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Kashmore-Kandhkot District Profile

Introduction/Geographical Location; Kashmore-Kandhkot

The district is situated between 27° 50Ꞌ to 28° 25Ꞌ North latitudes and 68° 30Ꞌ to 69° 34Ꞌ East longitudes. It is bounded on the East by district Rajanpur (Punjab), on the West by districts Jacobabad and Shikarpur, on the North by district Dera Bugti (Balochistan) and on the South by districts Ghotki and Sukkur. The average elevation of Kashmore-Kandhkot[1], Pakistan, is 69 meters above mean sea level. The Indus River runs through its eastern side. The western side of the district has a forest (Katcha) that supports wild animals. The Thar Desert lies along the eastern side of the district, which is home to wild desert animals.

Kashmore District at a Glance

Name of District Kashmore-Kandhkot
District Capital Kandhkot
Population[2] 1,089,000 persons
Area[3] 2,580 km2
Population Density[4] 422 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[5] 2.5%
Male Population[6] 51.9%
Female Population[7] 48.1%
Urban Population[8] 23.3%

3 Tehsils:

1.    Kandhkot Tehsil

2.    Tangwani Tehsil

3.    Kashmore Tehsil

Main Towns Kandhkot, Kashmore, Bahkshapur, Dari, Ghauspur, Tangwani, Ghulam Muhammad Jakkhrani, and Kumb
Literacy Rate[9] 33%
Male Literacy Rate[10] 47%
Female Literacy Rate[11] 17%
Major Economic Activity[12] Agriculture, Livestock breeding, Fishing & Hunting 54%
Elementary Occupations 32%
Service Workers & Shop & Market sales workers 6%
Others 8%
Main Crops[13] Cotton, rice, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, wheat, barley, gram, rape & mustard, masoor, pulses, and sunflower
Major Fruits[14] Mango, watermelon, and muskmelon.
Major Vegetables[15] Peas, onions, lady finger, tinda, bitter gourd, tomatoes, garlic, coriander, and ajwain
Forests (Area)[16]  11,708 HA
Total Black Topped Roads[17] 480[18] km
Shingle Roads[19] – km
No. of Grid Stations[20] 3 grid stations, each with capacity of 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges Not available
Industrial Zones One Industrial Estate at Kandhkot.
Major Industry A thermal power station called Guddu Thermal Power Station, rice mills, flour mills, and cotton ginning
Household Size[21] 7-8 persons per household
Houses with Piped Water Inside[22] 16.8%
Houses with Electricity[23] 64.5%

Table 1.1 Kashmore-Kandhkot District at a Glance

[1] In most recent Government records (2012 and beyond) this district’s name is recorded as Kashmore@Kandhkot, while most UN documents refer to the district as Kashmore-Kandhkot. For ease of reference, this chapter uses the hyphen rather than the “at” symbol for the district’s name.

[2] 2017 Census

[3] 1998 Census; Areas of Kandhkot and Kashmore talukas

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] 2017 Census

[9] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2013-14 (PSLM); latest available

[10] PSLM

[11] PSLM

[12] Jacobabad District Census Report 1998 (Kashmore Tehsil); 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[13] Agriculture Statistics of Sindh.

[14] Agriculture Statistics of Sindh.

[15] Agriculture Statistics of Sindh.

[16] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18; Forestry Statistics

[17] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[18] in the Road List 2009 by GoS Kashmore-Kandhkot District is included in the Jacobabad district

[19] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[20] Environment and Social Assessment HESCO By Elan Partners Ltd. 2007; Latest available

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites/ Picnic Spots/ Recreational Areas

Brief History; Kashmore-Kandhkot

Since the area now belonging to Kashmore-Kandhkot district was part of Jacobabad district, its early history is the same as that of Jacobabad, and has been recounted in the chapter on Jacobabad. The area has been ruled by the Aryans, Alexander the Great, and Buddhists.

The region came under the rule of Muslims when Mohammad bin Qasim, after conquering Sehwan and Brahmanabad (now Mansura, Shahdadpur) took possession of Alore (modern Rohri in Sukkur district). In 1026 AD, Mehmood Ghaznavi conquered Sindh and drove the Arabs out. The Soomras, a Rajput clan, took over the rule of Sindh by the middle of the 11th century. The Soomra Empire extended from Bhakkar (Punjab) to the sea, and thus, included the Kashmore-Kandhkot district. The Sammas unseated the Soomras and took possession of Sehwan, but were defeated by Shah Beg Arghun in 1522 A.D. The Arghuns were defeated by the Sikh Tarkhans, who then ruled this part of India, from 1554 to 1591. Around 1592, the Moghul King Akbar’s army, under the leadership of Khankhana Abdul Raheem, was sent to conquer Sindh. At Sehwan, the Sindhi army, under the leadership of Jaani Beg, was defeated, and Sindh was brought under the control of the Moghuls. Thus, this part of Sindh became a part of the Delhi Empire and Sindh remained completely loyal to the Mughals. In 1701, the Nawab Kalhora was authorized in a firman[1] by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb to administer the province of Sindh. Thus, the Kalhoras ruled Sindh, but their rule was turbulent and fraught with disputes with the Marathas, who collected tribute from them until, in 1762, Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro brought stability to Sindh. In the year 1783, Akbar Shah II issued a firman which designated Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur Baloch as the new Nawab of Sindh, and mediated peace, particularly after the ferocious Battle of Halani and the defeat of the ruling Kalhora by the Talpur Baloch tribes.

The Talpur dynasty ruled Sindh from 1783 to 1843, when it was overthrown by the British East India Company’s army which was led by General Charles James Napier.

In 1841 AD a treaty was signed between the Talpur rulers of Sindh and The East India Company. John Jacob was sent to Khangarh, in accordance with the treaty. John Jacob established a cantonment within the narrow belt belonging to the Talpur Mirs. He also fought with any warring tribes in the region, thus establishing peace. This peace was followed by reclamations of the land by the British, and infrastructural development. Land growers and farmers who had left due to the region’s instability, returned to cultivate their lands. Businessmen and artisans also followed them. When security was assured, bazaars started flourishing and the area, where there had been a desert before, became a trade center. The grain market and cattle markets also started functioning in the newly established town. During British Rule, thus, the region saw prosperity as part of the Upper Sindh Frontier District of the Bombay Presidency.

The local landlords did not always accept the British Rule, however. In 1857, Dil Murad Khoso (a Baloch warrior and chief of his tribe) and Sardar Darya Khan Jakhrani (Sardar of another Baloch tribe) revolted against the British but before the mutiny could begin, information against them was leaked to the British and the Sardars were arrested and punished.

After Partition, Kashmore-Kandhkot remained a part of Jacobabad district, until December 13, 2005, when it was separated from Jacobabad for administrative reasons. There was some controversy over the name of the district, with Kashmore being favored initially, but after protests from residents of Kandhkot, it was renamed Kashmore-Kandhkot district. The capital of the district is Kandhkot city. Kandhkot was named after the Indus River Bank as it is situated on the left bank of the river.

Kashmore is located at a tri-junction point connecting three provinces and is, thus, the gateway to Punjab and Balochistan provinces, making it unique as a district.

In 2005, the district consisted of 2 talukas, namely Kandhkot and Kashmore. When Tangwani was given the status of taluka, the number of talukas of district Kashmore-Kandhkot increased from 2 to 3.

[1] Grant, permit, or sovereign’s edict

Governmental Structure; Kashmore-Kandhkot

At the Federal level, Kashmore-Kandhkot district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 02
  • Number of seats in Sindh Assembly 03

The district has 1 Municipal Committee (Kandhkot) and has 6 Town Committees:

  • Kandhkot
  • Guddu
  • Buxapur
  • Ghauspur
  • Tangwani
  • Karmpur

Administrative Divisions; Kasmore-Kandhkot

There are 3 Talukas of Kashmore-Kandhkot district as follows:

Kashmore Taluka 15 Union Councils
Tangwani Taluka 11 Union Councils
Kandhkot Taluka 11 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Kashmore-Kandhkot Administrative Divisions

Heritage Sites/ Picnic Spots/ Recreational Areas; Kashmore

Indus Dolphin Reserve and the Sindhi Dhoro provide good recreational areas for families in Kashmore-Kandhkot district. The Guddu Barrage area near Kashmore provides a nice spot for a day long outing.

Following are important cultural/ heritage buildings of Kashmore-Kandhkot district:

  • Hindu Temple called Baba Gharib Das Darbar in Kandhkot (it is not protected)
  • Sikh Gurdwara called Gurdwara Nanakwara Narankarian; Kandhkot districy
  • Historical Mosque, Ghauspur; Kashmore-Kandhkot district

Topography; Kashmore-Kandhkot district

Kashmore-Kandhkot district has a uniform and predominantly flat topography. The district is a fertile plain, gradually sloping downward from North to South to what is known as Siro (the upper or northern) portion of Sindh. Natural elevation of the district is about 77 to 76 meters above mean sea level (252.6 to 249.4 feet).

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes; Kashmore district

River Indus is the only perennial river of the district. Other, smaller, seasonal streams include Malir Shakh, Nala Sindh, and Kandhkot Shakh. Ghauspur Jheel, Sindhi Dhoro, and Dhi Dhand are seasonal lakes of the district.

Figure 1.3 A Seasonal Stream in Flood, Kandhkot

Forests; Kashmore district

Kashmore-Kandhkot district falls under the Tropical Thorn Forest Ecological Zone[1]. It has riverine forests along the River Indus banks. Some important forests are Gondak, Gihalpur, Gandher, New Gublo-I, New Gublo-II, Makhan, Daho, and Jhangar. Total forest area of the district is 11,707 HA.

The main species of riverine forests are babul (Acacia nilotica), kandi (Prosopis cineraria), athel pine or ghaz or khabal (Tamarix aphylla), lai or salt cedar (Tamarix dioca), bahan or populus (Populus euphratica), and mesquite (Prosopis juliflora).

Soils; Kashmore-Kandhkot district

The soils of Kashmore-Kandhkot district mainly consist of loamy, very shallow, high mountain soils, and rock outcrops.

Climate; Kashmore district

The thermal equator[2] passes through Upper Sindh, that is, both Kashmore and Jacobabad districts. This means that both these districts are very hot during the summer. Generally, the climate of Kashmore-Kandhkot district is arid subtropical with very hot summers and cool winters. In winters, frost is common. The minimum temperature in winter is about 2 °C, and the maximum in summer is about 49 °C. Average temperature during June (the hottest month) is 44 °C.

The annual rainfall is about 150-200 mm.

Seismic Activity/Seismicilty; Kashmore district

The district falls under Zone 2 A of Pakistan’s Seismic Zone Map[3] which means that there will be moderate to low damage by earthquakes.

[1] Study of Riverine Forests Upstream Sukkur and Downstream Kotri 2008 by KK Consultants for WWF Pakistan

[2] Thermal equator is belt defined by the set of highest temperatures.

[3] Please see the chapter on Pakistan

Population; Kashmore-Kandhkot District

The following table shows the population figures for the district according to the 2017 Census:

District/Taluka Area km2 Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Kashmore-Kandhkot 2,580 1,089,169 51.9 48.1 23.3 2.5
Kandhkot 1,277[1] 366,484
Kashmore 1,303 434,975
Tangwani[2] NA 287,710

Table 1.3 Kashmore-Kandhkot Population Statistics

Religions; Kandhkot district[3]

Muslims 95.9%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus 3.8%
Ahmadis 0.1%
Scheduled Castes 0.2%
Others 0.02%

Table 1.4 Kashmore-Kandhkot Religions

Languages; Kashmore district[4]

Urdu 0.4%
Sindhi 94.4%
Punjabi 0.8%
Pushto 0.6%
Balochi 3.0%
Others 0.8%

Table 1.5 Kashmore-Kandhkot Languages

[1] includes data for Tangwani Taluka also

[2] Tangwani Taluka has been created from Kandhkot Taluka

[3] 1998 Census, Figures for Jacobabad district; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[4] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity; Kashmore-Kandhkot District

The major economic occupations of the district are (same as Jacobabad district)[1]:

  • Agriculture, Livestock breeding, Fishing & Hunting (54%)
  • Elementary Occupations (32%)
  • Service Workers & Shop & Market sales workers (6%)
  • Others (8%)

Land Use; Kandhkot district

The following table shows the main land use statistics of Kashmore-Kandhkot district according to Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Land Use Area Land Use Area
Geographical Area 261,000 HA Reported Area 261,000 HA
Cultivated Area 117,000 HA Net Area Sown 82,000 HA
Current Fallows 35,000 HA Forest Area 16,000 HA
Un-cultivated Area 128,000 HA Culturable Waste 123,000 HA

Table 1.6 Kashmore-Kandhkot Land Use Statistics

Irrigation Network; Kashmore district

The district is irrigated by the Guddu Barrage irrigation system. The main canals irrigating the district are Begari, Unar, and Desert Pat Feeder Canals. In all, there are 2,259 water courses[1] in the district. Due to general water shortage in the country, Drip Irrigation[2] is being introduced in the district.

Total irrigated area and mode of irrigation is shown as follows[3]:

Mode of Irrigation Area Mode of Irrigation Area
Total Irrigated Area 34,433 HA Canal Irrigated 26,689 HA
Well Irrigated 9 HA Tube Well Irrigated 7,735 HA
Unirrigated Area 47,656 HA

Table 1.8 Kashmore-Kandhkot Irrigation Statistics

[1] Environment Impact Assessment Report, Sindh Irrigated Agriculture Productivity Enhancement Project, by M/s Country Survey & Mapping Inc. and FINCON Services Inc.

[2] Drip irrigation is a form of irrigation that saves water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters.

[3] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

Agriculture; Kashmore district

Agriculture is the mainstay of the district’s economy. It belongs to the Southern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Nearly 40% of the total population of the district is engaged in agriculture. Wheat, rice, Jowar, bajra, gram, barley, rapeseed and mustard, sugarcane, sunflower, safflower, and cotton are the crops of the district.

The vegetables produced in the district are peas, onions, lady finger (or okra), tinda, bitter gourd, tomatoes, garlic, coriander, and ajwain.

The fruits produced in the district are mango, watermelon, and muskmelon.

Livestock Breeding; Kashmore district

Livestock breeding contributes roughly one-third to the total share of agricultural production. The following table shows the livestock population of the district[2]:

Cattle 191,000 Heads Buffaloes 196,000 Heads
Sheep 138,000 Heads Goats 148,000 Heads
Camels 1,000 Heads Horses 2,000 Heads
Asses 32,000 Heads Mules 4,000 Heads

Table 1.7 Kashmore-Kandhkot Livestock Statistics

Bhagnari cow, kurri goat, and barbary goat are the indigenous breeds of the district.

Figure 1.4 Guddu Barrage

Poultry Farms; Kandhkot district

Most farmers keep a few head of poultry for their eggs and meat. There are 10 Government owned poultry farms in the district[3].

Fishing; Kashmore district

Kashmore city is situated on the right bank of River Indus. Thus, fishing is a major economic activity of the district. Large numbers of fish are caught from floodplain pools left as the flood waters recede. Fishing activity is also carried out in the Ghauspur Jheel and Sindhi Dhoro Lake in Kandhkot.

Bee Keeping/Api Culture; Kandhkot district

Honeybee keeping was introduced in Pakistan in the 1980s when IUCN and UNDP introduced apiculture in the coastal villages of Sindh. Since then, honeybee keeping has been slowly and gradually growing as a cottage industry in nearly all parts of Pakistan, including Kashmore-Kandhkot.

Minerals and Mining; Kashmore district

Natural gas was discovered in Kandhkot in 1959. Outside Sui, this is the largest gas field in Pakistan. Besides this, no other data is available on minerals and mining in Kashmore-Kandhkot district.

Industry and Manufacturing; Kandhkot district

Kashmore has always been a hub of trade for its agricultural products.

There is an industrial estate in Kashmore-Kandhkot district and a small industry estate established by the Sindh Small Industries Corporation. Major industries of the district include the Guddu Thermal Power Station, rice mills, flour mills, and cotton ginning. The grain market (anaj mandi) at Kandhkot is said to be the largest in Asia. According to A Brief Profile of District Kashmore-Kandhkot by Research Development and Cultural Organization (RDCO), Kandhkot, District Kashmore, there are nearly 100 rice mills and 1 flour mill in the district.

Handicrafts; Kandhkot district

Major handicrafts of the district are textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, carpets, and rugs. Lacquered work of Kandhkot is renowned internationally. Jandi work on wood is the local handicraft of Kashmore-Kandhkot district. Ropes and baskets made out of kana or sarkanda (Saccharum Munja) grass are also common.


Economic Infrastructure; Kashmore-Kandhkot district

The district shares its borders with Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan and thus, is a hub of trade for its agricultural produce. The Anaj Mandi or grain market of Kandhkot is the largest of its kind in Asia. It is well connected via black topped roads to all parts of Pakistan, and Kandhkot is well connected to other tehsils via black topped roads.

Road Statistics; Kashmore district

National Highway N-65 passes through the district. Kandhkot is connected to the city of Jacobabad (on Highway N-65) via Mirpur and Thal and to Humayun town also on Highway N-65. Kashmore is a road junction to go to the Balochistan town of Sui. It is also connected by a road over Guddu Barrage to Highway N-5 at a town called Umar Kot (near Ubauro). The same road, after crossing Guddu Barrage, branches off to Punjab’s city of Sadiqabad.

The total road length in the district is 480 km, as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18 (Road List 2009; includes the data for Kashmore-Kandhkot district in Jacobabad district).

Following are important main roads of the district:

  • National Highway N-55 passes through Kandhkot
  • Kandhkot-Sukkur
  • Kandhkot-Jacobabad
  • Kandhkot-Ubauro via Guddu
  • Kandhkot-Dera Ghazi Khan
  • Kandhkot-Sui via Kashmore

Rail and Airways; Kandhkot district

The district is linked with Karachi and Peshawar through Pakistan Railways’ main line going from Karachi to Peshawar/ Torkham. The main railway station is at Kandhkot. Other smaller railway stations include Zorgarh Railway Station and Mir Dost Ali Railway Station.

There is no airport in Kashmore-Kandhkot district. The nearest airport is at Sui in Balochistan.

Radio and Television; Kashmore district

There is no radio or TV station in Kashmore-Kandhkot district, but TV can be viewed through cable and satellite.

Telecommunications; Kashmore district

Internet is available in all talukas of the district. Telephone connections are also available. Nearly all the major cellular companies operate in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services; Kandhkot district

There are 6 Government owned general post offices[1] in the district. These post offices offer all kinds of services including Saving Accounts, Urgent and Ordinary Mail Services.

Banking/ Financial Institutions; Kashmore district

Most of the nationalized banks of Pakistan and some private banks have their branches in all talukas of the district. Following banks operate[2] in the district:

  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Falah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd. (UBL)
  • National Bank of Pakistan (NBP)
  • KASK Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd. (HBL)
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Sindh Bank Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd. (ZTBL)

In all there are 42 branches of conventional banks and 1 branch of Islamic bank in the District.

Electricity and Gas; Kandhkot district

Kashmore-Kandhkot district gets its electricity through the grid stations and transmission lines provided by Hyderabad Electricity Supply Corporation (HESCO) which is a subsidiary of WAPDA and is responsible for supplying electricity. There are 3 grid stations, each with a capacity of 132 KV in the district.

Guddu Thermal Power Plant, producing 2,402 MW of electricity, is located in the district.

Educational Institutions; Kaskmore district

The literacy rate of the district, as per Pakistan Social Living Measurement Survey (PSLM) 2013-14, is 33% with 47% males and 17% females recorded as literate.

The following table shows the number of educational institutions in the district as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 1,115/149 Middle Schools 42/12
High Schools 42/08 Higher Secondary Schools -/-
Colleges 02/- Commercial Institutions 01/-
Technical Schools 01/- Vocational 01/01

Table 1.9 Kashmore-Kandhkot Educational Institutes

There are 12 privately owned high schools in the district. In addition, there are a number of private schools that are not registered with the Board of Education but are delivering educational programs.

Healthcare Facilities; Kashmore-Kandhkot District

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Kashmore-Kandhkot district as per Health Profile Sindh District 2017-18:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 03/100 Dispensaries 44/-
Rural Health Centers 04/26 Basic Health Units 25/50
T B Clinics 03/- Mother Child Health Centers 02/04
Private Hospitals 02/22 Private TB Clinics -/-
Private Dispensaries 01/- Private MCHC -/-

Table 1.10 Kashmore-Kandhkot Health Institutes

In addition there is one Leprosy clinic and one Unani Dawakhana[6].

Policing; Kashmore-Kandhkot district

District Police Officer (DPO) Kashmore-Kandhkot district is the head of the police department, who then reports directly to Additional Inspector General Police (AIGP) Sukkur Zone. The DPO is assisted by 3 Subdivisional Police Officers. In all, there are 17 police stations in the district.

Figure 1.5 Castle of Mir Raja Ghous Bux Khan Bijarani, Ghauspur


Figure 1.6 Ghauspur Jheel/lake


Figure 1.7 Sikh Gurdwara, Siri Nanakwara; Kandhkot

[1] Pakistan Post Codes

[2] List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan.

[3] Environment Impact Assessment Report, Sindh Irrigated Agriculture Productivity Enhancement Project, by M/s Country Survey & Mapping Inc. and FINCON Services Inc.

[4] Drip irrigation is a form of irrigation that saves water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters.

[5] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[6] Unani Dawakhana treats patients using herbal medicines

[1] 1998 Census Data, for Jacobabad district; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[2] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[3] Table 17 Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock

Environment and Biodiversity; Kashmore-Kandhkot district

Kashmore-Kandhkot is an agro-industrial district. The major air quality issue in the district is suspended particulate matter (SPM) due to heavy dust. A lot of dust occurs due to dry atmosphere and human activity.

In the urban areas, ambient air quality, supply of contaminated water, unsafe disposal of municipal waste and solid waste, unsafe disposal of infectious hospital waste and congested houses have created severe environmental degradation.

Flora and Fauna; Kashmore-Kandhkot district

Flora; Kashmore district

The flora and fauna of Kashmore-Kandhkot district are typical of Upper Sindh. Babul (Acacia nilotica) is the most dominant and occurs in thick forests along the Indus banks. Neem (Azadirachta indica), ber (Zizyphus vulgaris), jujube or lai (Tamarix orientalis) and karir (Capparis aphylla) are among the more common trees. Trees growing along roads include gul mohar (Poinciana pulcherima), siris or Indian walnut (Albizzia procera), bakain (Melia azedarach), tamarind (Tamarindus Indica), jungle jalebi (Pithecolobium dulce), and chimkani or amaltas (Cassia fistula).

Kana or sarkanda (Saccharum munja), kans grass (Saccharum spontenium), buffle grass or African foxtail grass (Cenchrus ciliaris), camelthorn (Alhaji maurorum), durva grass (Cynodon dactylon), jute (Corchorus spp.) and puncture vine or ghokshurs (Tribulus terrestris) exist along the edge of agricultural fields. Other indigenous plant species cultivated along the edges of fields are shisham (Dalbergia sisso), babul (Acacia nilotica), ber (Zizyphus numularia), and mulberry (Morus alba).

The marsh vegetation on the adjacent flood plain includes kash (Saccharum spontaneum), tall reed (Phragmites karka), elephant grass (Typha angustata and T. elephantine), giant cane (Arundo donax), knot grass (Paspalum distichum) and sea anemones (Erianthus spp.). Riverine scrub is dominated by salt cedar (Tamarix dioica).

The aquatic vegetation of Ghauspur Jheel and Sindhi Dhoro includes extensive beds of tape grass (Vallisneria spiralis), water thyme (Hydrilla verticillata), fennel leaved pond weed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and elephant grass (Typha angustata). Salt cedar (Tamarix dioica) and babul (Acacia nilotica) are the dominant species in surrounding areas.

Fauna; Kandhkot district

Jackal and foxes are commonly found in the riverine forests of the district. The common mammals found here include the palm squirrel, the house rat, the Indian desert jird, the jungle cat, and the Balochistan and Indian gerbils.

Common bird species are babblers, crows, doves, egrets, larks, mynas, sparrows, lapwing, plover, lesser-pied kingfisher, black-capped kingfisher, white-breasted kingfisher, warblers, little green bee-eater, and the bulbul. The district hosts many species of migratory birds. These include eagles, hoopoes, Pipit’s rosy pastor, nightjars, shrikes, swallows, teals, quails, vultures, and wheatears. Bird population density and diversity is comparatively higher along the ponds than the agricultural fields.

Amphibians found in the district are the common frog and the Indian toad. The dumbra and gulfam are the two common fish species found in the district and its surroundings. The stretch of river between the Sukkur and Guddu barrages is now the stronghold of the endangered Indus Dolphin, a blind cetacean endemic to the Indus River system.

Sindhi Dhoro Lake is rich in birds of prey.

Mammals in the region include jackal, jungle cat, wild cat, and Indian hare.

Lizards and goannas are also present.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Wildlife; Kasmore-Kandhkot

Indus Dolphin Sanctuary, Ghauspur Jheel, and Sindhi Dhoro are protected wildlife areas in Kasmore-Kandhkot district. These provide sanctuary to the Blind Indus dolphin and migratory birds.