reports 7,000 HA under forests.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Rajanpur District 2012; Latest available.

[20] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Rajanpur District 2012; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Rajanpur District 2012; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Rajanpur District 2012; Latest available.

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Buildings and Tourist Areas

Brief History of the District

Rajanpur district was a tehsil of Dera Ghazi Khan district till 1982. In 1982, both Rajanpur tehsil and Jampur tehsil (also of Dera Ghazi Khan district) were put together, and a new district was created. At that time, a third tehsil, Rojhan, was created out of Rajanpur tehsil and added to the district to give the district its present shape.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India shows that:

The fact that the tract between the Sulaiman mountains and the Indus was at an early period the seat of a Hindu population appears certain but the local traditions are vague and inconsistent. Harrand, Marri and Asni[1] are said to have been the only towns, rest being all barren wilderness. Popular etymology connects Harrand with ‘Harnakus’ the daitya who was devoured by the lion incarnation of Lord Vishnu; it also derives Asni from Asan, the place or seat of Raja Risalu, the mythical King of Punjab. It also declares Mari to be the mari or abode of Kokkilan, his faithless queen. Kot Khemali in the south of Rajanpur tahsil is assigned to Khewa a Raja whose contemporary Sewa founded Sibi.

With the rest of Sindh the District [Dera Ghazi Khan] fell in the year AD 712 before the young Arab conqueror Mohammad bin Qasim, the first Muhammadan invader of India and throughout the period of Muhammadan supremacy it continued to rank as an outlying apanage of Multan Province. (v. 11, p. 250)

Thus the areas now belonging to Rajanpur district remained under Arab rule until 750 AD, when the Arabs were expelled by the Soomra Tribe (a Rajput tribe) who ruled Sindh from 1024-1351 AD. The subsequent Muslim invasions were by Sebuktigin of Ghazni, Mahmud of Ghazni (997-1186 AD), and Shihab-ud Din Ghori (Ghorid Dynasty; 1186-1206). Qutb-ud-din Aybak, the Slave King, then succeeded to full sovereignty over this tract and ruled from 1206-1290. The Slave Kings were succeeded by the house of the Khiljis, who were overthrown by the Tughluq Dynasty (1320-1413). The Tughluqs ruled till the invasion by Tamerlane in 1398 AD.

During the confusion that followed the withdrawal of Tamerlane, and while the Sayyids ruled Delhi, the province of Multan (which also included the Rajanpur area) became independent under the family of the Langahs in 1445 AD and remained so till 1526. In the year 1450 AD the Nahars, a branch of the Lodhi family, set up their independent government at Sitpur (now in Muzaffargarh district). The Nahar Dynasty extended its dominion for a considerable distance through the Derajat,[2] but over time, their power was circumscribed by encroachments of Balochi mountaineers on the western frontier. The first of these invaders, Malik Sohrab Baloch[3] of the Dodai tribe, extended his help to the Langah ruler of the region, Sultan Husain, to procure peace and tranquility in the trans-Indus part of Husain’s dominion, in recognition of which, Baloch received a fief of land across the Indus as his Jagir (landholding). Haji Khan Mirani, a member of the Miranis (another branch of the Dodai Baloch tribe) also entered the services of Sultan Husain. It was Haji Khan Mirani, in fact, who founded the town of Dera Ghazi Khan (named after his son Ghazi Khan). The Miranis, then, continued to rule Dera Ghazi Khan for fifteen generations; each successive Mirani Nawab was a Haji Khan or a Ghazi Khan, each giving his son the name of his father.[4]

The Miranis and Nahars soon came into conflict with each other. The latter were confined to the southern part of the then Dera Ghazi Khan district, with the northern portion of the then Rajanpur tehsil becoming the approximate dividing line between the two powers. The independence of these tribes came to an end in 1526 when the area was conquered by the first Mughal Emperor, Babar. During Mughal rule, the Baloch tribes continued their immigration to this part of Punjab. Mir Chakar Khan Rind, the most popular Baloch hero of all Balochi war ballads, allied himself with Emperor Humayun and accompanied him to Delhi, thus gaining a stronghold for Baloch tribes in the area.

During the rule of Emperor Akbar (1556-1605), the dynasty of Ghazi Khan Mirani made only a nominal submission to the Mughal Empire and thus remained practically independent. In 1700, during the rule of Emperor Aurangzeb, one of the Ghazi Khans rebelled and was defeated by the Governor of Multan. About this time, the Kalhora family rose to prominence in Sindh, and Yar Muhammad Kalhora, with the help of the Khan of Kalat, defeated the Governor of Sibi and established himself in northern Sindh. The Kalhoras soon came into contact with the Miranis during the period preceding the invasion of Nadir Shah Durrani in 1739 when the Mughal Empire had fallen into a state of decay. The battles between the Kalhoras and Miranis had weakened the Miranis such that when Nadir Shah invaded the area he made his Wazir (Prime Minister or Counselor) Muhammad Khan Gujjar as Governor in Dera Ghazi Khan instead of a Mirani chief and that too in subordination to Noor Muhammad Kalhora who had submitted to Nadir Shah and had agreed to pay an annual ransom/ tribute.

The Nahars had already lost the town, Kin, to the Balochis and were subsequently expelled about this time (1739) from Sitpur by Makhdum Sheikh Rajan. Makhdum Sheikh later founded the town of Rajanpur, in 1770 AD. Makhdum Sheikh Rajan was employed by the Nahars in a position of trust; he usurped part of their territories for himself.

Meanwhile, the Sikh power was rising in the Punjab and by 1819 Ranjit Singh had extended his conquests in this direction beyond the Indus, and annexed the southern portion of the Dera Ghazi Khan area which was the Rajanpur district area. Nawab Sadiq Muhammad Khan of Bahawalpur received this territory as a fief on payment of an annual tribute to Lahore which was ruled, at the time, by Ranjit Singh.

In 1830, Ranjit Singh sent a force under the command of General Ventura[5] and attacked Bahawalpur. After the annexation of Bahawalpur, General Ventura took charge of the area for 2 years. He was succeeded by Dewan Sawan Mal, who governed the area till his death in 1844 AD. Sawan Mal was succeeded by his son Mulraj, whose defiance of the Sikh authority caused a rebellion at Multan.[6] After the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, the area was annexed by the British.

None of the remnants of historical buildings or forts of the old Chiefs of Nahars in Kin, or the Miranis at Asni, are still extant.

Rajanpur remained a small, and relatively little known village, located on the road from Dera Ghazi Khan (Punjab) to Sukkur (Sindh) until 1862. In that year, Mithankot, a relatively larger and more prosperous town located southeast of Rajanpur, was completely destroyed by floods of the River Indus. This meant that the British (who had annexed Punjab in 1849) were forced to shift the administrative offices of the British government from Mithankot to Rajanpur, since Rajanpur was located at a safer distance from the river. Many prosperous Hindu merchants and traders also shifted from Mithankot to Rajanpur. The town, then, became a municipality and tehsil headquarters in 1873.

The foothills of the Suleiman Range (also a part of the Rajanpur district) are called the Tribal Areas or the De-Excluded Areas. This area is inhabited by different Baloch tribes. Before Partition, this area was considered a Special Area, and administered directly by the Governor General. The Tumandara System was in vogue in the area. Each tribe established a Tuman and its chief was called Tumandar. This Chief exercised First Class Magisterial powers, and all civil and judicial cases were decided by the Chief under the Frontier Crimes Regulations.[7] After the 1947 partition, these powers were withdrawn, and some political Naib-Tehsildars and a Political Tehsildar were appointed to administer justice to the public of these areas. In 1950, the Special Area was renamed De-excluded Area of Dera Ghazi Khan district (which included Rajanpur), but no other major change in administration occurred. Jirgas continued to be held in the same manner. The only change was that these Jirgas were presided over by Naib-Tehsildars instead of Tumandars.

The district remained a part of Dera Ghazi Khan district till 1982, when it was given the status of a district constituted by 3 tehsils and a part of the De-Excluded Areas, as described above.

Figure 1.3 Rasulpur Village, Rajanpur

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Rajanpur district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 2
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 4

Under the Local Government and Community Development Rajanpur district has 1 District Council (including the Union Council of De-Excluded Areas), and 5 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Rajanpur
  • Jampur
  • Rojhan
  • Fazilpur
  • Kot Mithan

Administrative Divisions

Rajanpur district is divided into 3 tehsils as follows:

Rajanpur Tehsil 16 Union Councils
Jampur Tehsil 19 Union Councils
Rojhan Tehsil 08 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Rajanpur Administrative Divisions

[1] These three towns are now part of the current Rajanpur district

[2]Derajat or Land of the Jats is a cultural region covering central Pakistan, roughly located in the region where the provinces of Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Punjab meet

[3] Malik Sohrab Baloch was the father of Ismail and Fateh Khan, who founded Dera Ismail Khan and the village of Fateh Khan in Dera Ghazi Khan

[4] Punjab District Gazetteers Dera Ghazi Khan District 1893-97

[5] General Ventura was an Italian and a mercenary. He took part in a number of battles as a commander in the Sikh army and was later made a General of the Sikh army

[6] Dera Ghazi Khan District Gazetteer 1893-94 p. 27

[7] This system is similar to a Jirga which administers justice, and has magisterial powers. Both systems consist of a group of respected village leaders who resolve disputes and solve problems at the local level.

Heritage Buildings and Tourist Areas 

Protected Heritage buildings include:

  • Tomb of Baba Ghulam Farid: Hazrat Khwaja Ghulam Farid was a Muslim Saint and a poet of the 19th century. His tomb is situated in Mithankot. His poetry has been translated into English
  • Shrine of Hazrat Taj Muhammad: He was a contemporary of the poet and Sufi, Baba Ghulam Farid. Taj Muhammad composedkaffies (musical poetry) in Saraiki and represented the non-mystic school of Saraiki poetry. He also composed works in Urdu and Persian
  • Shrine of Hazrat Noor Muhammad Hasan: This shrine is located in Muhammadpur Dewan, Jampur tehsil. This saint’s annual urs is held in Ramazan (Ramdan) and is generally celebrated for 3 days
  • Tomb of Hazrat Nur Mohammad Narrowalley: This tomb is situated in Hajipur town. There is an old mosque near the tomb
  • Sher Shah Suri Period Mosque, Rajanpur
  • Harand Fort, Jampur tehsil: This fort is situated in the tribal areas. It was a route passage for Afghani-Iranian invaders headed toMultan and  It is believed that Alexander the Great passed through this area on his quest to conquer the world. Antiques found in this area point to Alexander’s visit. According to local legend, Alexander was inspired by the beauty of a local queen named Rukhsana, and married her in Harand Fort. According to locals, the popular Unilever soap Rexona was named after her
  • Mithankot: This historically significant city is situated on the right (west) bank of River Indus, a few kilometers from the Panjnad
  • Marri Resort in Rajanpur: This resort is said to be similar to Murree (Rawalpindi district).Marri is a beautiful hill station in district Rajanpur at an altitude of approximately 1,463 m above sea level. A newly built road, called Lalgarh Road, can take visitors to Marri from Fazilpur, and Hajipur. Marri is also called Tumman-Gorchani because the Gorchani Tribe still lives there. Marri is a Baloch word which means home.

Rasulpur village in the district has 100% literacy rate and zero crime rate.

Figure 1.9 Tomb of Baba Ghulam Farid

Figure 1.10 Another view of the Tomb of Baba Ghulam Farid

Figure 1.11 Historical Harand Fort

Figure 1.12 A Mosque in Jampur Tehsil

Figure 1.13 A Rest House in Rajanpur

Topography

The land of Rajanpur is sandwiched by River Indus on the east side and the Suleiman Mountains Range on the west. It is a narrow strip of land, 32 to 64 km wide. The district can be divided into 4 distinct parts:

  • Pachad or Hill Torrent Tract
  • Chahi-Nehri
  • Sindh Circle or Riverine Area
  • Suleiman Mountains

Pachad or Hill Torrent Tract

The Pachad or Hill Torrent Tract is the area that stretches along the base of the foothills of the Suleiman Range, where cultivation depends entirely upon the ebb and flow of hill torrents. This tract is inhabited mainly by Baloch tribes.

Chahi-Nehri

The Chahi-Nehri tract forms the intermediate zone between the Pachad and the Sindh Circle or Riverine Area.

Sindh Circle or Riverine Area

The Sindh Circle or Riverine Area comprises of lands which are subject to flooding by the River Indus.

Suleiman Mountains

The Suleiman Mountains run parallel to the district and include the De-Excluded Area of Rajanpur district. The range extends from Dera Ismail Khan district in the north, to Jacobabad district (Sindh) in the south, and the districts of Loralai and Sibi (Balochistan) in the west. The mountains are dry, parched, and rugged, consisting mostly of sandstone.

From the plains, the mountains look like parallel chains gradually rising in altitude. Although they appear to be continuous in a north-south chain, they are broken up in numerous places by the hill torrents. There are about 270 hill torrents, all varying in size. These hill torrents form the most important feature of the area by providing communication routes. They also determine the locations of habitation in these hills.

The Suleiman Range rising in the west of the district forms low ridges, more or less continuous, parallel to each other. This Range approaches the River Indus in Rajanpur at Mithankot.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The River Indus flows in the east of the district separating it from Muzaffargarh and Rahim Yar Khan districts. The Panjnad River (river formed by the successive confluence of the five Rivers of Punjab[1]) joins River Indus at Mithankot.

In addition, there are numerous hill torrents that flow from the Suleiman Mountains. These hill torrents are known as Rod Kohi (Rod means water channel and Kohi pertains to mountains). Some of these hill torrents are perennial, whereas others flow only during the rainy season. The Kaha Sultan Nullah, Chachar Nullah, Patok Nullah, Sori Shumali Nullah, Zangi Nullah, Sori Janobi Nullah, Qabar Wah, Wasu Wah, Karam Wali Nari, Chachar Nullah, Garang Nullah, Qazi Nullah, and Huzuri Wah are some of the notable streams/ hill torrents in the district. Some of the intermittent streams are Chachar, Kandewali Wah, Son Wah, and Rai Wah.

There are no lakes in the district.

Forests

There are 2 types of forests in the district: Irrigated Plantations and Riverine forests. The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 34,701 A Under Provincial Govt. 34,212 A
Un-classed Forests 489 A Reserved Forests – A
Resumed Lands – A Linear Plantation 1,335 km

Table 1.3 Rajanpur Forests

The Irrigated Plantation forests include Daman, Kotla Esan, Rakh Azmatwala, Kot Mithan, and Kotla Hussain. Riverine forests of the district include Ragistan Shumali Riverine Forest, Thul Menghraj Riverine Forest, and Kotla Sher Muhammad Reserve Forest.

The main flora of these forests and trees planted along roads and canal banks are jand (Prosopis spicigera), frash (Tamarix aticulata), kikar (Acacia Arabica), shisham (Dilbergio sissoo), sirin (Albezzia lebbek), dwarf palm, and pish.

Ghamur (Panicumantidotale), hisar (Panicum crus-galli L.), and Multani grass (Panicumcolonum L.) are common grasses found in the district.

Figure 1.5 Ghamur or Panicumantidotale grass

Figure 1.6 A Farash Tree in Full Bloom

Soils

The soils of the piedmont plains of the Suleiman Range are composed of fine and fertile soil. The rest of the district has saline soil. In the Pachad area, the soil is a rich loam, but needs water from the hill torrents to become fertile, and hence, spate irrigation is practiced in the area.

Climate

The district has a semi-arid climate. Generally, the summers are extremely hot and winters are quite cold. The summer season begins in April and continues till October. The hottest month is June. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this month stay between 42.3 °C and 28.6 °C degrees respectively. The months of October and March are pleasant. The winter months are November, December, January, and February, with January being the coldest month. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this month are 21 °C and 4 °C.

July and August are the Monsoon months with more than 75% of the rain occurring during these months. Most of the winter rains occur during December. Average annual rainfall in the district is about 200 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to no damage due to earthquakes.

[1]Jhelum and Ravi join Chenab, while the Beas joins Sutlej, and then Sutlej and Chenab join to form the Panjnad 16 km north of Uch Sharif in Bahawalpur district. The combined river stream runs southwest for approximately 72 km and joins Indus River at Mithankot.

Population

The following table shows the population of the district and its tehsils as per the 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Rajanpur District 12,318 1,995,958 51.5 48.5 16.9 3.16
De-Excluded Area 5,013
Jampur Tehsil 2,322
Rajanpur Tehsil 2,078
Rojhan Tehsil 2,905

Table 1.4 Rajanpur Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.7%
Christians Negligible %
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.1%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others 0.2%

Table 1.5 Rajanpur Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 3.2%
Punjabi 3.3%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 0.5%
Balochi 17%
Seraiki 75.7%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.6 Rajanpur Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The major industrial occupations in the district include:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing (76.7%)
  • Wholesale/Retail Trade, Hotels/ Restaurant (4.9%)
  • Construction (9.0%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (7.6%)
  • Others (1.8%)

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of Rajanpur district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 1,231,800 HA[1] Reported Area 763,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 496,000 HA Net Sown 351,000 HA
Current Fallow 145,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 267,000 HA
Culturable Waste 125,000 HA Forest Area 7,000 HA

Table 1.7 Rajanpur Land Use Statistics

[1] The vast difference between reported and total area is due to non-reporting of total area from the De-Excluded Areas in the district

Agriculture

A part of the district belongs to the Suleiman Piedmonts Agro-Ecological Zone and a part to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. The economy of the district revolves around agriculture and its allied livestock breeding and fishing. The district is located in what is known as the Low Intensity Agro Climatic Zone of Punjab/ Pakistan.

Important crops of the district are cotton, wheat, sugarcane, groundnut, gram, guar seed, rice, jowar, bajra, maize, moong, maash, masoor, rapeseed, mustard, sunflower, sesanum, sugarbeet, guar seed, linseed, and tobacco.

Fruits grown in the area include guavas, mangoes, citrus, dates, ber, loquat, mulberry, watermelon, and musk melon.

Vegetable produce of the area includes onions, peas, turnip, okra, carrots, cauliflower, tomato, garlic, potatoes, cabbage, brinjal, coriander, garlic, spinach, cauliflower, and cabbage.

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is a very important allied activity of the agriculture sector of Pakistan.

The following table shows the livestock population as of the 2010 Livestock Census (taken from Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19[1]):

Cattle 367,000 Heads Buffaloes 205,000 Heads Sheep 246,000 Heads
Goats 708,000 Heads Camels 11,637 Heads Horses 4,390 Heads
Mules 330 Heads Asses 26,145 Heads

Table 1.8 Rajanpur Livestock Statistics

Dajal cow, Rojhan cow, and other cross-bred cattle are the local breeds of the district.

Poultry

There are 83 poultry farms[2] in the District. In addition number of privately owned poultry farms in the District as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 include 85 broiler, 26 layer and 03 poultry breeding farms.

Fishing

Fishing activity is carried out in ponds and canals of the district, but most of this fish is consumed locally.[3] Fishing is carried out in River Indus in Rojhan, Rajanpur, and Jampur tehsils, Qadra Canal, Jampur Canal, Dajal Canal, Sem Nala Manke, and Duba Peomer, among others.

Bee Keeping

Commercial bee keeping is carried out in various forests and farms in the district.

[1] The figures do not include statistics for the De-excluded area of Rajanpur district.

[2] Table 17; Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock The figures do not include statistics for the De-excluded area of Rajanpur district.

[3] Fishing Manual, Fisheries Department, Lahore

Irrigation

The cultivation in the Pachad or hill torrent area mostly depends upon rain water brought down by hill torrents from the adjacent Suleiman hills. The cultivation in the Chahi-Nehri area depends upon wells or canals, while the cultivation in the Sindh Circle depends upon river spill.

The irrigation canals of the district are controlled by the Taunsa Barrage. The major canal off-taking from this barrage and providing irrigation waters is the Dera Ghazi Khan Canal. Other canals include Link No. III, Qadra Canal, Mubarrak Distributary, Raj Distributary, Dhundi Qutb Canal, and Dajal Branch.

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and the area irrigated by each mode as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area Sown 414,000 HA Irrigated Area 398,000 HA
Un-Irrigated Area 16,000 HA Canal Irrigated 88,000 HA
Dug Wells 8,000 HA Tube Well Irrigated 93,000 HA
Canal Well Irrigated 7,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 197,000 HA
Others 5,000 HA

Table 1.11 Rajanpur Irrigation Statistics

A vast area of the district is cultivated through Rod Kohi or Spate Irrigation (also sometimes called Sailaba Irrigation) which is a system more commonly used in Balochistan. In Punjab, the spate or Rod Kohi irrigation is practiced mostly in Dera Ghazi Khan and Rajanpur districts.

Figure 1.17 Taunsa Barrage Headworks

Figure 1.18 Dera Ghazi Khan Canal

Minerals and Mining

There is no mining activity in the district. Oil and gas exploration is being carried out in the district.

Industry

Industries in Rajanpur include fertilizer, cosmetics, glass manufacturing, cotton production and processing, and flour, sugar, and oil mills. Cottage industries include cotton ginning, pottery/ clay products, agricultural machinery, handicrafts, and embroidery.

At present, there is no industrial estate in the district, but there are 102 large,[1] medium and small industrial units scattered in various areas of the district as follows:

Type of Industry Number
Cotton Ginning & Pressing 60
Rice Mills 33
Flour Mills 08
Sugar Mills 01

Table 1.9 Rajanpur Industries

In addition, there are ice making factories, brick kilns, and carpet weaving industries in the district.

Trade

The district trades in cotton and wheat, which are its main agricultural produce. It also trades in indigo. Mithankot in Rajanpur tehsil has always been a transit point and a major Riverine trade center along one of the southern routes of the ancient Silk Road connecting Central Asia and China to the Arabian Sea. Since prehistoric times, Mithankot was, and has remained, an important site for crossing the Indus River.

Figure 1.8 Rajanpur Bazaar

Handicrafts

The traditional crafts of the district include handwoven mats, baskets, and handheld fans (made from date palm and peesh, a bush grown in the De-Excluded Areas). Woolen carpets called Khalasi, made from hand spun goat-hair and painted/ lacquered furniture and toys are also notable handicrafts of the region.

In addition, the cottage industry of the district includes ginning, pottery and clay products, agricultural machinery, and embroidery.

[1] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Rajanpur District 2012; Latest available.

Economic Infrastructure

Rajanpur district is linked with Dera Ghazi Khan, Jacobabad, Kashmore, and Sibi districts through black topped roads and so is the district headquarter linked with its tehsil headquarters. The district is also linked with Dera Ghazi Khan, Jacobabad, Kashmore, and other parts of Pakistan through the railway network.

Roads

The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road Length 1,418.8 km
National Highways 191.0 km
Provincial Highways 1,210.7 km
Motorways – km
Sugar Cess Roads 17.2 km

Table 1.10 Rajanpur Road Statistics

Important road links of the district include:

  • The National Highway N 55 also known as the Indus Highway
  • Dera Ghazi Khan-Mithankot
  • Manan Bangla-Kot Mithan
  • Rajanpur-Kashmore Road (section)
  • Kotla Naseer-Kashmore
  • Jampur-Dajal Road
  • Fazilpur-Hajipur
  • Rajanpur-Aqil Pur
  • Kot Janu-Kot Tahir
  • Kotla Esan-Shikarpur
  • Kampur-Kotla Mughlan

Figure 1.14 A Street in Jampur Tehsil

Figure 1.15 Indus Highway (N 55) Rajanpur

Rail and Airways

The district is linked with Dera Ghazi Khan, Jacobabad, and Kashmore districts through Pakistan Railways. In all, there are 13 railway stations[1] in the district. There is a railway station at Mithankot, Rajanpur, Jampur, as well as Kotla Pathan, among others.

There are no commercial or military airports in the district, and the nearest airport is the Dera Ismail Khan airport.

Figure 1.16 Railway Crossing near Rajanpur

Radio and Television

At present there is 1 private FM radio station in the district and cable TV can be viewed throughout.

Telecommunications

There are 20 telephone exchanges operating in the district, each ranging in capacity from 60 lines to 2,410 lines.[2] Nearly all of the major cellular companies also operate in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

Pakistan Post has its headquarters in Rajanpur City. There are 16 Post Offices[3] in the district in total, with 08 in Jampur tehsil, 06 in Rajanpur tehsil, and 02 in Rojhan tehsil. Nearly all the courier services of Pakistan provide their services in the district.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

In all, a total of 32 branches[4] of various bank are operating in the district, with 11 in Jampur tehsil, 18 in Rajanpur tehsil, and 03 in Rojhan tehsil.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan the following banks have their branches in the district:

  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • The Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 51 branches of various conventional banks and 05 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

The Multan Electric Power Company (MEPCO) looks after the supply of electricity in the district. There are 06 grid stations,[5] ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV, in the district.

Natural gas is not available in the district.

[1] Pre-Investment Study Rajanpur District, 2012; Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Rajanpur District, 2012; Latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Rajanpur District, 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Rajanpur District, 2012; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Rajanpur District, 2012; Latest available.

Education

The following table shows the number of educational institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility Boy/Girl Facility Boys/girl
Primary Schools 577/412 Middle Schools 52/33
Secondary Schools 44/25 Higher Secondary 07/05
Degree Colleges 07/08 Other Higher Secondary[1] 01/02
Other Degree Colleges[2] 03/04 Technical Training Institutes[3] 04/-
Vocational Institutes[4] -/04 Commercial Training[5] 03/-
University Government Mosque Schools -/-
Medical College Agriculture College(Campus)
Engineering Colleges Law Colleges

Table 1.12 Rajanpur Educational Institutes (Govt.)

In addition, there are private educational institutions of all levels in the District.

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. The DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 06/335 Dispensaries 14/-
Rural Health Centers (RHC) 06/125 Basic Health Units (BHU) 33/66
T B Clinics -/- Mother Child Health Centers -/-
Private Hospitals -/- Sub-Health Centers 01/04
Private Healthcare Providers[6] NA

Table 1.14 Rajanpur Health Institutes

Policing

The Inspector General Police (IGP) stationed at Lahore is responsible for overall policing in Punjab. The Regional Police officer (RPO) Dera Ghazi Khan Region reports to the IGP Punjab and is responsible for policing Rajanpur district. Dera Ghazi Khan Region comprises of Dera Ghazi Khan, Rajanpur, Muzaffargarh, and Layyah districts. The District Police Officer (DPO) Rajanpur is in charge of the district and is in charge of 03 Subdivisions, each headed by a Deputy Superintendent Police (DSP). These DSPs control 16 police stations[7] in Rajanpur district in total.

[1] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF

[2] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Rajanpur District 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Rajanpur District 2012; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Rajanpur District 2012; Latest available.

[6] There are private healthcare providers but the list/number is not available..

[7] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

Environment and Biodiversity

Rajanpur district is one of the poorer and rather underdeveloped districts of Punjab. A large part of the district uses spate or the Rod Kohi System of irrigation which uses water from hill torrents for agriculture. Abject poverty in the district is a major issue. Since the district is mostly rural and relatively free of industries, the air is clean, and mostly free of industrial pollution. The only source of air pollution is suspended dust particles.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The flora of the Riverine forests along River Indus and the Panjnad River consists of lai (Tamarix dioca), pilchi (Tamarix gallica), babul or kikar (Acacia nilotica), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), ber (Zizyphus jujuba), jand (Prosopis spicigera), mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and bhan/poplar (Populus enphratica).

Other plants of the Riverine area include khabbal (Cynodon dactylon), kanwal (Melolotus oralifolia), munj (Erianthus munja), kai (Sacchrum spontaneum), and kunder (Typha elephantina).

Trees of the inland areas include jand (Prosopis spicigera), karir (Capparis aphylla), vann (Salvadora oleoides), peelu (Salvadora persica), kikar (Acacia nilotica), lana (Suda ruiteesa), lani (Salsola fostida), and ber (Zizyphus jujube). Other plants of the inland areas are harmal (Paganum harmala), khardar (Alhaji camelorum), khabbal (Cynodon dactylona), datura (Datura alba), phog (Calligonum polygnoides), pohli (Argemone maxicana), malla (Zizyphus numularia), and date palm (Phoenix rubicola).

Near the banks of the river and canals, some exotic tree species have been introduced over time, which include mulberry (Morus alba), bakain (Melia azadarach), shirin/siris (Albizzia lebeck), sufaida (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), ipal ipal (Lucaena minosifolia), burr (Ficus bengalensis), pipal (Ficus religiosa), and mango (Mangifera indica).

Fauna

The mammals of the Riverine habitat include hog deer, wild boar, fishing cat, jungle cat, small Indian civet, smooth-coated otter, and Indus blind dolphin. The wild avifauna of the area includes around 40 species of ducks and geese, black partridge, countless number and species of waders, purple moorhen, common and white-breasted moorhen, yellow-eyed babbler, and several passerine species. The key reptiles of the area include the monitor lizard and several species of turtles.

Rajanpur’s rangelands also provide habitat for a number of wildlife species including barking deer, blackbuck, caracal, chinkara, goral, great Indian bustard, grey partridge, grey wolf, houbara bustard, khalij pheasant, sand grouse, and urial.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Wildlife

The following areas have been declared as Wildlife Protected Areas in the district:

  • Kot Sabzal Game Reserve
  • Daman Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Kotla Easan Wildlife Sanctuary

The Kot Sabzal Game Reserve provides a natural habitat for the houbara bustard, while all mammals, birds, and reptiles that are protected under Punjab Wildlife Act are provided sanctuary in all protected areas.