Punjab-Toba Tek Singh

Introduction

Toba Tek Singh district is located between 30° 33′ to 31° 23′ north latitudes, and 72° 08′ to 72° 48′ east longitudes. Situated in the center of Punjab, the district touches district Faisalabad on the west and north, Jhang district on the east and south, and River Ravi on its southeast side. The districts of Khanewal and Sahiwal are located across the river.

District at a Glance

Name of District Toba Tek Singh District
District Headquarter Toba Tek Singh Town
Population[1] 2,190,015 persons
Area[2] 3,252 km2
Population Density[3] 712.8 persons per km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 1.6%
Male Population[5] 50.2%
Female Population[6] 49.8%
Urban Population[7] 20.2%
Tehsils 04 Tehsils:

1.    Toba Tek Singh Tehsil

2.    Kamalia Tehsil

3.    Pir Mahal Tehsil

4.    Gojra Tehsil

Main Towns Kamalia, Gojra, Toba Tek Singh, Pir Mahal, Rajana, Naya Lahore, Kot Pathana, and Sandhilianwali
Literacy Rate[8] 66%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 74%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 59%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing 36.2%

 

Manufacture 6.6%
Construction 31.1%
Wholesale/ Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant 8.5%
Transport, Storage & Communication 2.8%
Community, Social & Personal Services 10.7%
Others 4.7%
Main Crops Sugarcane, maize, wheat, cotton, jowar, bajra, moong, maash, masoor, gram, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, arhar, sesanum, groundnut, sugarbeet, guarseed, and linseed
Major Fruits Citrus, guavas, mangoes, pomegranate, musk melon, dates, mulberry, ber, and watermelon
Major Vegetables Potatoes, onion, cauliflower, okra, turnip, carrots, peas, chilies, tomatoes, garlic, brinjal, bitter gourd, okra, spinach, arvi (yam), and coriander
Forests (area)[12] 6,000 HA[13]
Total Black Topped Roads[14] 2,107.3 km
National Highways[15] – km
Motorways[16] – km
Provincial Highways[17] 1,884.1 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] 223.3 km
No. of Grid Stations[19] 12 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[20] 35 telephone exchanges ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 4,500 lines
Industrial Estates[21] At present, there is no industrial estate but 173 small, medium, and large enterprises are operating in the district
Major Industry[22] Cotton Ginning & Pressing 31 Units
Agricultural Implements 22 Units
Cold Storage 19 Units
Flour Mills, Poultry Feeds and Leather Footwear 13 Units Each
Rice Mills 17 Units
Sizing of Yarn 11 Units
Chip/ Straw Board, Confectionary, Soaps & Detergents, Power Generation 1 Unit Each
Textile Spinning 5 Units
Vermicelli 3 Units
Bicycle Parts 2 Units
Pharmaceuticals & Drugs 2 Units
Sugar 2 Units
Marble Industry 9 Units
Household Size[23] 7.1 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[24] 24.4%
Houses with Electricity[25] 79.2%

Table 1.1 Toba Tek Singh District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics also report 6,000 HA under forests.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Toba Tek Singh District 2012; Latest available.

[20] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Toba Tek Singh District 2012; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Toba Tek Singh District 2012; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Toba Tek Singh District 2012; Latest available.

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites, Tourist Attractions, Picnic Areas

Brief History of the District

The areas belonging to Toba Tek Singh district were part of the Jhang district, but in 1904 they were made a part of the then Lyallpur district (now Faisalabad district), which was constituted of three tehsils: Lyallpur, Samundari, and Toba Tek Singh. Hence, the earlier history of this district is the same as that of Jhang and Lyallpur districts, the details of which have been recounted in the relevant chapters.

Since this area was inhabited during the Indus Valley Civilization and the Vedic period,[1] it shares the historical vicissitudes of its neighboring regions. The Kamboja (iron-age tribe), Darada (people belonging to north and northwest areas of the Kashmir valley), Madra (tribe from the late Vedic period), Pandava (tribe from the Mahabharata period), and the Yaudheya (a tribe whose kingdom was close to the Pandava) all invaded, settled and ruled the ancient Punjab region including the Toba Tek Singh area.

After capturing the Achaemenid Empire in 327 BCE, Alexander the Great marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. After the Greek reign ended, the Toba Tek Singh areas were ruled by the Maurya Empire (322-185 BC), Indo-Greek Kingdom (200 BC-10 AD), Kushan Empire (2nd century-3rd century AD), Gupta Empire (320-550 AD), White Huns (408-670 AD), and Shahi Kingdoms (700-1010 AD).

In 997 AD, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi took over the Ghaznavid Empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktigin. In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul, and followed this conquest by conquests of the northern Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526) and later Mughal Empire (1526-1540 and 1555-1857) also ruled the region. During the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikhs invaded and occupied the area (1801-1849).

Toba Tek Singh was developed by the British towards the end of the 19th century when a canal system was built. People from all over the Punjab (currently Indian and Pakistani Punjab) moved to the region, as farmlands were allotted to them. Most of the people who migrated to Toba Tek Singh belonged to Lahore, Jalandhar, and Hoshiarpur districts.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India describes the tehsil of Toba Tek Singh as follows:

Tehsil of the new Lyallpur District, Punjab, lies between 30° 50′ and 31° 23′ N. and 72° 20′ and 72° 54′ E., with an area of 865 square miles [2,240 km2]. The population in 1906 was 148,984. It contains 342 villages, including Toba Tek Singh (population, 1,874), the headquarters, and Gojra (2,589), an important grain market on the Wazirabad-Khanewal branch of the North-Western Railway. The land revenue and cesses in 1905-6 amounted to 4.7 lacs. The tehsil consists of a level plain, wholly irrigated by the Chenab Canal. The soil, which is very fertile in the east of the tehsil, becomes sandy towards the west. The boundaries of the tehsil were somewhat modified at the time of the formation of the new District of Lyallpur. (v. 23, p. 406)

The town and district is named after a Sikh religious figure, Tek Singh. Legend has it that Tek Singh was a kindhearted man and lived beside a water pond¾Toba (in the Punjabi language). He used to serve water to, and provide shelter to, the worn out and thirsty travelers passing by his area. People eventually started calling it Toba Tek Singh, and the surrounding settlement acquired the same name. There is also a park in the region named after Sardar Tek Singh.

The predominantly Muslim population supported the Muslim League and the Pakistan Movement. Thus, the district was made a part of Pakistan at Partition.

The district remained a part of Faisalabad district till 1982, when it was upgraded to a district level.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Toba Tek Singh district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 3
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 7

Under the Local Government and Community Development Toba Tek Singh district has 1 District Council and 4 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Toba Tek Singh
  • Gojra
  • Kamalia
  • Pir Mahal

Administrative Divisions

Toba Tek Singh district has an area of 3,252 km2 and is divided into 4 tehsils as follows:

Toba Tek Singh Tehsil 30 Union Councils
Gojra Tehsil 24 Union Councils
Kamalia Tehsil 13 Union Councils
Pir Mahal Tehsil[2] 15 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Toba Tek Singh Administrative Divisions

Figure 1.3 Tehsil Municipal Administration, Toba Tek Singh Office

Heritage Sites, Tourist Attractions, Picnic Areas

There are no heritage sites/ buildings protected under the Government of Pakistan Laws in the district.

Some of the important/ historical buildings and picnic spots of the district include:

  • Wangar Wala Tibba (Graveyard)
  • Manzoor Elahi Forest Park
  • Teko Park
  • Jinnah Park
  • Ladies Park, Kamalia
  • Riaz Wildlife Park, Kamalia
  • Bhagat Irrigated Plantation and Wildlife Park
  • Kamalia Irrigated Plantation

 

Figure 1.7 A Road Side Mosque, Pir Mahal

Figure 1.8 Wangar Wala Tibba

Figure 1.9 Darbar Pir Syed Ahmad Ali near Toba Tek Singh

 

[1]The Vedic Period is the period in which the Vedas (the oldest scriptures of Hinduism) were composed. Evidence states that the time period is between 1700 to 1100 BC. The end of this period is estimated to be about 500 to 150 BC.

[2] Newly created in 2013 from Kamalia Tehsil

Topography

The district is situated about 46-61 m above mean sea level in the Rechna Doab[1] area of Punjab, and consists of a level plain sloping from east to west. This plain is not broken by any hills or mountains.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

River Ravi flows along its southern and southeastern border and is the only river in the district. There are no nullahs or streams in the district. Other sources of surface water are the irrigation canals.

Forests

According to Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19, there are a total of 5,790 HA of land under forests. The two most important forests of the district are the Kamalia Plantation and the Bhagat Plantation. Other reserved forests of the district include forests in Chaks No. 150/GB, 160/GB, 46/GB, 300/GB, and 324/JB. Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), mulberry (Morus alba), babul (Acacia nilotica), and species of eucalyptus and populus are the common tree species grown in the irrigated plantations.

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Toba Tek Singh district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 14,307 A Under Provincial Govt. 13,336 A
District Govt. – A Reserved Forests – A
Un-classed Forests 971 A Resumed Land – A
Linear Plantation – km

Table 1.3 Toba Tek Singh Forest Statistics

Soils

The soils in the east of the district are very fertile but become sandy in the west.

Climate

The climate of the district is classified as arid with hot winds blowing in the summer, and dust storms common during all seasons. The summers are very hot and dry. May and June are the hottest months, when the mean maximum and minimum temperatures range between 40.5 °C and 22.7 °C. January is the coldest month, when the mean maximum and minimum temperature stays between 19 °C and 4 °C. July and August are the Monsoon months, when the district receives most of its annual rain. The mean average rainfall in the district is 380 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to no damage due to earthquakes.

[1] Rechna Doab is the area of land between River Ravi and River Chenab

Population

The following table shows the population of the district and its tehsils as per 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area

km2

Population Male Female Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Toba Tek Singh

District

3,252 2,190,015 50.2 49.8 20.2 1.59
Gojra Tehsil 916 656,007
Kamalia Tehsil 1,336 371,851
Toba Tek Singh Tehsil 1,000 739,826
Pir Mahal Tehsil Created out of Kamalia Tehsil 422,331

Table 1.4 Toba Tek Singh Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 96.0%
Christians 3.7%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.21%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Toba Tek Singh Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.8%
Punjabi 98.6%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 0.3%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.22%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.6 Toba Tek Singh Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census results have not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census results have not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The major industrial occupations[1] of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing (36.2%)
  • Manufacture (6.6%)
  • Construction (31.1%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant (8.5%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (2.8%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (10.7%)
  • Others (4.7%)

Agriculture

Toba Tek Singh district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan.

The agriculture is mostly canal irrigated. Important crops of the district include sugarcane, maize, wheat, cotton, jowar, bajra, moong, maash, gram, masoor, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, arhar, sesanum, groundnut, sugarbeet, guarseed, and linseed.

Fruits grown in the area include citrus, guavas, mangoes, pomegranate, musk melon, dates, mulberry, ber, and watermelon.

Vegetable produce of the area includes potatoes, onion, cauliflower, okra, turnip, carrots, peas, chilies, tomatoes, garlic, brinjal, bitter gourd, okra, spinach, arvi (yam), and coriander.

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the Toba Tek Singh district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 325,200 HA Reported Area 327,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 269,000 HA Net Sown 239,000 HA
Current Fallow 30,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 58,000 HA
Culturable Waste 23,000 HA Forest Area 6,000 HA

Table 1.7 Toba Tek Singh Land Use Statistics

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is a very important allied activity of the agriculture sector of Pakistan.

The following table shows the livestock population as of the 2010 Census of Livestock (quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 234,000 Heads Buffaloes 365,000 Heads Sheep 50,000 Heads
Goats 336,000 Heads Camels 28 Heads Horses 1,695 Heads
Mules 1,730 Heads Asses 22,787 Heads

Table 1.8 Toba Tek Singh Livestock Statistics

Sahiwal cow, nili ravi buffaloes, lohi sheep, beetal goat, and beetal-spotted goats are the indigenous breeds of livestock in Toba Tek Singh district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock), there are 1,138 poultry farms in the district. As per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 number of privately owned poultry farms in the District number 289 broiler, 571 layer and 05 poultry breeding farms.

Fishing

Fishing activity is carried out in water ponds and canals of the district, and this fish is mostly consumed locally.[2] Fishing is carried out in River Ravi, Haveli Main Line Canal, and Old Condom Canal, among others.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

Commercial apiculture is practiced in various forests and farms in the district.

Irrigation

The irrigation system of Toba Tek Singh district includes a vast canal network, distributaries, and minors. It mainly consists of the Lower Chenab Canal, with its major branches like the Gugera Branch, Jhang Branch, and Burela Branch and their various distributaries and other water courses irrigating the district. The Lower Chenab Canal originates from the Khanki Headworks on River Chenab in Gujranwala district.

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and the area irrigated by each mode as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area Sown 388,000 HA Irrigated Area 388,000 HA
Un-Irrigated Area – HA Canal Irrigated 224,000 HA
Dug Wells – HA Tube Well Irrigated 29,000 HA
Canal Well Irrigated 1,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 134,000 HA
Others – HA

Table 1.11 Toba Tek Singh Irrigation Statistics

Minerals and Mining

There is no mining activity in the district.

Oil and gas is being explored at present in the Rechna Doab area.

Industry

At present there is no industrial estate in the district. There are a total of 173 small,[3] medium, and large enterprises working in the district as follows:

Type of Industry No. Type of Industry No.
Agricultural Implements 22 Bicycle Parts 02
Cement Products 07 Chip/Straw Board 01
Cold Storage 19 Cotton Ginning & Pressing 31
Drugs & Pharmaceuticals 02 Flour Mills 13
Marble Industry 09 Leather Footwear 13
Poultry Feed 13 Power Generation 01
Textile Spinning 05 Rice Mills 17
Soaps & Detergents 01 Sizing of Yarn 11
Sugar 02 Sweet/ Confectionary 01
Vermicelli 03

Table 1.9 Toba Tek Singh Industries

Figure 1.4 Textile Looms

Figure 1.5 Soap Noodles for Detergents

Trade

The district trades in agricultural produce, especially maize and kinoo, which are its main produce.

Handicrafts

Handwoven khaddar cloth is the most famous handicraft/ cottage industry of the district.

 

Economic Infrastructure

The district is linked with Jhang, Faisalabad, and Khanewal districts through black topped roads. All tehsil headquarters are also linked with each other and district headquarters with black topped roads. The district is linked with Faisalabad and Khanewal through the railway network.

Roads

The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road Length 2,107.3 km
National Highways – km
Motorways – km
Provincial Highways 1,884.1 km
Sugar Cess Roads 223.3 km

Table 1.10 Toba Tek Singh Road Statistics

Following are some of the important road links of the district:

  • Gojra-Toba Tek Singh Road
  • Jhang–Toba Tek Singh Road
  • Toba-Shorkot Road
  • Toba Tek Singh-Waryamwala Road
  • Chichawatni-Rajana Road
  • Jhangar-Kamalia Road

Rail and Airways

The district is linked with Faisalabad and Khanewal districts through Pakistan Railways. In all, there are 12 railway stations[1] in the district. Some of the notable ones include Toba Tek Singh, Gojra, Chak No. 298/GB, Thikranwala, and Akanwali.

There is no commercial airport in Toba Tek Singh nor is there any airbase. The nearest airport is the Faisalabad International Airport.

Radio and Television

At present there are 2 privately-owned FM stations in the district. TV stations can be viewed through cable network and through boosters.

Telecommunications

There are 35 telephone exchanges[2] operating in the district, each ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 4,500 lines. Nearly all of the major cellular companies also operate in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

Pakistan Post has its headquarters in Toba Tek Singh city. There are 259 post offices[3] in the district, with 112 in Toba Tek Singh, 75 in Gojra tehsil, and 72 in Kamalia tehsil. Nearly all the courier services of Pakistan provide their services in the district.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

In all, a total of 36 branches[4] of various banks are operating in the district, with 17 in Toba Tek Singh tehsil, 10 in Gojra tehsil, and 9 in Kamalia tehsil.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks all have their branches in the district:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Bank of Punjab
  • The Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 120 branches of various conventional banks and 18 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

The Faisalabad Electric Supply Corporation (FESCO) looks after the supply of electricity in the district. There are 12 grid stations[5] ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV in the district. Natural gas is also available in the district for domestic use.

 

Education

The following table shows the details of educational facilities of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 364/337 Middle Schools 101/185
Secondary Schools 84/108 Higher Secondary 13/19
Degree Colleges 14/13 Other Higher Secondary[6] 04/03
Other Degree Colleges[7] 05/05 Technical Training Institutes[8] 05/-
Vocational Institutes -/03 Commercial Training Institutes[9] 03/-
Universities[10] 01 Govt. Mosque Schools 14/-
Medical Schools[11] 03 Engineering Schools

Table 1.12 Toba Tek Singh Educational Institutions: Government

In addition, there is 1 cadet college in the district called Pasban Cadet College. In addition there are a large number of privately owned schools and colleges imparting education at all levels.

Figure 1.10 Berkeley Public High School (Private), Toba Tek Singh

Figure 1.11 Government High School, Kamalia

Figure 1.12 University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Sub-Campus, Toba Tek Singh

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. This DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 04/403 Dispensaries 23/-
Rural Health Centers 10/180 Basic Health Units 70/140
T B Clinics 01/- Mother Child Health Centers 02/-
Sub-Health Centers 13/- Private Hospitals -/-
Private Healthcare Providers[12] 44

Table 1.14 Toba Tek Singh Health Institutions

Figure 1.13 Foundation Hospital (Private), Toba Tek Singh

Figure 1.14 D H Q Hospital, Toba Tek Singh

Policing

The Regional Police officer (RPO) Faisalabad Region, which includes Faisalabad, Jhang, Toba Tek Singh, and Chiniot districts, reports to the Inspector General Police (IGP) and is responsible for policing Toba Tek Singh district. The District Police Officer (DPO) Toba Tek Singh District is in charge of the district. The DPO Sargodha is in charge of 03 Subdivisions, each headed by a Deputy Superintendent Police (DSP). These DSPs control 11 police stations[13] in Toba Tek Singh district.

 

[1] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study for Toba Tek Singh District 2012; Latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study for Toba Tek Singh district 2012; Latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study for Toba Tek Singh district 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study for Toba Tek Singh district 2012; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study for Toba Tek Singh District 2012; Latest available.

[6] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[7] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[8] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study for Toba Tek Singh District 2012; Latest available.

[9] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study for Toba Tek Singh District 2012; Latest available.

[10] Campus of Agriculture University, Faisalabad

[11] Homeopathic Medicine

[12] Three Years Rolling Plan Toba Tek Singh District; Latest available.

[13] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census results have not been made public yet.

[2]Fishing Manual, Fisheries Department, Punjab.

[3]Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study for Toba Tek Singh District 2012; Latest available.

Environment and Biodiversity

Toba Tek Singh is mostly a rural district, with a small industrial base. Hence, the atmosphere is mostly clean.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The species of flora in Toba Tek Singh district are vann (Salvadora oleoides), karir (Capparis aphylla), jhand (Prosopis spicigera), ber (Zizyphus jujuba), shisham (Dilbergio sissoo), silk cotton tree (Bombax cieba), bakin/dharek (Melia azerdarac), jaamun (Syzigium cumini), sukh chain (pongamia glabra), mulberry or toot (Morus alba), ber (Ziziphus mauritiana), aak (Calotropis procera), kana (Saccharum bengalensis), and khajoor (Phoenix dactilifera).

Grasses like chimber (Eleusine egyyptiaca), lambh (Aristida depressa), gorkha (Lasiurus sindicus) pelwahn and khavi, morning glory (Pomoea spp), and khabbal grass (Cynodon dactylon) are common.

Trees grown along roads in linear plantation are kahu (Olea ferruginea Royle), phulai (Acacia modesta), kikar (Acacia albida), bohr or banyan (Ficus bengalensis), neem (Azadirachta indica), farash (Tamarlx aphylia), eucalyptus, and shisham (Dilbergio sissoo).

Fauna

Mammals of the two major irrigated plantations include jungle cats, jackals, mongoose, wild hare, wild boar, bats, urial, rhesus monkeys, hedgehog, palm squirrel, Indian mole rat, field mouse, Indian gerbil, house shrew, and porcupine.

Reptiles and amphibians include uromastic snake, du mohi snake, striped keel-back, lizards, Indian soft shell turtle, common frog, and common toads.

Bird species observed in these plantations include Indian tree-pie, white-backed vulture, common myna, little green bee-eater, ring dove, red turtle dove, pied bush chat, rose-ringed parakeet, fantail flycatcher, red-wattled lapwing, reed warbler, Indian robin, black drongo, spotted owlet, purple sunbird, common babbler, bay back shrike, Indian roller, black partridge, grey partridge, red-vented bulbul, pied myna, rosy starling, cuckoo, koel, crow pheasant, golden backed woodpecker, rhy-neck, white-breasted kingfisher, common kingfisher, pied kingfisher, paradise flycatcher, golden oriole, jungle babbler, house crow, house sparrow, magpie robin, pied flycatcher, bank myna, great reed warbler, red start, pond heron, white-breasted water hen, common pariah kite, black winged kite, honey buzzard, hoopoe, crested lark, little egret, white-winged lark, grey hornbill, warblers of different species, swifts, rufous back shrike, and streaked weaver bird.

Protected Wildlife Areas/ Endangered Animals

At present, the Bhagat Irrigated Plantation and Kamalia Irrigated Plantation are the Protected Wildlife areas of Toba Tek Singh district. These provide protection to the above mentioned fauna of the district.