Sindh-Badin

Introduction

District Badin is located between 24° 13′ to 25° 12Ꞌ North latitudes and 68° 21′ to 69° 20Ꞌ East longitudes. It is bounded on the North by Tando Allah Yar and Tando Muhammad Khan districts, in the east by Tharparkar and Mirpurkhas districts, in the West by Thatta, and the Arabian Sea, and on the South by the Runn of Kutch, which, in turn, forms the international boundary with India.

District at a Glance

Name of District Badin District
District Headquarter Badin Town
Population[1] 1,805,000 persons
Area[2] 6,726 km2
Population Density[3] 268.4% persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.6%
Male Population[5] 51.7%
Female Population[6] 48.3%
Urban Population[7] 21.6%
Tehsils Five Tehsils:

1.    Badin Tehsil

2.    Matli Tehsil

3.    Shaheed Fazil Raho (Golarchi) Tehsil

4.    Tando Bago Tehsil

5.    Talhar Tehsil

Main Towns Badin, Tando Bago, Golarchi, Matli, Tando Ghulam Ali, Lowari, Kario Ghanwar, Rajo Khanani, Khoski, Khalifo Qasim, and Kadhan
Literacy Rate[8] 37%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 49%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 23%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting 65.9%
Community, Social & Personal Services 28.4%
Activities not defined 11.3%
Main Crops Sugarcane, rice, cotton, wheat, sunflower, all pulses, bajra, gowar, maize, jowar, barley, gram, rape & mustard and soya bean
Major Fruits Melon, banana, dates, guava, jaamuns, mango, watermelon, musk melon, papaya, phalsa, citrus, ber, and mulberry
Major Vegetables Onions, chilies, tomatoes, ladyfinger, tinda, brinjal, bottle gourd, bitter gourd, pumpkin, luffa, cucumber, long melon, beans, lotus root, peas, turnip, carrots, spinach, tomatoes, cauliflower, cabbage, radish, fenugreek, ginger, turmeric, ajwain, and fennel
Forests (area)[12] Nil
Total Black Topped Road[13] 1,525 km
Shingle Roads[14] 0 km
No of Grid Stations[15] 5. Each Grid Station = 66 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[16] 07 telephone exchanges and 22 CE exchanges
Industrial Zones[17] ·        Industrial Estate Housing: 1

·        Large Scale Units: 7

·        Many small scale units

No. of Industrial Units and Major Industry[18]

 

Sugar Mills 6 Units
Rice Mills 79 Units
Flour Mills 100 Units
Cement Pipe 1 Unit
Brick Kilns 30 Units
Household Size[19] 5.3 persons/ house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[20] 13%
Houses with Electricity[21] 25.1%

Table 1.1 Badin District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM) Latest Available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census, 2017 Census data has not been made public as yet

[12] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[13] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[14] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[15] Environmental Impact Assessment Hyderabad Electric Supply Corporation (HESCO) 2007 latest available

[16] District Census Report 1998, New Data is not available

[17] District Vision Badin by IUCN

[18] District Vision Badin by IUCN

[19] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative UnitsHistorical/ Heritage Sites

Brief History

The history of Badin shares much in common with the history of Sindh in general, and with that of Lower Sindh in particular. The area of present day Sindh has remained the center of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. The first available records show Sindh’s annexation to the (Persian) Achaemenid Empire under Darius I in the late 6th century BC. Nearly 2 centuries later, Alexander the Great conquered the region in 325 and 326 BC. After Alexander’s death, Sindh came under the domination of the empire of Seleucus I Nicator (358-281 BC), Chandra Gupt Maurya (c305 BC), the Indo-Greek and Parathions in the 2nd and 3rd century BC, and the Scythians and the Kushian rulers from about 100 BC to 200 AD. From the 3rd to the 7th centuries AD, the area remained under the Persian Sassanids. After the Sassanids and before the Arab invasion, the area came under the rule of the Rai dynasty. During that period, Brahmanism[1] became the dominant religion in the region and in the 2nd quarter of 7th century AD, Brahmanism and Buddhism were the 2 dominant religions practiced by the region’s dwellers.

The Arab conquest of Sindh in 711 AD heralded the entry of Islam into the Indian subcontinent. Modern Sindh became a part of the administrative province called As-Sindh in the Ummayyad and Abbassid empires from 712 to about 900 AD. With the eventual weakening of the central authority in the caliphate, this region came under the control of the Ghaznavids by 975 AD, who controlled the region till about 1100 AD.

The area remained under the Ghaznavids till 1032 AD, when Ibn-e-Sumar, the ruler of Multan, laid the foundation of the Soomra dynasty in Sindh. The Soomras were the first tribe to wrest Sindh from Arab rule. In the year 1025 AD, they gathered in the village Tharee of Matli Taluka of present day Badin district, and declared their chief, Sardar Soomar, as the ruler of Sindh[2]. In 1351 AD, the Sammas, a Rajput tribe, gained control of Thatta and its surrounding areas, including the areas now part of Badin district, and declared independence. Feroze Shah Tughlaq of the Delhi Sultanate (1309-1388) invaded Sindh and brought the Samma tribe under his control. During Samma rule, Timur (Tamerlane, 1336-1405) invaded and conquered Delhi (in 1398); he appointed Khizr Khan as the governor of both the Sindh and Multan provinces. Khizr Khan later became the founder of the Sayyid Dynasty and the Sammas remained under the Sayyid Dynasty till 1451.

In 1526, the Mughal Empire was established and in 1592, Akbar the Great established direct rule of the Mughal Empire in Sindh by defeating Mirza Jani Beg, the ruler of Thatta. Henceforth, Sindh became a part of the Mughal province of Multan.

From 1701 to 1783, the Kalhoras ruled Sindh. They were appointed as governors by the Mughal Grand Vizier, Mirza Jani Beg, and later formed their own dynasty; they were known as the Kalhora Nawabs by the Mughal Emperors. They later succeeded in getting control of Upper and Lower Sindh with headquarters established at Bhakkar and Thatta. Their rule is considered as the “golden period” of Sindhi culture, as poets like Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Sachal Sarmast, and Sami rose to prominence during this period.

The Kalhoras established Neroonkot as their capital and called it “Hyderabad”, making the area central to the history of Sindh.

A Sindhi speaking Baloch tribe, called the Talpurs, settled in Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan in the late 18th century. This tribe had migrated to Sindh with the invading armies of Emperor Nadir Shah of Persia (1736-47) and later settled in Sindh on the invitation of the Kalhora rulers, who solicited them to lead their troops. Initially, the two tribes—the Kalhoras and the Talpurs—had very good relations, but as the might of the Talpurs grew, they started taking control of Kalhora lands until they overthrew the Kalhoras in the battle of Halani in 1782. Peace was restored in the region when the Mughal Emperor Akbar Shah II[3] appointed Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur as the new Nawab of Sindh in 1783, recognizing the Talpurs as the official rulers of the region.

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India, “Under the Talpur dynasty Hyderabad remained a leading state; and within its limits were fought the battles of Miani and Dabo which decided the fate of Sindh (1843)” (v. 13, p. 314). The Gazetteer further shows that “Badin was founded about 1750 by a Hindu named Swalo” (v. 6, p. 178).

This district remained a part of Hyderabad and Thatta districts till 1975, when Badin district was separated from these districts. It consists of 5 Talukas: Badin, Shaheed Fazil Rahu (Golarchi), Matli, Tando Bago, and Talhar. The Badin taluka, Tando Bago taluka and most parts of Matli taluka as well as Tando Muhammad Khan were a part of Hyderabad district before 1975. The Golarchi taluka (Shaheed Fazil Rahu taluka) was formed by combining parts of Tando Muhammad Khan taluka and parts of Jatti taluka of Thatta district.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Badin district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of representatives in National Assembly: 2
  • Number of representatives in the Provincial Assembly: 5

The district has 2 Municipal Committees:

  • Badin
  • Matli

There are 10 Town Committees (TC) and 68 Union Councils. The TC are:

  • TC Kadhan
  • TC Fazil Rahu
  • TC Nindo
  • TC Kario Ghanwar
  • TC Talhar
  • TC Rajo Khanani
  • TC Tando Ghulam Ali
  • TC Tando Bago
  • TC Pingrio
  • TC Khoski

Administrative Units

There are 5 Talukas of Badin district (as described in the history section):

Matli 12 Union Councils
Badin 12 Union Councils
Tando Bago 10 Union Councils
Shaheed Fazil Raho (Golarchi) 8 Union Councils
Talhar 4 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Badin Administrative Divisions

Historical/ Heritage Sites

There is one archaeological site protected under the government of Pakistan Laws, referred to as the Ruins of Old City at Badin.

In addition, there are a number of shrines which have historical/ heritage values, but none of these are protected. These shrines of the saints including that of the famous Ahmed Rajo, besides being reflective of the local culture, are also a great source of entertainment for people of the district. Some of these are[1]

  • Shrine of Saman Shah, a saint of the 20th century
  • Shrines of the 22 Pirs of Lowari Shareef, including that of the famous poet Khwaja Muhammad Zaman (who wrote in the Sindhi language), among others
  • Shrines of Raj Shaheen, Ghulam Shah, Ahmad Rajo, Sajan Sawai, Mah Wali, Shah Qadri, Miyoon Mooso, Shah Gariyo, Syed Tajuddin Shah alias Shah Turail, the Hussain Shah Sail, Sawall Fakir, as well as shrines of the known poets of Sindh, like Gul Ghaibee, Shah Dewano, Shaikh Kirhyo Bhandari, Sarwar Fakir, Khan Shah, Mehmood Fakir (the folk Sindhi poet), Shaheed Dodo Soomro (who laid down his life fighting against the invading forces of Alluddin Khilji) among others are located in Badin
  • Some other shrines include Dargah of Luari Sharif, Saman Sarkar, Ghulam Shah Qadri, Sawan Fakir, Shah Trial Ahmad Rajo, Roopa Mari, Wagah Kot, and Yousaf Fakir. The Annual Urs held at these shrines is considered to be a great event

[1] Environmental impact Assessment for Exploration activities in Protected Areas of Badin by Environmental Management Consultants

[1] Brahmanism is the religion that developed out of the historic Vedic religion in ancient India. The term is different from Brahminism, the latter is sometimes used to identify a ritualistic system led by the Brahmin priests in the Hindu society. (Encyclopedia Britannica)

[2] The Soomras Of Sindh: Their Origin, Main Characteristics And Rule–An Overview (General Survey) (1025 – 1351 AD) by Dr. Habibullah Siddiqui.

[3] Akbar Shah II was a Mughal Emperor who reigned from 1806-1837. He was the son of Shah Alam II and father of Bahadur Shah II

Topography

The district is part of the Lower Indus Plain which is, in turn, formed by the alluvial deposits of the Indus River. The land is highly uniform in character and is not diversified by hills or rivers. The general elevation of the district is about 50 m above sea level. The eastern part of the district is connected with the sand dunes of Tharparkar district. In the southern portion, there are several natural channels (called dhoras in the local language) and depressions (or dhands) which retain water throughout the year. It is believed that in the past, the Arabian Sea was closer to the southern border of this district.

Rivers, Streams, and LakesForestsSoilsClimateSeismic Activity

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

Badin district is part of the Sindh coastline, which comprises of Badin, Karachi, and Thatta districts. The Indus Delta adjoins the Badin and Golarchi Talukas; here, the delta has 2 main creeks: the Shah Samando and the Sir.

The Indus Delta forms the southern border of the district and comprises 17 major creeks. The delta adjoins the Badin and Golarchi (Shaheed Fazil Rahu) talukas in which it has 2 main creeks, namely the Shah Samando and the Sir.[1]

Badin district is an important component of the coastal ecosystem of Sindh. Various important wetlands (small lakes or dhands) are located in the district, and include Nurruri, Pateji, Shakoor Dhand, Dahee, Shaikh Kerio, Cholri, Mehro, Sanhro, Bakradi, Bakar, Mandhar and Narahi (wetlands and waterbodies) as well as Phoosna, Charvo, Khango, Jari, Jaffarali, Nira Dhand, Dhandka, Soomar and Soomro (lakes). The Nurruri Dhand is an important Ramsar wetland of the district.

Forests

Badin district is a forest deficient[2] area in Sindh. Total forest cover in the district is 347,000 HA[3]. There are no natural inland forests; however, there are 2 irrigated plantations known as Rari and Bokhari forests. The Bokhari—spreading over 6,879 HA along the border—is important from the defence point of view. The Rari forest covers 4,865 HA.

The 2 forests are mainly comprised of 6 tree species: babul (Acacia nilotica), sufaida (Eucalyptus camandulensis), lai (Tamarix dioca), mesquite or devi (Prosopis glandulosa) and 2 species of tamarisk. Other trees and bushes in the forests are ber (Zizyphus jujube), neem (Azadirachta indica), pipal (Ficus religiosa), tamarind (Tamarindus indica) and khabbar or peelu (Salvadora persica).

Mangroves

Traditionally, the population of the coastal districts of Sindh depended on the Mangroves for fuel wood and fodder as well as fishing, which has placed the Mangrove forests at risk over time. Organizations like the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), World Bank, Forest Department, and the National Mangrove Committee of Pakistan are working towards the reforestation of the Mangroves. The villagers have been taught to plant more Mangroves and to maintain these plantations. In 1985, more than 10,000 HA were planted around the Indus Delta. Other measures implemented to protect the delicate Mangrove ecosystem include a ban on fishing during specific seasons. Tree species of the Mangroves are teemur (Avicena Marina), kumri (Rhizophora mucronata), kiriri (Ceriops tagal), and chaunr (Aegiceras corniculatum).

Soils

The soils of the district mainly consist of loamy saline soils of the estuary plains and silty and clayey wet, saline soils.

Climate

The climate of the district is moderate. However, the summer months (April, May and June) are very hot, with temperature going up to 45 °C with a minimum average temperature of 25 °C. December and January are the coldest months, with maximum and minimum temperatures averaging 30 °C and 10 °C respectively. The temperature falls abruptly at night.

The climate is tempered by the sea breeze, which blows for 8 months, from March to October, making the hot weather tolerable. Rainfall is erratic, with an annual average of about 170 mm. The monsoon dominates the climate from July to September.

Seismic Activity

The district falls under Zone 2 A of the Pakistan Seismic Map[4] which means that there will be moderate to low damage by earthquakes.

[1] District Vision Badin by IUCN

[2] District Vision, Badin, by IUCN

[3] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18 (According to the Forestry Statistics of the aame document there are no forests in the District.

[4] Please consult map included in the chapter on Pakistan

Population

The following table shows the population figures for the district (2017 Census Data):

District/Tehsil Area

Km2

Population Male % Female % Urban % Growth Rate %
Badin District 6,726 1,804,000 51.7 48.3 21.6 2.6%
Badin Taluka 2,084 455,295 NA
Golarchi Taluka 1,765 334,697 NA
Matli 1,143 443,412 NA
Tando Bago 1,734 398,858 NA
Talhar Taluka Part of Matli Taluka in 1998 172,254

Table 1.3 Badin Population Statistics

Religion[1]

Muslims 79.4 %
Hindus 19.9 %
Christians 0.3 %
Ahmadis 0.2 %

Table 1.4 Badin Religions

Languages[2]

Sindhi 89.8%
Punjabi 5.6%
Urdu 1.2%
Pashto 0.7%
Saraiki 0.6%
Balochi 0.2%

Table 1.5 Badin Languages

[1] 1998 Census, 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The main economic activities[1] of the population of the district are

  • Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting (65.9%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (28.4%)
  • Activities not defined (11.3%)

AgricultureLand UseIrrigationLivestockMinerals and MiningIndustryHandicrafts

Agriculture

A part of the district belongs to the Indus Delta Agro-Ecological Zone and a part of it belongs to the Southern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone. Nearly 85% of the rural population of Badin district lives in rural areas, and agriculture and its allied livestock breeding is the population’s main occupation. Crops produced in the district include sugarcane, rice, cotton, wheat, sunflower, all pulses, bajra, maize, jowar, barley, gram, rape & mustard and soya bean.

The vegetables produced in the district are onions, chilies, tomatoes, ladyfinger, tinda, brinjal, bottle gourd, bitter gourd, pumpkin, luffa, cucumber, long melon, beans, lotus root, peas, turnip, carrots, spinach, tomatoes, cauliflower, cabbage, radish, fenugreek, ginger, turmeric, ajwain, and fennel.

The fruits produced in the district are melon, banana, dates, guava, jaamuns, mango, watermelon, musk melon, papaya, phalsa, citrus, ber, and mulberry.

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district[1]:

Total Area 612,000 HA Reported Area[2] 612,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 591,000 HA Net Sown 291,000 HA
Current Fallow 300,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 22,000 HA
Culturable Waste 18,000 HA Forest Area 12,000 HA

Table 1.6 Badin Land Use Statistics

[1] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[2] For definitions, please refer to chapter on Pakistan or Sindh province

Irrigation

The district is irrigated by Sukkur and Kotri Barrages. Canals from Kotri Barrage are the Guni, Phuleli, Akram Wah, and Nasir, while one of those irrigating the district from Sukkur Barrage is the Naseer canal. There are about 12,000 water courses in total[1]. The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area irrigated by the mode as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Total Irrigated Area 182,352 HA Un-Irrigated Area 107,993 HA
Canal Irrigated 181,689 HA Wells Irrigated 0 HA
Tube Well Irrigated Area 843 HA

Table 1.9 Badin Irrigation Statistics

Most of the groundwater contains high amounts of salinity and minerals, and hence is not potable. This salinity is mostly due to sea intrusion.

Figure 1.3 Dubi Canal Regulator Controlling Water in Guni Canal

[1] Badin District Development Vision by IUCN

Livestock

Livestock contributes roughly one-third to the total share of agricultural production. The following table shows the number of livestock in the district as per the 2006 Census of Livestock[2]:

Cattle 315,000 Heads Buffaloes 498,000 Heads Sheep 223,000 Heads
Goats 578,000 Heads Camels 9,000 Heads Asses 19,000 Heads
Horses 2,000 Heads Mules 1,000 Heads

Table 1.7 Badin Livestock Statistics

A world famous livestock farm, called Luari Sharif Cattle Farm, is located in Luari town of Badin district.

Indigenous breeds of livestock in the district are kankrej and Tharparkar cattle, chappar, kohistani or jabli goats, kachhan goats, Tharri goats, dhatti or mehari camels, kharai camels, and larri camels.

Poultry

Most farmers keep a few head of poultry for their eggs and meat. District Badin is known as the home of the poultry industry, and most of the poultry farms are located in the urban areas of the district. According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock), there are 342 poultry farms in the district.

Fishing

The district is considered to have some of the most productive freshwater fisheries in Sindh. Fisheries Statistics 2017-18 reveals that 5.6% of all inland fish of Sindh was caught and processed in Badin. There are 250[3] fish farms in Badin and Tando Bago Talukas. Fish farms are found in other talukas of the district also.

Badin is a coastal district and hence, relies on fisheries as a major economic activity. About 10% of the overall marine fish exports[4] of Pakistan are from Badin.

Badin operates many other freshwater fisheries by utilizing natural depressions and other water bodies such as the Dhoro Puran, surface drains, inland lakes, and tidal lakes as well as canals and distributaries.

Bee Keeping

IUCN and UNDP introduced apiculture in the coastal villages of Sindh, especially in Badin and Thatta. The aim is to protect the Mangroves of the district by introducing alternative sources of income and revenue during the periods in which income derived from utilizing the Mangrove forests is restricted. Apiculture has, thus, been introduced as an income generating activity mainly to provide an alternative source of income during the annual fishing ban, reducing the dependency of the villagers on the resources existing in the Mangroves.

Minerals and Mining

Badin has oil fields, and thus, oil production in the district accounts[5] for approximately 50% of total crude oil production of Pakistan. Badin district produces more than 30,000 barrels of crude oil per day. Other minerals mined in the district include coal (mainly from the Tarai coal field) and limestone. The Geological Survey of Pakistan discovered good quality coal deposits in the District.

Industry

There is one Industrial Estate[6] in Badin district. There are 5 large scale sugar industries, including the Bawany Sugar Mill, Army Sugar Mill, Fauji Khoski Sugar Mill, Mirza Sugar Mills, and Pangrio Sugar Mill. A Cement Pipe factory in the district is another large scale industry; all other industries are considered to be small scale and are mostly agro based.

There are a total of 79 rice sheller/ rice husking units in the district, as well as more than 100 flour mills. Brick kilns and charcoal kilns in the district provide major employment opportunities as well.

Handicrafts

The district offers unique handicrafts, including handmade carpets, ajraks[7], wooden tobacco pipes, knitted garments, and hand woven cloth.

Economic Infrastructure 

Road networks link Badin district with its taluka capital and is the most important mode of transport and communications. The district is also linked by rail and air to other part of Pakistan.

RoadsRail and AirwaysRadio and TelevisionTelecommunicationsPost Offices/ Courier ServicesBanking/ Financial InstitutionsElectricity and GasEducationHealthPolicing

Roads

As per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18, statistics for the total road network of Badin district are as follows:

Total Roads 1,525 km
Black Topped roads 1,525 km
Low Type Roads[1] 0 km

Table 1.8 Badin Road Statistics

Some of the important roads in Badin district are:

  • Naukot-Badin Road
  • Badin-Tando Bago-Jhudo road
  • Hyderabad-Badin Road
  • Hyderabad-Shaikh Bhiriki Road
  • Road from Badin to Ali Bunder via Lawari and Kadhan
  • Road from Badin to Khoski via Nindo Shahir
  • Road from Badin to Thatta via Golarchi and Sujawal
  • Road from Badin to Digri via Tando Bago
  • Road from Matli to Digri via Tando Ghulam Ali
  • Road from Badin to Hyderabad via Talhar
  • Road from Badin to Pangrio via Tando Bago
  • Road from Badin to Bhugra Memon via Seerani
  • Road from Kario Ganhwar to Ahmed Rajo via Golarchi
  • Road from Matli to Phulkara
  • Road from Tando Ghulam Ali to Tando Allah Yar via Chambar.

Rail and Airways

The district is served by a railway line which connects Badin with Hyderabad, passing through Matli. The railway station for the line is in Badin.

An airport called Badin Talhar Airport provides basic air service in the district.

Radio and Television

Badin has an FM radio station, and TV services are provided through cable.

Telecommunications

There are 7 telephone exchanges and 22 CE exchanges in the district. Nearly all the major cellular companies operate in the district, and Internet facilities are available in all talukas of the district[2].

Post Offices/ Courier Services

Badin district has only one selection grade post office at Badin, along with 14 sub post offices in the taluka capital and towns, and 40 branch post offices at larger rural settlements and union council headquarters[3].

Banking/ Financial Institutions

Most of the nationalized and private banks[4] of Pakistan have their branches in the district; these include:

  • Al Baraka Bank
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank Ltd.
  • Sindh Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • National Investment Bank Ltd.

In all there are 58 branches of conventional and 4 branches if Islamic banks in the District[5].

Electricity and Gas

Badin district gets its electricity through the grid stations and transmission lines provided by Hyderabad Electricity Supply Corporation, which is a subsidiary of WAPDA and is responsible for supplying electricity to the region. There are a total[6] of 5 grid stations, each with a capacity of 66 KV, in the district.

As a mostly rural district, almost all households in Badin rely on wood as the primary source of fuel for domestic uses like cooking. However, natural gas is available for cooking and other household use to about 22%[7] of the population.

Education

The total literacy rate of the district according to Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey (PSLM) 2014-15 is 37% with 57% urban and 31% (Newer data is not available) of the rural population being literate. The following table shows the number of educational institutions in the district as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Institution Boys/ Girls[9] Institution Boys/ Girls
Primary Schools 2,489/274 Middle Schools 83/18
High Schools 56/14 Higher Secondary Schools 1/-
Colleges 2/2 Technical Schools 4/-
Commercial 1/- Vocational 2/4
Mosque School[10] 90 Community Schools[11] 20/16
Private Schools[12] 65 Cantonment School[13] 01
Universities[14] 01

Table 1.10 Badin Educational Institutes

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Badin District as per Health Profile Sindh Districts 2016-17:

Institution No./ Beds Institution No./ Beds
Government Hospitals 05/190 Dispensaries 90/ –
Rural Health Centers 11/116 Basic Health Units 39/76
T B Clinics 11/ – Mother Child Health Centers 05/ –
Private Hospitals 05/84 Private TB Clinics -/-
Private Dispensaries 46/35 Private MCHC 03/ 08

Table 1.11 Badin Healthcare Institutes

In addition there are 2 Maternity homes, 1 Leprosy clinic and 1 Unani Shifa Khana in the District

Figure 1.4 Sardar M.B. Sheikh Women Hospital Badin District

Policing

The Regional Police Officer (RPO) Hyderabad looks after the law and order situation of Badin district. This RPO is assisted by one District Police Officer (DPO) Badin who, in turn, is assisted by 4 Senior Superintendent Police (SSP), with one each stationed at Chamber Badin, Shaheed Fazil Rahu, Matli, and Tando Bhago. In all, there are 23 police stations in the district.

Figure 1.5 The PSO Computer Training Institute, Badin

Figure 1.6 Railway Station Badin

Figure 1.7 A Village Scene Badin

Figure 1.8 Laar Museum, Badin

[1] There are no low type roads in the district

[2] Sindh Coastal Infrastructure Development by Prof. Dr. Shahab Mughal

[3] Sindh Coastal Infrastructure Development by Prof. Dr. Shahab Mughal

[4] List of Reporting Bank Branches by State Bank of Pakistan 2019

[5] List of Reporting Bank Branches by State Bank of Pakistan 2019.

[6] Environmental and Social Assessment HESCO, by Ēlan Partners (Pvt.) Ltd. (2006-07); latest data

[7] A Frame Work for Sustainable Development; District Vision Badin by IUCN

[8] Badin District Development Vision by IUCN

[9] Pakistan encourages a gender segregated education system, thus this heading shows the number of institutions labelled “Boys Only” and “Girls Only”

[10] First Five Year Education Plan (2005-09) by Badin Development & Research organization With technical Help from IUCN

[11] First Five Year Education Plan

[12] First Five Year Education Plan

[13] First Five Year Education Plan

[14] University of Sindh Campus called ‘Laar Campus’

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2]As quoted in Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[3] A Framework for Sustainable Development: District Vision Badin by IUCN

[4]A Framework for Sustainable Development: District Vision Badin by IUCN

[5] Economy of Badin; Local Government Department of Sindh; Archived from original in 2018; retrieved June 2020

[6] District Vision; Badin by IUCN Pakistan

[7] a special Sindhi block printed (by hand) fabric mostly used as a shawl

Environment and Biodiversity

Badin is an Agro-Industrial[1] district. In the district’s urban areas, low ambient air quality, contaminated water supply, unsafe disposal of municipal waste and solid waste, and unsafe disposal of infectious/ toxic hospital waste as well as congested houses have created severe environmental degradation. The rural area is badly affected by water logging and salinity, and non-availability of pure drinking water.

Traditionally, agriculture, livestock breeding, and fisheries were the livelihood resources of coastal communities. The alluvial soil of the deltaic region, coupled with the moderate climate, was ideal for growing a vast variety of traditional as well as high value crops such as vegetables, fruits, fodder, and oilseeds. Livestock was, traditionally, a part of rural and agricultural economies. People usually reared camels, sheep, cows, buffaloes, goats, and hens. However, this source of livelihood is consistently under threat due to environmental degradation.

Biodiversity of the district consists of Deltaic Mangroves which are a part of the Runn of Kutch, which consists of sand dunes with intervening plains, and brackish lakes. Presently, the coastal communities are the poorest communities in Pakistan and their livelihood resources are under constant threat of depletion, due to environmental degradation that threatens natural resources like fish. About 90% of the households in the coastal communities rely on fishing and other fisheries-related activities; however, biodiversity loss in coastal areas is severe. As reported in the “Indus Delta Vulnerability Study” conducted by Pakistan Fishermen Forum (PFF) in 2006 for United Nations Development Program, 220 species of crops, herbs, shrubs, grasses, trees, birds, mammals, reptiles, and insects have vanished in district Badin, again due to environmental degradation and sea intrusion.

Flora and FaunaProtected Wildlife Areas and Endangered WildlifePicnic Spots/ Recreational Areas

Flora and Fauna

Flora[2]

Some of the common flora of the district includes kandi or jhand (Prosopis cineraria), vann or peelu (Salvadora oleoides), miswak or toothbrush tree (Salvadora persica), aak (Calotropis procera), booh or snow bush (Aerva javanica), pigweed (Amaranthaceae), babul (Acacia nilotica), ber (Zizyphus numuaria), kandi or pipal (Ficus religiosa), tamarisk or peelu (Salvadora decidua) and devi or mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), khip or khimp (Leptadenia pyrotechnica), lai or jhao or Indian tamarisk (Tamarix indica), bulrush (Typha domingensis), ghorawal or neutral henna (Senna italica), gugul or mukul myrrh tree (Commiphora wightii), durva grass chabbar (Cynodon dactylon), kharsan (Heliotropium crispum), shrubby seablite or lani (Suaeda fruticosa), kikar (Prosopis juliflora), sohanjro or horse radish tree (Hyperanthera pterygosperma), wild copper tree (karib), neem (Melia azadirachta), acacia or siris (Acacia lebbek), banyan or bar (Ficus bengalensis), tamarind or imli, tamarisk or jhao.

Some aquatic plants found along the dhands are water thyme (Hydrilla verticillata), rushes (Juncus sp), white water lily (Nymphaea lotus), tall reed (Phragmites karka), mace or lesser Indian reed (Typha angustata), horned pondweed (Zannichellia palustris) and salt cedar (Tamarix dioica). The natural vegetation in surrounding areas consists of dry thorn forest and scrub with athel pine (Tamarix aphylla), gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal), babul (Acacia nilotica), karir (Capparis deciduas), jand (Prosopis cineraria), leafless milk hedge (Euphorbia caducifolia), gugul (Commiphora mukul), aak (Calotropis procera), shrubby seablite (Suaeda fruticosa) and salt wart (Salsola foetida).

Fauna

The mammals of the district include Asiatic jackal, red fox, Indian desert cat, black-naped hare, Indian crested porcupine, and small Indian mongoose. Hyenas, wolves, and pigs are now rare in the region.

The common avifauna of the district includes black drongo, blue rock pigeon, cattle egret, common babbler, jungle babbler, striated babbler, common moorhen, common and bank myna, crested lark, desert lark, desert warbler, great grey shrike, hoopoe, house crow, house sparrow, Indian roller, common egret, and pond heron. Resident birds of the area are black and grey partridges, Indian roller, common, pied and white-breasted kingfisher, pond heron and cattle egret, collard and little brown dove, white-cheeked and red-vented bulbul. During the winter, a large number of migratory birds/ water fowl visit the various dhands of the district, some of which include white-eyed pochard, gadwall, tufted duck, widgeon, northern shoveller, greater flamingo, common teal, large and small cormorants, greater white pelicans, painted stork, common shell duck, forest wagtail, marsh sandpiper, common kite, and herring gull.

Reptilian fauna of the district includes cobra, krait, saw-scale viper, rat snake, dhaman, eastern diadem snake, Pakistan ribbon snake, Indian sand swimmer, Indian fringe-toed sand lizard, desert monitor, Indian spiny-tailed lizard, common garden lizard, Sindh sand gecko, and Indian shelled turtle.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Wildlife

Jabho Lagoon in Shaheed Fazil Rahu taluka and Nurri Lagoon in Golarchi taluka are brackish water lakes that have been declared Ramsar sites because they are important for wintering waterbirds, particularly the Greater and Lesser Flamingo, and the Dalmatian Pelican. Lesser Flamingo and Dalmatian Pelican are endangered species.

The Nurri Lagoon comprises of 4 interconnected shallow wetlands with very sparse vegetation. This lagoon is connected with Jabho, Pateji, and Cholri wetlands. All these wetlands are interconnected and ultimately drain into a tidal link.

Combined, these sites provide protection to the Greater and Lesser Flamingo, Houbara Bustard, Dalmatian Pelican, and other water fowl.

Picnic Spots/ Recreational Areas

Nurri Lagoon situated in Golarchi taluka of Badin district is a wetland of international importance and is listed as a Ramsar site. This wetland is a combination of brackish coastal and inland lagoons and mudflats. This wetland has consistently recorded very large concentrations of migratory water birds on a seasonal basis. The Nurri Lagoon is connected with the Jabho, Pateji, and Chobri wetlands. All these wetlands are interconnected and ultimately drain into a tidal link. Almost all of the land is privately owned, with the exception of 77 HA which fall under the jurisdiction of the Board of Revenue. This spot is ideal for recreation.

Ruins of Old City at Badin (Badin) is an archaeological site which is protected by the Federal Government under the Antiquities Law 1975 and has the potential to provide recreation to tourists.

[1] A Framework for Sustainable Development: District Vision Badin by IUCN

[2] Environmental Impact Assessment For Exploration Activities in Badin Concessions—Protected Areas by Environment Management Consultants, July 2012 Retrieved from http://www.uep.com.pk/media/downloads/eia_for_expl oration_activities_in_badin_concession_protected_area.pdf

[3] Environmental impact Assessment for Exploration activities in Protected Areas of Badin by Environmental Management Consultants