Punjab-Sahiwal

Introduction

Sahiwal district is located in the southeastern part of Punjab. It is located between 29° 59Ꞌ to 30° 57Ꞌ north latitudes, and 72° 25Ꞌ to 73° 21Ꞌ east longitudes. The district is situated between River Ravi and Sukh Beas Nullah, approximately 152 m above mean sea level. River Ravi forms its northwestern boundary for the entire length of the district, across which are Faisalabad and Toba Tek Singh districts. On the southeast runs the Sukh Beas Nullah separating the district from the Pakpattan and Vehari districts. On the northeast and southwest borders are the districts of Okara, Khanewal, and Pakpattan, respectively.

District at a Glance

Name of District Sahiwal District
District Headquarter Sahiwal City
Population[1] 2,517,560 persons
Area[2] 3,201 km2
Population Density[3] 781.0 persons per km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 1.6%
Male Population[5] 50.9%
Female Population[6] 49.1%
Urban Population[7] 20.5%
Tehsils 02 Tehsils:

1.    Chichawatni

2.    Sahiwal

Main Towns Sahiwal, Chichawatni, Qadirabad, Iqbalnagar, Kassowal, Noorshah, Harappa, Kameer, Yousafwala, and Ghaziabad

Literacy Rate[8] 59%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 68%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 51%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 43%

 

Elementary Occupations 35.4%
Service Workers, Retail Shop Owners etc. 8.9%
Others 12.7%
Main Crops Sugarcane, wheat, rice, maze, cotton, guar seed, bajra, moong, masoor, maash, jowar, rapeseed, mustard, sunflower, barley, gram, groundnut, sesanum, sugarbeet, linseed, sunn hemp, and castor seed
Major Fruits Citrus, guavas, mangoes, pomegranate, leechee, phalsa, bananas, dates, jaamun, ber, and mulberry
Major Vegetables Potatoes, onions, cauliflower, tomatoes, turnips, peas, carrots, garlic, chilies, okra, coriander, spinach, bottle gourd, pumpkin radish, bitter gourd, bell pepper, and tori
Forests (area)[12] 4,000 HA[13]
Total Black Topped Roads[14] 1,443.9 km
National Highways[15] 68.0 km
Motorways[16] – km
Provincial Roads[17] 1,284.8 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] 91 km
No. of Grid Stations[19] 06 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Telephone Exchanges[20] 25 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 10,762 lines
Industrial Zones[21] One Industrial Estate and 302, small, medium, and large enterprises operating in the district
Major Industry[22] Cold Storage 78 Units
Confectionary 35 Units
Cotton Ginning & Pressing 58 Units
Rice Mills 43 Units
Household Size[23] 6.9 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[24] 7.9%
Houses with Electricity[25] 48% (rounded up)

Table 1.1 Sahiwal District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics reports 5,000 HA under forests.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study, Sahiwal District 2012; Latest available.

[20] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study, Sahiwal District 2012; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study, Sahiwal District 2012; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study, Sahiwal District 2012; for a detailed listing, please refer to the section on Industry

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsCultural Heritage Sites and Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the District

Sahiwal district has a rich and long history. It was, in fact, a part of the Indus Valley Civilization which flourished around 3000 BC. The ruins of Harappa¾24 km west of Sahiwal and discovered during excavations in the 1920s by the Archaeological Survey of India[1]¾ show that the Sahiwal area was a major urban center. This site shows the remains of a large and well developed city from as long ago as 3000 BC. The ruins of dwellings, public edifices, granaries, and a public bath along with numerous pictographic legends, utensils, tools and implements, figurines, toys, and other articles have been discovered. Most of the articles discovered are preserved at a museum maintained by the Archaeological Department near the site of the excavation. These ruins and the museum are situated about 24 km west of Sahiwal city. During the British Raj, this site was significantly damaged, as bricks from the Harappa ruins were used as track ballast for the railway line constructed in 1856.[2]

When the area was invaded by Alexander the Great in 326 BC, it was occupied by the Kathia and Malli tribes. The historians of Alexander’s expeditions assert that the Kathias occupied the northern part of what is now Sahiwal district and the Mallis lived in the southern areas with their capital at Multan. Most traditions contend that the names of the towns of the Mallis in Sahiwal district were Harappa and Kot Kamalia.

The Punjab District Gazetteers, Montgomery District 1898-99 by Government of Punjab states that “for nearly 1,600 years after the capture of Kamalia and Harappa by Alexander the Great there is a blank in the history of the District” (p. 33).

The old name of the district was Gugera with Gugera town[3] as its headquarters. Gugera was made a district in 1852, 3 years after the annexation of Punjab in 1849. The name remained unchanged till 1864 when Sahiwal town was developed and the name of the new town was changed to Montgomery after Sir Robert Montgomery, then Lieutenant Governor of Punjab. The name of the district and tehsil were also changed from Gugera to Montgomery.

Gugera was home to pastoral tribes who maintained a sturdy independence against the successive rulers of northern India and did not pay more than nominal allegiance to the Muslim rulers; the population for the most part remained in a chronic state of rebellion against conquest. The major tribes of the area included the Hans tribe, Kharals, Kathias, Beghalas, and Wahniwals.[4] In 1398 Tamerlane marched from Multan to Pakpattan (then part of Sahiwal/ Montgomery district). He captured the town of Pakpattan but did not kill the occupants or destroy the property out of respect for the shrine of Hazrat Baba Farid-ud Din Masood Ganjshakar who had died in 1264 and was buried there.

The next invasion of this area was from the north, when this area was part of the kingdom of Ibrahim Khan Lodhi (1517-1526) of the Lodhi Dynasty. The Sahiwal area was, at that time, governed by Daulat Khan Lodhi, the then Governor of Punjab. In 1526, after defeating Ibrahim Khan Lodhi at the first battle of Panipat, Babar, the first Mughal Emperor, took over the reins of the Delhi Government and founded the Mughal Dynasty which lasted for more than 200 years, and included the Sahiwal region.

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the district was divided among a number of independent tribes that remained under a state of perpetual warfare with each other as well as the Sikh confederacies. The most notable of the Muslim tribes were the Kharals, Sials, Wattos, and Hans, while the Sikh Nakkais occupied a considerable part of the district as well. Between 1804 and 1810, Ranjit Singh obtained possession of the whole district except a strip on the Sutlej which was held by the Nawab of Bahawalpur. Ranjit Singh ultimately occupied this strip in 1830 when the Nawab of Bahawalpur defaulted on the payment of tribute. The Kharals and Sials took the opportunity offered by the First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-6) to rise against the Sikhs but were suppressed. British influence extended over the district for the first time in 1847 when an officer was deputed to effect a summary settlement of the land revenue. Direct British Rule was established in 1849, when the district named Gugera was formed with its headquarters at Pakpattan, as discussed already. This district included as much of Sahiwal as now lies in Bari Doab. The Trans-Ravi portion was added in 1852 and the headquarters was moved to Gugera. In 1865, when the railway line was opened in the district, Montgomery, at the time a small village, was made the headquarters.[5]

During the War of Independence of 1857, there was a general uprising of the Jat clans; the Sahiwal district formed the scene of the only uprising which took place north of the Sutlej. Before the end of May, emissaries from Delhi crossed the river from Sirsa and Hissar, where revolution and fighting was already rife, and met with a ready reception from the Kharrals and other fierce Jat clans of the region. The district authorities, however, controlled the threatened uprising till August 26, when the prisoners in the local jail made an attempt to break loose. At the same time, Ahmad Khan, a famous Kharral leader, who had been detained at Gugera, broke his arrest, and, though apprehended again by the British authorities, was released on security, together with several other chieftains suspected of “insurrection.” On September 16, they fled to their homes, and the whole country rose in open rebellion against British rule. Kot Kamalia was sacked and Major Chamberlain, moving up with a small force from Multan, was besieged for some days at Chichawatni on the Ravi. The situation at the Chichawatni civil station remained critical for the British till Colonel Paton arrived with substantial reinforcements from Lahore. An attack by the local tribes including the Kharrals, which took place immediately after their arrival, was repulsed by the reinforcements. Several minor actions followed in the open field, until finally the rebels, driven from the plain into the wildest jungles of interior areas of the district, were utterly defeated and dispersed, with the British gaining complete control over the region. The British troops then exacted severe punishment on the insurgent clans, destroying their villages, and seizing large numbers of cattle to sell,[6] effectively destroying the local economy.

In 1865, Sahiwal village was made the headquarters of the district and a tehsil of the same name, on the route of the Northwestern Railway. Sahiwal was renamed Montgomery after Sir Robert Montgomery, then Lieutenant Governor of Punjab.

The district was part of the Lahore Division of Punjab Province. The district was awarded to Pakistan upon the Partition of British India into the independent states of India and Pakistan in 1947. The name of the district (Sahiwal), tehsil, and the city were changed back to their original in 1966 by the Government of Pakistan. The first of 2 Nobel Peace Prize winners of Pakistan, Dr. Abdus-Salaam, was born in Sahiwal as was Majeed Amjad, who was one of the founders of modern Urdu Literature.

Figure 1.3 Representation of the Gugera War of Independence[7]

Figure 1.4 Mass Migration of Muslims from East to West Punjab

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Sahiwal district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 4
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 7

Under Local Government and Community Development Sahiwal district has 1 District Council, and one Municipal Corporation:

  • Municipal Corporation Sahiwal

The 2 Municipal Committees are:

  • Chichawatni
  • Kameer

Administrative Divisions

The district has a total area of 3,201 km2 and is divided into 02 tehsils as follows:

Chichawatni Tehsil 37 Union Councils
Sahiwal Tehsil 52 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Sahiwal Administrative Divisions

Cultural Heritage Sites and Tourist Attractions

The following sites are some of the protected Cultural Heritage Sites in the district:[1]

  • Mounds of Harappa: this is an ancient archaeological site near Harappa village, Sahiwal. The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of afortified city of the Bronze Age, which was part of the Cemetery Harappa culture and the Indus Valley Civilization, concentrated in Sindh and the Punjab. The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and to have occupied over 100 HA (250 acres) at its greatest extent during the Mature Harappan phase (2600–1900 BC). As per archaeological convention of naming a previously unknown civilization by its first excavated site, the Indus Valley Civilization is also called the Harappan Civilization. At present there is a museum and a rest house for tourists. Harappa is connected with Lahore and Multan by road and rail
  • Mir Chakar’s Tomb, Satghara, Sahiwal: Mir Chakar Khan Rind was a Baloch Tribal Chief who was given lands near Delhi. He settled in, and ruled, Satghara until his death in 1556 AD. His tomb is still extant
  • Tomb of Syed Daud Kirmani, Shergah, Sahiwal
  • Shrine of Hazrat Ala-ud Din Mauj Darya
  • Ruined mosque belonging to Sher Shah Suri’s period, Chichawatni town
  • Sahiwal Memorial: This monument was built in the memory of Alexander Cunningham. It is located on Railway Road, Sahiwal.

Other tourist attractions and picnic spots include the Farhat Gah Park, and Chaman Zar Park in Sahiwal city as well as Rahat Park, Kamalia Forest, and Chichawatni Forest famous for their scenic beauty. The banks of the rivers also provide good recreation areas.

Figure 1.10 Tomb of Great Meer Chaakar Khan Rind

Figure 1.11 Jamia Masjid, Chichawatni

Figure 1.12 Sahiwal Memorial

Figure 1.13 Excavations at Harappa

 

[1] Guidelines for Sensitive and Critical Areas of Pakistan, Government of Pakistan, 1997.

[1] These excavations are ongoing with a major breakthrough in 1999

[2] Ancient Civilizations of the World: History of Harappa by Saylor Academy

[3] Gugera town is now located in Okara district

[4] Names of these tribes have been taken from Punjab District Gazetteers, Montgomery District 1898-99

[5] Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 17, p. 410

[6] Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 17, p. 411

[7] An illustration included in The Day Ahmad Kharral Fell by Shafqat Tanveer Mirza

Topography

The district is shaped like a rough parallelogram lying north–east, and south–west along River Ravi. The district is part of the Bari Doab[1] and is an alluvial flat plain formed by the River Ravi. There is a central ridge, or bar or Dhaya, which ends in a river-cut bluff. The remaining land is at a lower level, cut up by old river creeks or nullahs. The most clearly defined of these channels which still exists is the Sukh Beas, which forms the boundary between the northern and southern tehsils of Sahiwal district, but also between the irrigation systems based respectively on the Ravi and Sutlej Rivers.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

Sahiwal has 3 main rivers: Ravi River in the west, River Sutlej in the east, and the dry River Beas which passes through the district separating it from Pakpattan district. There are no nullahs or streams passing through the district.

Forests

Most of the forests of the district are Irrigated Forests. There are some Riverine or bela forests along River Ravi and River Sutlej, but the largest forest, the Chichawatni Forest, is an irrigated forest, and is located mainly in Sahiwal district. The flora of the forests include shisham (Dalbergion sissoo), babul (Acacia nilotica), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus cinerea), mulberry or toot (Morus alba), simal or silk cotton (Bombax cieba), sirin (Albezia lebbek), red gum tree or sufaida (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), neem (Azardirachta indica), and mesquite (Prosopis juliflora).

The following table shows the forest area and types of forests in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 11,532 A Under Provincial Govt. – A
Un-Classed Forests – A Reserved Forests 11,532 A
Linear Plantation 5,210 km

Table 1.3 Sahiwal Forests

Chichawatni Forest comprises of many forests and is spread over an area of 9,000 acres. It is the second largest planned forest in Pakistan (the largest being Changa Manga). Other protected forests of the district include the Arifwala and Rakh Jamlera Protected Forests.

Soils

Generally, the soils of the district are fertile and, due to the irrigation system, the district produces a large number of crops.

The soils of the area are sandy loam to clayey loam. There are some sandy areas, which are part of the Great Thal Desert, near the dry riverbed of River Beas. These sandy areas are suitable for crops like groundnut and wheat. The soil of the region is very fertile and the climate tends to support short or scrubby vegetation.

Climate

The district has a hot and semi-arid climate; more precisely, it fluctuates between desert climate (in the sandy areas near the dry Sukh Beas) and humid climate. The climate tends to have hot¾sometimes extremely hot¾summers and mild winters.

The summer starts from April and continues till October. May, June, and July are the hottest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during summer are 40 °C and 27 °C respectively. The temperatures can go up to 47 °C during summer. The winter season begins in November and continues till March, with January being the coldest month. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this month are 22 °C and 7 °C respectively.

The irrigation network in the district has affected the climate of the district such that the frequency of dust storms has reduced, and the severity of the heat has also lessened.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means there will be minor to no damage to property due to earthquakes.

[1] Bari Doab is the land between River Ravi and River Beas

Population

The following table shows the population of the district and its tehsils as per 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Sahiwal District 3,201 2,517,560 50.9 49.1 20.5 1.65
Sahiwal Tehsil 1,610 1,491,553
Chichawatni Tehsil 1,591 1,026,007

Table 1.4 Sahiwal Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 96.73%
Christians 3.14%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.1%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Sahiwal Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 1.5%
Punjabi 98%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 0.35%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.1%
Others Negligible %

Table 1.6 Sahiwal Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The main employment sectors of the district are as follows:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 43%
  • Elementary Occupations 35.4%
  • Service Workers, Retail Shop Owners etc. 9%
  • Others 12.7%

The major economic activity of the rural areas of the district is agriculture and its allied livestock breeding. Agriculture absorbs 43% of all labor force. 35.4% of the labor force is absorbed by elementary occupations, while 8.9% of the work force is employed in retail, plant, and machine operators and assemblers.

Sahiwal district is famous for its cattle breeding, especially its Sahiwal breed of buffalo which is the best dairy breed[1] among zebu or humped cattle. This breed is tick resistant, heat tolerant, and noted for its high resistance to parasites, both internal and external. Due to their heat tolerance and high milk yield, this breed has been exported to other Asian countries and the Caribbean. It was taken to Australia via New Guinea in the 1950s. Sahiwal buffalo are now used in Australia predominantly for beef production as they have been used to crossbreed the Bos Taurus animals which produced a carcass of lean quality with desirable fat cover.

Agriculture

The district belongs to the cotton/ wheat zone of Punjab and is thus known for its good quality cotton and wheat.

Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding and fishing is the most important economic activity of the district.

The main crops grown in the district include sugarcane, wheat, rice, maze, cotton, guar seed, bajra, moong, masoor, maash, jowar, rapeseed, mustard, sunflower, barley, gram, groundnut, sesanum, sugarbeet, linseed, sunn hemp, and castor seed.

Major fruits grown in the district are citrus, guavas, mangoes, pomegranate, leechee, phalsa, bananas, dates, jaamun, ber, and mulberry.

Major vegetables are potatoes, onions, cauliflower, tomatoes, turnips, peas, carrots, garlic, chilies, okra, coriander, spinach, bottle gourd, pumpkin, radish, bitter gourd, capsicum (bell pepper) and tori.

Figure 1.5 Capsicum field in Sahiwal

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of Sahiwal district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 320,100  HA Reported Area 320,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 261,000 HA Net Sown 258,000 HA
Current Fallow 3,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 59,000 HA
Culturable Waste 15,000 HA Forest Area 5,000 HA

Table 1.7 Sahiwal Land Use Statistics

Livestock Breeding

Sahiwal is one of the major cattle markets of Pakistan (called Mandi Muwaushiyan in Urdu) which runs year-round. People from Gwadar to Khyber gather here to buy and sell cattle.

The following table shows the total population of livestock in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 (which cites the 2010 Census of Livestock):

Cattle 244,000 Heads Buffaloes 620,000 Heads Sheep 29,000 Heads
Goats 501,000 Heads Camels 181 Heads Horses 3,455 Heads
Mules 1,186 Heads Asses 44,604 Heads

Table 1.8 Sahiwal Livestock Statistics

Sahiwal cow is the most important breed of cattle of the district; other breeds include Nili Ravi buffalo, lohi sheep, beetal goats, beetal-spotted goats, thorough bred horses, zebu, and the hunch backed camel.

Figure 1.6 Sahiwal Cow

Figure 1.7 Sahiwal Dairy Breed Cow

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock), there are 554 poultry farms in the district. Number of privately owned poultry farms in the District are 100 broiler and 75 layer farms (Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19).

Fishing

Sahiwal is a major Fish Market of Punjab. Fishing is carried out in the Lower Bari Doab Canal, River Ravi, River Sukh Beas, and canals and water courses of the district.[2]

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

Commercial bee keeping is carried out in various forests and farms in the district.

Irrigation

Sahiwal district is irrigated through the Indus Basin Irrigation System. The Lower Bari Doab Canal is the main source of irrigation in the district. It runs through both the Sahiwal and Chichawatni tehsils, and is fed by a link canal from River Chenab. The Lower Bari Doab Canal (LBDC) off-takes from Balloki Headworks situated on River Ravi about 42 km southwest of Lahore. The smaller canals off-taking from LBDC are the Sahiwal Canal, and the Sahiwal Distributary, among others.

The following table shows the modes of irrigation, and area irrigated by each mode as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area Sown 414,000 HA Irrigated Area 419,000 HA
Un-Irrigated Area 1,000 HA Canal Irrigated 23,000 HA
Dug Wells 2,000 HA Tube Well Irrigated 5,000 HA
Canal Well Irrigated 9,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 380,000 HA
Others – HA

Table 1.11 Sahiwal Irrigation Statistics

Minerals and Mining

No major mineral is found in the district and hence, mining activity is not carried out. Oil and gas exploration licenses have been granted by the Government of Pakistan to companies.

Industry

At present, there is 1 Industrial Estate in the district established by the Punjab Small Industries Corporation; there are 302 small,[3] medium, and large industries operating in the district as follows:

Type of Industry Number Type of Industry Number
Agricultural Implements 12 Aluminum Products 09
Auto Parts 09 Biscuits 06
Chip/ Straw Board 03 Cold Storage 78
Confectionary 35 Cotton Ginning & Pressing 58
Dairy Products 05 Drug & Pharmaceuticals 02
Flour Mills 08 Foundry Products 04
Leather Garments 02 Rice Mills 43
Tanneries 13 Textile Spinning 05
Textile Weaving 01 Tobacco 01
Vegetable Ghee/ Oil 06 Woolen Textile Spinning/ Weaving 02

Table 1.9 Sahiwal Industries

Handicrafts

The traditional crafts of Sahiwal include baskets and mats. The baskets are made from sticks of mulberry trees, which are found in abundance in the forest located at Chichawatni. The baskets are used for the packing of fruits and vegetables. The mats are made from naturally grown grass. These crafts are mainly concentrated in Chichawatni and its suburbs. Approximately 400 artisans[4] are engaged in these crafts. Apart from baskets and mats, there are a number of handlooms installed in Sahiwal for the manufacture of school totes/ bags from jute, and about 500 persons are engaged in this trade.

 

Economic Infrastructure

Sahiwal district is comprised of 2 tehsils: Chichawatni and Sahiwal. Of these, Chichawatni is an old and planned town that was divided into blocks in a grid-iron pattern, with roads and streets running at right angles to each other. Recently, new colonies (neighborhoods) have been developed in a relatively more haphazard manner.

The district has a good infrastructure and is connected to Multan, Okara, Pakpattan, Khanewal, Vehari, and Bahawalnagar districts through black topped roads.

Roads

The following table shows the Road Statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 208-19:

Total Black Topped Road Length 1,443.89km
National Highways 68.0 km
Provincial Highways 1,284.8 km
Motorways – km
Sugar Cess Roads 91.0 km

Table 1.10 Sahiwal Road Statistics

The main national highway of Pakistan, the N 5, passes through Harappa and Sahiwal towns, connecting Sahiwal to other parts of Pakistan.

Other important roads of the district include:

  • Harappa Road
  • Multan Road
  • Noorshah Road
  • Naiki Midhali Road
  • Bahawalnagar-Arifwala Road
  • Pakpattan-Sahiwal Road
  • Kameer-Chichawatni Road
  • Lahore-Multan Road (this road passes through Chichawatni town)
  • Chichawatni-Harappa Road

Rail and Airways

The main Karachi-Peshawar railway line passes through the district. Sahiwal, Qadirabad, Harappa, Chichawatni, Kassowal, and Iqbalnagar are the major railheads of the district. The district is also linked with Multan and Okara through Pakistan Railways.

There is no airport be it commercial or military in the district. The nearest airport is the Sargodha Airport.

Radio and Television

At present, there are 2 privately-owned local radio stations in the district. Cable TV can be viewed throughout the district with boosters.

Telecommunications

There are 25 telephone exchanges[1] operating in the district, each ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 10,762 lines. Nearly all of the major cellular companies also operate in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

Pakistan Post has its headquarters in Sahiwal city. There are 26 Post offices[2] in the district, with 17 in Sahiwal tehsil, and 09 in Chichawatni tehsil. Nearly all the courier services of Pakistan provide their services in the district.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

In all, a total of 82 branches[3] of various banks are operating in the district, with 61 in Sahiwal, and 21 in Chichawatni tehsil.

Most of the major banks of Pakistan have their branches in the district. According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks all have their branches in the district:

  • Allied Bank of Pakistan
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Bank Islami Pakistan Ltd.
  • Dubai Islamic Bank Ltd.
  • Faisal Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Metropolitan Bank Ltd.
  • J S Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • National Investment Bank Ltd.
  • Silk Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Standard Chartered Bank Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber
  • The Bank of Punjab
  • The Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 131 branches of various conventional banks and 26 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Multan Electric Power Company (MEPCO) looks after the supply of electricity in the district. There are 6 grid stations,[4] ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV. Natural gas is available for domestic purposes.

Education

The following table shows the details of educational facilities in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 382/317 Middle Schools 109/173
Secondary Schools 103/87 Higher Secondary 14/20
Degree Colleges 15/16 Other Higher Secondary[5] 04/02
Other Degree Colleges[6] 08/11 Technical Training Institutes[7] 05/-
Vocational Institutes[8] -/02 Commercial Training Institutes[9] 02/01
Universities[10] 05 Govt. Mosque Schools -/-
Medical Schools 01 (Closed) Engineering Schools

Table 1.12 Sahiwal Educational Institutions

Figure 1.17 CIIT Campus Sahiwal

Health

The following table shows the number of government owned health care institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 09/1,214 Dispensaries 23/-
Rural Health Centers 13/220 Basic Health Units 82/152
T B Clinics -/- Mother Child Health Centers 06/-
Private Hospitals 03/190 Sub-Health Centers 18/-
Private Healthcare Providers[11] 52[12]

Table 1.13 Sahiwal Health Institutions

Policing

The Inspector General Police (IGP) stationed at Lahore is responsible for overall policing in Punjab. The Deputy Inspector General Police (DIG) Sahiwal Region reports to the IGP and is responsible for policing in the Sahiwal region, which consists of 3 districts: Sahiwal, Pakpattan, and Okara. The District Police Officer (DPO) Sahiwal is in charge of the policing of the

[1] Directorate of Industries Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sahiwal District 2012; Latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sahiwal District 2012; Latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sahiwal District 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sahiwal District 2012; Latest available.

[5] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[6] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[7] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Chakwal District 2012; Latest available.

[8] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Chakwal District 2012; Latest available.

[9] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Chakwal District 2012; Latest available.

[10] University of Engineering &Technology Taxila; Campuses of COMSAT Institute of IT; Baha-Uddin Zakarya University; Virtual University, Pakistan; University of Sahiwal (Newly established)

[11] Three Years Rolling plan 2010-13, Sahiwal District, GoPunjab; Latest available.

[12] Includes hospitals and clinics

[1] http://www.thecattlesite.com/breeds/dairy/96/sahiwal/

[2] Department of Fisheries, Punjab. Fishing Manual

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study for Sahiwal District 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study for Sahiwal District 2012; Latest available.

Environment and Biodiversity

Sahiwal is an agro-based rural area of Pakistan. The education and health services are, at best, marginal. This means that the environment of the district is relatively unaffected by the pollution that could be caused by industrialization.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The major flora of the district includes shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), babul (Acacia nilotica), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus cineraria), mulberry or toot (Morus alba), simal or silk cotton (Bombax cieba), sirin (Albezia lebbek), red gum tree or sufaida (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), neem (Azardirachta indica), mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), jand (Prosopis spicigera), vann or peelu/ tooth brush tree (Salavadora oleoides), okan or karir (Capparis aphylla), kikar (Acacia Arabica), pipal (Ficus religiosa), bargad or banyan (Ficus benghlensis), bakain or Persian lilac (Melia azedarach), frash (Tamarix articulata), lasura (Cordia myxa), talwar phali (Oroxylum indicum), amaltas (Cassia fistula), arjun (Terminalia arjuna), sukh chain (Pongamia pinnata), mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), phulai (Acacia modesta), jungle jalebi (Pithecellobium dulce), gulhar or cluster fig (Ficus racemosa), sohanjna or drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera), haar singhar or night jasmine (Nyctanthes arbor-tristis), dhamna (Grewia optiva), and ber (zizyphus nummalaria).

Some shrubs grown in the district include timber or fern leaf acacia (Acacia filicoides), jawain or camel thorn (Alhagi maurorum), lani or salt bush (Atriplex canescens), shamshad or boxwood (Buxus papillosa), katkaranj or fever nut (Caesalpinia bonduc), kasondi or coffee weed (Cassia occidentalis), canicha or prickly sesban (Sesbania bispinosa), niazbo or basil (Ocimum basilicum), lajwanti or touch-me-not (Mimosa pudica), and khip or broom bush (Leptadenia pyrotechnica).

Some of the grasses found in the district include khabbal (Cynodon dactylon), dab (Desmostachya bipinnata), murat (Panicum turgidum), nut grass or mutha (Cyperus rotundus), and Indian Sandbur (Cenchrus biflorus).

Fauna

The fauna of the forests of the district includes jackals, hog deer, wolves, fox, wild boar, jungle cat, fishing cat, small Indian civet, smooth-coated otter, Bengal fox, mongoose, hare, and porcupines.

The Chichawatni Forests host a large variety of birds, which include Indian tree pie, white backed vulture, common myna, little green bee-eater, various varieties of doves, parakeets, fantail flycatcher, lapwings, black drongo, robin, sunbird, spotted owlets, black and grey partridges, babblers, shrikes, bulbul, cuckoo, koel, starlings, pheasants, house crow, house sparrow, black myna, honey buzzard, hoopoe, lark, and little egret.

The reptilian and amphibian fauna includes viper snakes, various varieties of lizards, common frogs, and toads.[1]

Figure 1.8 Indian Hoopoe

Figure 1.9 Jungle Cat (Endangered)

Wildlife Protected Areas and Endangered Fauna

Chichawatni Wildlife Sanctuary and Irrigated Forest is the only wildlife protected area of the district. This area provides sanctuary to the endangered jungle cat, mongoose, and most game birds.

[1] Wildlife Diversity in the Punjab by M. Anwar Maan and A. Aleem Chowdhry. Punjab Wildlife Research Institute, Gatwala, Faisalabad.