Sindh-Jamshoro

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Introduction

District Jamshoro is located between 67° 16Ꞌ 20” to 68° 27Ꞌ 37” East longitudes and 24° 58Ꞌ 14” to 26° 36Ꞌ 33″ North latitudes, near the Kirthar Range, which forms a part of the border between Sindh and Balochistan. This district shares its boundaries on the North with Dadu district, while on its East, River Indus separates it from Shaheed Benazirabad, Matiari, and Hyderabad districts. On the South of the district is Thatta district, on the Southwest is Karachi district and on its West, the Khirthar Range completes its boundary. Jamshoro district has long been considered the gateway to the Indus Valley, world famous for its ancient civilization and rich cultural heritage.

District at a Glance

Name of District Jamshoro District
District Capital Jamshoro City
Population[1] 993,000 persons
Area[2] 11,204 km2
Population Density[3] 88.6 persons per/ km2 (Projected Density: 75 persons/ km2)
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.9% (2.85 rounded to 2.9)
Male Population[5] 52.7%
Female Population[6] 47.3%
Urban Population[7] 43.7%
Tehsils/ Talukas 4 Talukas:

1.    Manjhand Taluka

2.    Kotri Taluka

3.    Sehwan Taluka

4.    Thano Bula Khan Taluka

Main Towns Kotri, Sehwan, Thano Bula Khan, Sann, Manjhand, Petaro Town, Sari, Mol, and Thano Ahmad Khan
Literacy Rate[8] 62%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 66%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 57%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting 57%
Community, Social & Personal Services 30.1%
Activities not Defined 15.3%
Main Crops Wheat, jowar, maize, gram, barley, rapeseed & mustard, sugarcane, cotton, tobacco, and sesanum
Major Fruits Banana, dates, guava, mango, watermelon, musk melon, phalsa, citrus, ber, pomegranate, and mulberry
Major Vegetables Okra, tinda, brinjal, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pumpkin, luffa, cucumber, long melon, beans, field vetch, lotus roots, chilies, turmeric, spearmint, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, spinach, turnip, beetroot, carrots, cauliflower, cabbage, sweet potatoes, peas, radish, garden peas, and fenugreek
Forests (Area)[12] 1,000 HA , 11,445 HA as per Forestry Statistics of the same volume
Provincial Highways[13] Included in Dadu District
Access Roads[14] Included in Dadu District
Secondary Roads[15] Included in Dadu District
Black Topped Roads[16] 598 km
No. of Grid Stations[17] 5 grid stations. Capacity: 132 KV each
No. of Tel. Exchanges Data not available
Industrial Zones 2 Industrial Estates:

·        Nooriabad Industrial Estate: This is the largest industrial estate in Sindh in terms of area (5,342 acres in Phase I and 2,000 acres in Phase II)

·        Kotri Industrial Estate

Major Industry Textile, paper board and cement, thermal power plants, pharmaceuticals, light engineering, cotton textiles, food and beverage, flour mills, rice husking mills, and sugar
Household Size[18] 5.4 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[19] 20.4%
Houses with Electricity[20] 70.8%

Table 1.1 Jamshoro District at a Glance

[1] Dadu District 1998 Census Report (Jamshoro Tehsil)

[2] 2017 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2013-14 (PSLM), latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; same as Dadu district; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[12] Sindh Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Road List issued by GoS 2009 (Latest available)

[14] Road List 2009

[15] Road List 2009

[16] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[17] Environment and Social Assessment HESCO By Elan Partners Ltd. 2007

[18] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[19] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Datahas not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernment StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites/ Picnic Spots/ Recreational Areas

Brief History

Jamshoro is one of the few newly created districts in Sindh. It was formed by dividing Dadu district into 2 smaller districts: Dadu district and Jamshoro district. This administrative restructuring was first announced on 13th December 2004 and notified by the Board of Revenue on 14th December 2004, effectively making the restructuring of the districts final.

 

Since the district was formerly a part of Dadu district, it shares its history with Dadu. It is important to note that both Sehwan and Kotri talukas, now a part of Jamshoro district, are ancient areas of the district, and have played a unique role in the history of the region. A brief account of that history follows.

Sehwan Taluka

Sehwan is part of the ancient areas of the Indus Valley Civilization. Its history dates back to the second most ancient belt, pre-dated only by Mohen-jo-Daro. The ancient text Mahabharata records that the Brahmins lived in this area and that they founded many towns on the banks of the River Indus including Sehwan. Sehwan’s original name is not known, but it is generally accepted that at the time of the invasion of Sindh by Alexander the Great (325 BC), Sehwan occupied a central place in the region and was referred to as Sivistan. Alexander camped in the town on his return march to Greece; in memory of his victory in India, he built a fort in the town, the ruins of which still exist in the North of the present town.

The area remained under Greek rule until Chandragupta Maurya conquered it in 305 BC. Mauryan rule in the area was followed by the Greco-Bactrian Empire, which was then followed by the Scythian Empire, which took over the region in the late 100 s BC. By the 1st century AD, Sindh had become a part of the Kushan Empire (Persian Empire), and in the 2nd century AD, the Sassanid Empire of Persia took over the Kushan Empire in the region. The Kidarites took over from the Kushans in the 3rd century, followed by the Gupta Empire. The Guptas were overthrown by the Huns, who were then followed by the Rai Dynasty in 478 AD. The Rai Dynasty was overthrown by the Chachhars of Alor around 632 AD, which was then followed by the Arab conquest of the region, led by Muhammad bin Qasim. At the time of the Arab conquest, Raja Dahir, the Son of Raja Chachh of Sindh, was the ruler of the area. Sehwan or Sivistan was the seat of the governors during the Arab rule of the region (711-857 AD), and was also a part of the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 AD) briefly. Sehwan was seized by the Sammas (1351-1524 AD), who were later overthrown by Shah Beg Arghun (1520-1554 AD). The Mughal Emperor, Humayun, tried to overthrow the Arghuns in the region but failed, but it was ultimately conquered by the Mughals, and remained a part of the Mughal Kingdom (1526-1857 AD), but the Talpurs gained control of the region, and maintained their hold on it till their defeat by the British army at Miani.

Kotri Taluka

Kotri Taluka is situated on the right bank of the River Indus and was originally the jagir (district) of Malik Sardar Khan, chief of the numria or “nine men clan”. It was connected to Guddu Bander, a town on the opposite bank of the river with the help of steam ferries called the Indus Flotilla which used to ply between Kotri and Guddu Bander. In the early part of the 20th century, a steel bridge was constructed, spanning the two banks of the Indus, making the ferries redundant. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India

The Indus Steam Flotilla formerly had its headquarters at Kotri with a large floating dock for the repair of its steamers. Since the connection of the railway in the Indus Valley with the general railway system of India; [sic] the flotilla has been abolished and its fleet of steamers sold, but there is still a considerable boat service. (v.16, p.5)

The River Indus was also an important artery of communication between Karachi and Jhirk (a town in district Thatta).

Figure 1.3 Kotri Railway Bridge, 1972

Government Structure

At the Federal level, Jamshoro district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 3

The district has 2 Municipal Committees:

  • Kotri
  • Bulhari

It has 6 Town Committees:

  • Jamshoro
  • Sann
  • Majhandh
  • Sehwan Shareef
  • Bhan Saeedabad
  • Thano Bula Khan

Administrative Divisions

The district is divided into 4 talukas as follows:

Kotri Taluka 10 Union Councils
Sehwan Taluka 08 Union Councils
Manjhand Taluka 05 Union Councils
Thano Bula Khan 05 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Jamshoro Administrative Divisions

Heritage Sites/ Picnic Spots/ Recreational Areas

Khirthar National Park is rich in cultural heritage. It is home to the enormous Ranikot Fort, as well as the 18th century Chowkandi style tombs at Taung and pre-historic archaeological remains at Koh Tarash. The Surjan, Sumbak, Eri, and Hothiano Game Reserves also provide sanctuary to the Sindh ibex and other mammals.

The following buildings are protected under Federal Government of Pakistan’s laws:

  • Rani Kot Fort is located in Kirthar National Park, and is also known as the great wall of Sindh. It is believed to be the world’s largestfort, with a circumference of approximately 26 km. Archaeologists believe it was built in the 17th century, but most Sindh archaeologists now agree that some of the present structure was reconstructed by Mir Karam Ali Khan Talpur and his brother Mir Murad Ali in 1812
  • Nasumjo Bhutti, Mahal Kohistan
  • Othamjo Buthi, Deh Karchat, Mahal Kohistan
  • Amri Mounds, near Amri Village, besides River Indus. Amriis the site of a Pre-Harappa fortified town which developed around 3600 to 3300 BC. The site is located South of Mohen-jo-Daro on the Hyderabad-Dadu Road about 110 km North of Hyderabad in  Situated near the foothills of Kirthar Mountains, Amri was an important early urban center in Lower Sindh. On the timeline, Amri is dated after Rehman Dheri[1]. The pottery discovered here has its own characteristics and is known as Amri Ware. Like other Pre-Harappa towns, no writings were found at this site. There is evidence of widespread fire at the town around 2500 BC, which is believed to be the cause of its decline
  • Tomb of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, Sehwan. Lal Shahbaz Qalandar was a Sufi philosopher-poet. The shrine around his tomb was built in 1356 and decorated with Sindhi kasha tiles, mirror-work and a gold-plated door donated by the lateShah of Iran, Reza Shah Pahlavi and installed by the late Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Lal Shahbaz Qalandar’s annual Urs celebrations are held on 18 Shaban (the 8th month of the Islamic lunar calendar). This is a 3-day celebration and is attended by large numbers of pilgrims
  • Sehwan Fort, Sehwan. It is the fort constructed by Alexander the Great when he stayed at Sehwan on his way back to Greece. Ruins of this fort are present to-date in the northern side of Sehwan
  • Seven Caves (Satt Ghariyoon), Sehwan (not protected)
  • Lakhomir-Ji Mari, Sehwan. This is an ancient route once used by Jogis and mystics
  • Damb Buthi, Sehwan, Pirari (spring), in Deh Narpirar, Sehwan
  • Kohtrass Buthi, Thano Bula Khan, Deh Karchat. It is located about 8 miles Southwest of the village Karchat on the road from Thana Bula Khan to Taung (un-surveyed)
  • Two Temples on the banks of hot and cold springs in the Kirthar Range, 5 km West of Laki Shah Sadar village, Sehwan
  • Bulo-ji-Buthi (mound of Bulo, not protected), near a village that used to be inhabited by the Moohani tribe. Bulo-ji-Buthi is the location of the grave of Bulo Khoso of Kalhora period and is a hill-type mound. The mound has a damaged kot (compound wall of stones) all around it
  • Another shrine constructed in the 17th century (around 1684) is dedicated to Jhoolay Lal, also known as Udero Lal, Amar Lal, or Lal Sain. He was a Hindu who converted to Islam and worked hard to terminate the Hindu Caste System. He was revered by both Muslims and Hindus
  • On the road from Hyderabad to Sehwan there are several springs, of which at least 3 are hot springs. The springs are called Surya and Chandra-kund (fountains of the sun and moon). The third spring is located on the West of River Indus, near Sehwan, said to have been tapped by Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, the first important Sufi saint in Sindh, regarded by Hindus as the reincarnation of Bhartihari, the saintly brother of King Vikramaditya, who is believed to have worshipped Shiva at the spot where Lal Shahbaz’s shrine stands today
  • Almanzar, Jamshoro, is a recreational area with a restaurant and boating facilities. One of the delicacies of Sindh—the Palla fish—is served here

Figure 1.5 Al Manzar, Jamshoro

 

Figure 1.6 Fort of Alexander the Great

Figure 1.7 Ranikot Fort

Figure 1.8 Tomb of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar

 

[1] Rehman Dheri is a pre-Harappan archaeological site near Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, dated 4000 BC

Topography

Originally, Jamshoro district was part of Dadu district. Topographically, Dadu district (and by extension, Jamshoro district) can be divided into 3 distinct parts:

  • Kohistan or hilly area
  • Barrage Zone
  • Lowlands or riverine area

Kohistan: The area comprises of Thano Bula Khan Taluka, Sehwan Taluka, and parts of Kotri Taluka. The Kohistan area consists of a range of limestone hills known as the Kirthar Range, which spreads out and approaches the Lakki hills. These hills rise near Sehwan and run along the western boundary of the district. The highest ridge of the range forms the boundary between Sindh and Balochistan. Thano Bula Khan is situated at the lower end of this range.

The Barrage Zone: This is the area between River Indus and the hilly areas or the Kohistan. It is situated in the East of the district and is a fertile area irrigated by the canals off-taking from Kotri Barrage.

Lowlands or riverine areas: Between the hills described above and the Indus, the area is a broad shallow, the middle line (from North to South) of which is considerably below the level of Indus on one side. On the other, the shallow forms the base of the foothills. Through this depression, the hill torrents and water of the barrage canals find their way to Manchar Lake.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The Indus is the only river in Jamshoro district, which is interspersed with a number of dhands[1] and dhoras[2]. Manchar—the biggest natural lake of Asia—is situated in both Jamshoro and Dadu districts. Other natural nais[3] of the district are Baran Nai (Kirthar mountains, Kirthar park area), Sann Nai (Sann), Naig Spring (Sehwan) and Sol Nai. Other smaller dhoras are Sann Dhora, Karo Wah, Dham, Sanri Nala, Koka, Karo Wah, Bhadar, and Gharo Ali Bahar Kacheri.

Forests

The total forest area in Jamshoro district is 1,000[4] HA. Major forests of the area are Manjhand Forest and Amri Reserved Forest. The major vegetation of these forests includes neem (Azadirachta indica), kikar (Acacia nilotica), aak (Calotropis procera), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), sufaida (Eucalyptus globules), devi or mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), and amaltas (Cassia fistula).

Soils

The soils of Jamshoro district are mainly rock outcrops, loamy, and very shallow steep mountain soils of mainly arid and semi-arid zones. Generally, the soils are fertile, consisting of calcareous silt loam and silty clays with weak structure and good porosity[5].

Climate

The climate of Jamshoro district can be broadly classified as arid, characterized by high temperatures, very low precipitation, and reduced humidity. In summer months, the northern part (Sehwan) is hotter than other parts of the district and normally cool in winter. The average temperature in the summer season is 32 °C (90 °F) and in the winter season, the temperature is 23 °C (73 °F). The area receives average rainfall of 125 mm annually.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2 A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means that there will be minor damage due to earthquakes[6].

[1] natural depressions

[2] small streams

[3] hill torrents

[4] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[5] Porosity or pore space is the amount of air space or void space between soil particles

[6] see map included in the chapter on Pakistan

Population

The following table shows the population of the district as included in the 2017 Census:

District/Taluka Area

Km2

Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Jamshoro District 11,204 993,142 52.6 47.4 43.7 2.85[1]
Kotri Taluka 1,845 437,561
Sehwan Taluka 2,830 269,291
Thano Bula Khan 4,799 145,450
Manjhand Taluka[2] 1,630 140,840

Table 1.3 Jamshoro Population Statistics

Religions[3]

Muslims 97.5%
Christians 0.4%
Hindus 2.%
Ahmadis 0.1%
Scheduled Castes 0.02%

Table 1.4 Jamshoro Religions

Languages[4]

Urdu 3.4%
Punjabi 2.7%
Sindhi 89%
Pushto 2.1%
Balochi 1.3%
Seraiki 0.5%
Others 0.5%

Table 1.5 Jamshoro Languages

[1] Same as Dadu district

[2] Created from Kotri Taluka

[3] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[4] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The major economic activities of the district[1] are:

  • Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting (57%)
  • Community, Social & personal Services (30.1%)
  • Activities not Defined (15.3%)

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Southern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan and is irrigated by the Indus Basin Irrigation System. The Kohistan area (part of Thano Bula Khan Taluka) is a barani[2] area and agriculture in the area depends upon rainfall and spate irrigation.

The main crops of the district are wheat, jowar, maize, gram, barley, rapeseed & mustard, sugarcane, cotton, tobacco, and sesanum.

Banana, dates, guava, mango, watermelon, musk melon, phalsa, citrus, ber, and mulberry are the main fruits of the district.

Okra, tinda, brinjal, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pumpkin, luffa, cucumber, long melon, beans, field vetch, lotus roots, chilies, turmeric, spearmint, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, spinach, turnip, beetroot, carrots, cauliflower, cabbage, sweet potatoes, peas, radish, garden peas, and fenugreek are the main vegetables produced in Jamshoro district.

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of Jamshoro district as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Land Use Area Land Use Area
Geographical Area 1,235,000 HA Reported Area 1,235,000 HA
Cultivated Area 98,000 HA Current Fallows 30,000 HA
Uncultivated Area 1,136,000 HA Forest Area 1,000 HA
Culturable Waste 139,000 HA

Table 1.6 Jamshoro Land Use Statistics

Livestock

The following table shows the livestock population in Jamshoro district as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Cattle 164,000 Heads Buffaloes 119,000 Heads Sheep 172,000 Heads
Goats 414,000 Heads Camels 4,000 Heads Asses 29,000 Heads
Horses 1,000 Heads Mules – Heads

Table 1.7 Jamshoro Livestock Statistics

Cross breed cattle, red Sindhi cow, kooka sheep, barbary goat, and some breeds of thorough bred horses are indigenous breeds of Dadu district.

Irrigation

The district is irrigated by the Kotri Barrage irrigation system. The main canals irrigating the district are the Kalri Baghar Feeder, Danster Canal, and Dadu Canal. There are a total of 835 water courses[1] in the district.

Darawat Dam on Nai Baran River in Jamshoro is a small dam constructed for conservation of water, fisheries development, and to provide recreational facilities in the area.

The following table shows the modes of irrigation systems and area irrigated by each system as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Mode of Irrigation Area Mode of Irrigation Area
Total Irrigated Area 48,273 HA Canal Irrigated 40,006 HA
Well Irrigated 98 HA Tube Well Irrigated 8,169 HA
Un-Irrigated Area 20,470 HA

Table 1.9 Jamshoro Irrigation Statistics

[1] Environmental Assessment/ Environmental Management Plan for Sindh Irrigated Agriculture/ Productivity Enhancement Project (SIAPEP), by Country Survey & Mapping Services Inc. and Fincon Services Inc.

Poultry

Commercial poultry farming is mostly carried out in urban centers of the district, whereas keeping and breeding poultry is an important economic activity performed mainly by women in rural areas. There are 479 government owned poultry farms in Jamshoro[3].

Bee Keeping

Bee keeping is uncommon in Sindh. Honey is collected from wild bees. As a commercially viable activity, honeybee keeping was introduced in Pakistan in the 1980s, when IUCN and UNDP introduced apiculture to the coastal villages of Sindh, including those located in Jamshoro. Since then, honeybee keeping has been slowly and gradually growing as a cottage industry in nearly all parts of Pakistan, including Jamshoro.

Fishing

Fishing is an important economic activity of the rural population of Jamshoro. This is carried out in River Indus, various canals, water courses, dhands and dhoras/ rivers of the district.

Inland fishing in Manchar Lake is carried out at a large scale in the district, and is an important economic activity of the rural population, including the boat people of the Mahana tribe which populates Manchar Lake and whose main source of livelihood is fishing the 160 species of fish found in the lake.

Figure 1.4 Mohana People fishing in Manchar Lake

Mining

Mining of gas, oil, and other minerals is carried out in Jamshoro. Oil and gas are being mined at Sehwan and Thanu Bula Khan.

The Kirthar Range is a source of lime limestone, gravel, salt, sand, and marble. These mines are found in the talukas of Sehwan, Kotri, and Thano Bula Khan. Coal is being obtained from Lakhra Coal mines and is fulfilling national needs.

Industry

Pakistan’s largest Industrial Estate, the Nooriabad Industrial Estate is located in Jamshoro district. The Sindh Industrial & Trade Estate (SITE) Kotri is also located in the district. Together, these 2 estates house nearly 232 industries[4]. The details of type and number of operating units are not available. Of these, 78 are working and 154 are closed because of different reasons. The industries that are operating currently include rice husking mills, flour mills, sugar mills, and cement factories, among others.

Jamshoro district houses 2 major thermal power plants which are being maintained and run by the Jamshoro Power Company. These are the Jamshoro Steam Power Plant and Kotri Gas Turbine Plant. The combined generation capacity of both the power plants is 1,054 MW.

Two multinational companies, Novarts and Clarent, are producing pharmaceutical products.

Handicrafts

Handicrafts include the manufacturing of glass bangles, glazed tiles, lacquered wood furniture, leather goods, hand loom cloth, soosi, block printed ajrak, embroidery on clothes, Sindhi caps, and quilted bed spreads (ralli).

 

Economic Infrastructure

The district is traversed by a strong network of all-weather roads. The Super Highway (M-9) passes through Kotri Taluka. The National Highway N-5 also passes through the district. The Indus highway N-55 starts from Kotri Taluka and goes up to Peshwar-Torkham.

Roads

Data for roads in Jamshoro district are included in the data for Dadu district in the Road List 2009, issued by the Government of Sindh (latest available). This is being reproduced here for easy reference:

Provincial Highways 123.65 km
Secondary Roads 942.66 km
Access Roads 805.35 km

Table 1.8 Jamshoro Road Statistics

According to the Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18, there are 598 km of high type roads in the district.

Some of the important roads of the district are:

  • National Highway N-55
  • National Highway N-5
  • Super Highway/ Motorway M-9

The district capital of Jamshoro is linked with its taluka capitals of Thano Bula Khan, Manjhand, and Sehwan through black topped roads.

Railways and Airports

Jamshoro district is a railroad junction and has a number of small, medium sized, and large railway stations. Kotri Railway Junction is an important railway station from where trains travel in various directions to different parts of the country. There are 13 small railway stations in the district.

The district does not have an airport and Hyderabad airport is the nearest airport.

Radio and Television

There is an FM radio station in Nooriabad. Even though there is no TV station in the district, PTV transmissions can be viewed through boosters and Cable TV can also be viewed.

Telecommunications

The Information Technology department is advanced in Jamshoro district; even though no detailed data is available, it is known that internet facilities are available in most of the urban localities and most of the cellular phone companies of Pakistan provide their services in the district. PTCL has laid fibre optics lines for communication purposes. PTCL also provides broadband internet service in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

Jamshoro district is served from the General Post Office at Dadu city and Hyderabad city. All the courier services of Pakistan provide their services in the district.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

Since Jamshoro is mostly an urban district, most of the national banks have their branches in the district. Following are some of the banks operating in Jamshoro[1]:

  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Al-Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank
  • Sindh Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 42 branches of conventional and 2 branches of Islamic Banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Natural gas is available for domestic use in the urban areas. HESCO (Hyderabad Electric Supply Co.) is responsible for distributing and transmitting electricity in the district. A network of 21 grid stations supplies electricity for domestic and commercial users. Electricity is also being provided through solar energy in nearly 10 small villages. In these villages, solar energy is being used for heating water also.

Jamshoro district is home to 2 Thermal Power Houses, namely the Jamshoro Steam Power Plant and Kotri Gas Turbine Power Plant which are both owned and operated by Jamshoro Power Co. The electricity produced is added to the total production statistics of Pakistan’s electricity.

Education

The following table shows the number of public sector educational institutions in Jamshoro district[3]:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 547/69 Middle schools 25/06
High schools 35/12 Intermediate Colleges
Degree colleges 03/03 Medical College
Polytechnic 01/- Commercial Training Centers 01/-
Vocational Training 01/03 Universities[4] 03

Table 1.10 Jamshoro Educational Institutes

The Petaro Cadet College at Petaro is one of the oldest cadet colleges of Pakistan. The University Law College imparts education in Law. Indus Resource Center (an NGO working for improving education) has 10 schools in Jamshoro district, in addition to adult literacy centers. There are a large number[5] of private schools in the district.

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Jamshoro district as per Health Profile Sindh District 2017-18:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 08/473 Dispensaries 47/06
Rural Health Centers 05/100 Basic Health Units 20/40
T B Clinics 09/- Mother Child Health Centers 02/-
Private Hospitals -/- Private TB Clinics -/-
Private Dispensaries -/- Private MCHC -/-

Table 1.11 Jamshoro Health Institutes

In addition there 02 Leprosy clinics in the District

Policing

Hyderabad Regional Office is responsible for policing Jamshoro district. The Additional Inspector General Police (AIGP) is in charge of the Hyderabad Zone. The District Police Officer (DPO) Jamshoro is in charge of the district, and reports directly to the AIGP Hyderabad.

There are a total of 04 police stations in Jamshoro district. Each police station is headed by Deputy Police Officer or Senior Superintendent Police.

Figure 1.9 Inside View of Ranikot Fort

Figure 1.10 District HeadQuarters Complex, Jamshoro

Figure 1.11 Jamshoro Power Station

[1] List of Reporting Bank Branches by State Bank of Pakistan 2019.

[2] Environmental Assessment/ Environmental Management Plan for Sindh Irrigated Agriculture/ Productivity Enhancement Project (SIAPEP), by Country Survey & Mapping Services Inc. and Fincon Services Inc.

[3] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[4] Campuses of University of Sindh, Liaquat University of Health Sciences, Mehran University of Engineering & Technology

[5] No data available

[1] Same as Dadu District

[2] Barani Areas are dependent upon rainfall for agriculture

[3] Table 17 Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock

[4] Report on Trache Conditions D(i) on Utilization of Conditional Grants in Accordance with Agreed Eligibility Criteria, District Government Jamshoro

Environment and Biodiversity

The 2 power plants coupled with the industries at SITE Kotri and Nooriabad Industrial Estate have been discharging smoke into the air, and polluted waters into Kinjhar and Manchar Lakes. In addition, solid waste management, and supply of clean drinking water is an unresolved problem in the district.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The flora of the district includes neem (Azadirachta indica), kikar (Acacia nilotica), poi or kapok bush (Aerva javanica), kandero or camel thorn (Alhagi maurorum), aak (Calotropis procera), shisham or talhi (Dalbergia sissoo), sufaida (Eucalyptus globules), ashok (Polyalthea longifolia), khajoor or date (Phoenix dactylifera), karka or common reed (Phragmites), vilayati kikar (Parkinsonia aculeate), devi or honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), devi or mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), amaltas (Cassia fistula), conocarpus or white mangrove (Conocarpus lanceolatus), jhar or peelu/vann (Salvadora oleoides), jhar or miswak (Salvadora persica), lani (Suaeda fruticosa), lani or shrubby sea blite (Suaeda monaica), phalsa (Grewia asiatica), blackberry (Syzgium cumini), royal palm (Oredora regia), fan palm (Livistona chinensis), sukh chain (Pongomia glabra), sesbania (Sesbania), and nest berry (Achras sapota).

Flora of Manchar Lake

The dominant vegetation in the surrounding areas of Manchar Lake consists of common reed or karka (Phragmites), emergent reed (Tyohaangustata), bulrush/ deer grass (Scripus jittoralis), sea blite (Suaeda maritima), salt cedar (Tamarix), fairyland bamboo (Aurea), indigo (Indigofera) and peelu (Salvadora spp.), along with trees like ber (zizyphus spp.), kandi or pipal (Ficus religiosa) and kaner (Nerium indicum). Floating Water lilies (Nymphaeaceae) cover the water’s surface at the lake.

The forests surrounding the lake comprise of acacia, poplar, shisham, and eucalyptus.

Fauna

Mammals (mostly found in the forests of Manchar Lake) in the district include striped palm squirrel, Asiatic jackal, house mouse, roof rat, wild boar, desert hedgehog, small Indian mongoose, Indian grey mongoose, red fox, jungle cat, Indian porcupine, desert hare, Indian gerbil, Balochistan gerbil, and Indian desert jird.

Birds found in the district are common myna, little cormorant, house crow, house sparrow, blue rock pigeon, common swallow, house martin, red wattle lapwing, red vented bulbul, white cheeked bulbul, pond heron, little egret, pied kingfisher, long tailed bush warbler, Indian river tern, rosy starling, green bee-eater, common crow, Indian myna, common kite, common sandpiper, white-breasted kingfisher, ring dove, jungle babbler, little brown dove, bank myna, great bittern, black drongo, Indian roller, pied bush chat, and sand martin.

Migrant birds at Manchar Lake include gadwall, little grebe, common teal, mallard, northern shoveler, red crested pochard, common pochard, tufted duck, and common coot.

Reptilian fauna of the district include house gecko, blue tail sand lizard, common tree lizard, blotched house gecko, plain racer, Indian sand boa, saw-scaled viper, and Indian cobra.

Protected Areas and Wildlife

Following is a list of the protected areas and endangered wildlife of the district:

  • Part of Kirthar National Park (the largest national park of Pakistan) is located in the district. Kirthar is an important habitat for a variety of mammals, birds, and reptiles. An estimated 276 species of fauna have been recorded in the park. Among the endangered fauna being protected in the park are the Sindh ibex, urial, chinkara, wolf, striped hyena, and caracal cat. Some of the reptiles found in the park are the rock python, Sind cobra, Russell’s viper, saw-scaled viper, Sind krait, royal rat snake, tortoises, monitor lizards, Sindh crocodile (possibly extinct) and different species of lizards
  • Mahal Kohistan Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in the South of Kirthar National Park in Thano Bula Khan tehsil, Jamshoro. Protected wildlife includes common fox, jackal, jungle cat, chinkara gazelle, urial, monitor lizard, and Indian cobra
  • Surjan, Sumbak, Eri and Hothiana Game Reserves located in Thano Ahmad Khan/ Thano Bula Khan are also protected areas.

There are 2 non-protected wildlife areas called Hillalo and Pachran. Here, ibex and urial are found but only licensed hunting of these mammals is allowed.