Sindh-Naushero Feroze

Introduction

The district derives its name from its headquarters town, Naushero Feroze. It is located in the central region of Sindh Province. The district is located between 67° 48” 2Ꞌ to 68° 26” 51Ꞌ East longitudes and 26° 32” 45Ꞌ to 27° 13” 36Ꞌ North latitudes. This district is bounded by Khairpur district on the East, Larkana district on the North, Dadu district on the West, and Jamshoro and Shaheed Benazirabad districts on the South. The Indus Rivers flows along the western boundary of the district.

District at a Glance

Name of District[1] Naushero Feroze District (also spelled Naushahro Feroze)
District Capital Naushero Feroze City
Population[2] 1,612,000 persons
Area[3] 2,945 km2
Population Density 547.4 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.1%
Male Population[5] 51.7%
Female Population[6] 48.3%
Urban Population[7] 23.6%
Tehsils 05 Talukas:

  1. Bhiria Taluka
  2. Kandiaro Taluka
  3. Moro Taluka
  4. Naushero Feroze Taluka
  5. Mehrabpur Taluka
Main Towns Naushero Feroze, Darbello, Halani, Behlani, Bhiria Road city, Mehrabpur, Darya Khan Mari, Padidan, Kandiaro, Bhiria city, Jhando Rajper, Moro, Mithiani, Saeedpur, Darya Khan Mari, and Khairwah
Literacy Rate[8] 64%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 78%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 49%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding, fishing & hunting 56%
Elementary Occupations 30%
Others 14%
Main Crops Wheat, barley, gram, tobacco, rapeseed and mustard, cotton, rice, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, maize, sesanum, moong, masoor, sugar beet, guar seed, linseed, and sunflower
Major Fruits Banana, guava, mango, watermelon, musk melon, citrus chikoo, and ber
Major Vegetables Onions, potatoes, peas, ladyfinger, tinda, brinjal, bitter gourd, cucumber, long melon, turnip, carrots, spinach, tomatoes, cauliflower, sweet potatoes, radish, fenugreek, chilies, garlic, coriander, and fennel
Forests[12] 14,858 HA[13]
Provincial Roads[14] 70.7 km
Access Roads[15] 478.7 Km
Secondary Roads [16] 337.6 km
No of Grid Stations[17] 4 grid stations, of which 3 are of 132 KV capacity each and 1 of 66 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges Data not available
Industrial Zones There is no industrial estate in the district, but a total of 19 industrial units are working in the district[18]
Major Industry and No. of Units Flour Mills 02 Units
Cotton Ginning & Pressing 03 Units
  Cotton Ginning & Oils Mills 11 Units
  MDF Board Industry 01 Unit
  Rice Mills 02 Units
Household Size[19] 5.8 persons per household
Houses with Piped Water Inside[20] 16.1%
Houses with Electricity[21] 69.3%

Table 1.1 Naushero Feroze (NF) District at a Glance

[1] For consistency, this chapter (and the volume in general) will use Naushero Feroze, not Naushahro Feroze

[2] 2017 Census

[3] 1998 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[12] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[13] According to Land Utilization Statistics total area under Forests is 10,000 HA

[14] Road List 2009 Issued by Government of Sindh (Latest available)

[15] Road List

[16] Road List

[17] Environmental & Social Assessment for HESCO by Elan Partners; Latest available

[18] http://skillingpakistan.org/employer/province/9/district/49 retrieved July 2020

[19] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Buildings and Recreation Spots

Brief History

Naushero Feroze district was originally referred to as the Sahati region, with Naushero Feroze city as its central town. The Sahati region was founded as an army colony/ cantonment by Mian Muhammad Naseer Kalhoro, the Chief of the Sahati tribe. The history of the Sahati area can be traced back to prehistoric times, when it was known as Nagra Maan.

According to Mir Ali Sher Qaniu, the author of Tuhfat-tul-Kiram, it was during the first ruler of the Kalhora dynasty, Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro’s reign that Feroze Faqir occupied the Sahati[1] area and built a town by joining together 9 villages in 1681 AD. Thus, it was “Feroze’s city of nine villages”, or Naushero Feroze.

Historically, this region has been ruled by different dynasties, including the Soomras (1024-1351), the Sammas (1335-1520), the Arghuns (1520-1650), the Kalhoras (1657-1783) and the Talpurs (1783-1843). In 1783 AD, the Kalhoras were defeated by the Talpurs and subsequently, Sindh was divided into 7 parts by the Talpur Mirs. Areas now belonging to Naushero Feroze district formed a part of Khairpur State and were ruled by Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur. In 1795[2] a misunderstanding occurred between Mir Sohrab Khan and his relative Mir Fateh Ali Khan, who was the ruler of Hyderabad Sindh. The matter ended peaceably but, for the protection of his southern borders, Mir Sohrab built the forts of Lalu Serini and Batel at the Naushero Feroze border. Mir Sohrab Khan died in 1830; after his death, a dispute between his sons, Mir Rustam and Mir Ali Murad began. Mir Rustam sought protection from the British and signed an agreement with them in 1832, in which he agreed to give up the management of all foreign affairs to the British in exchange for remaining the Amir of the region. In spite of the agreement, the British ultimately refused to take “sides” and the family feuds continued. These feuds resulted in victory for Ali Murad. Peace was finally established in 1842 through an agreement in which Rustam Ali Khan abdicated his claim in favor of Ali Murad Khan. In 1843, Mir Ali Murad was made the Rais (ruler) of Sindh by the Mughal Emperor. Naushero Feroze and Kandiaro (both now part of Naushero Feroze district) remained with him as part of his possessions till 1852, when the British government wrested Naushero Feroze and Kandiaro from him, citing fraud and forgery as the reasons. These 2 Talukas were made part of the Hyderabad Collectorate by the British.

Under the British, the province of Sindh was divided into different administrative parts and assigned to Zamindars (landlords) to collect taxes for the British government. Over time, the rulers developed these areas as urban centers. People migrated from other districts and provinces and settled in the region. The British Empire named these small developed areas as Talukas, administrative divisions, and terms still in use post-Partition. They built a network of roads, schools, dispensaries, and many other civic amenities throughout the province.

Naushero Feroze district has a very rich historical background. Ahmed Shah Abdali and Nadir Shah of Iran are said to have stayed in the city, and it is known that Emperor Humayun of the Mughal Dynasty rested for 3 days at Darbello town of the district. Darbello remained the headquarters of the Sahati region for some time. The ruins of an old fort from the reign of Jam Sahito/ Sahita, can still be visited. Other ancient forts include Murad Kot and Surni Kot.

Many important personalities of the Khilafat Movement[3] in the Subcontinent visited the Kandiaro Taluka. In fact, people of Naushero Feroze region actively took part in the Khilafat Movement of 1919. Anwar Ali Shah of Bhiria Road, Sheikh Abdul Aziz of Tharushah, Haji Gul Mohammad Keerio of Moro, Ali Sher of Bhorti, Pir Turab Ali Shah of Mithiani and Qazi Khuda Bux of Naushero Feroze, were all very active members of this movement. During the Independence movement of Pakistan, Sardar Abdul Rub Nishtar, Mohammad Yousuf Haroon and Jawaharlal Nehru (ex-Prime Minister of India) visited the region. After the creation of Pakistan, Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman of East Pakistan also visited the district.

At the time of Partition, Naushero Feroze was part of Nawabshah district and was declared/ upgraded to a district in 1989 with its headquarters at Naushero Feroze.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Naushero Feroze district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 2
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 5

The district has one Municipal Committee, Moro, and 4 Town Committees:

  • Naushero Feroze
  • Padidan
  • Mithiani
  • Darya Khan Mari

Administrative Divisions

Naushero Feroze is comprised of 5 Talukas in total and there are 51 Union Councils in the district.

The 5 Talukas are as follows:

Bhiria Taluka[4] 11 Union Councils
Kandiaro Taluka[5] 09 Union Councils
Moro Taluka 12 Union Councils
Naushero Feroze 11 Union Councils
Mehrabpur Taluka[6] 08 Union Councils

Table 1.2 NF Administrative Divisions

Mehrabpur was added in 2005.

Heritage Buildings and Recreation Spots

There are no protected heritage buildings in the district. There are some shrines and tombs of religious saints in the district including:

  • Shrine of Saint Sakhi Allahyar, Kotri Kabir, Mehrabpur
  • Shrine of Saain Jumman Shah, Padidan, Naushero Feroze
  • Shrine of Syed Ibrahim Shah Bukhari, Bhiria Road Town
  • Shrine of Saain Aashiq Baba (real name Muhammad Yaseen Keerio), Bhiria Road Town

Other sites of interest include:

  • Old Building of Sindh Madrassah at Naushero Feroze, founded in 1893
  • Dharamshala in Taluka Moro, Deh Deparja. This dharamshala was built by the wife of Qeemat Rai Bachoomal in his memory
  • Mehrabpur Mosque built by Sardar Mehrab Khan Jatoi, Halani, Mehrabpur, and is thus named after him
  • A Hindu temple built during the 18th century in Halani, Mehrabpur. The city was the site of the famous battle between Kalhoras and Talpurs in which the Kalhoras were defeated by the Talpurs
  • Historical residence of Notan Dass in Halani. Notan Dass was a Hindu saint born in 1890. He was sent to live in a Gurdwara or Darbar at the age of 5 years, where he became the saint of the Gurdwara in 1940 after the death of his teacher. After Partition, he shifted to Ajmer
  • The tomb of Makhdoom Usman Hingoro at Moro Union Council, Gachero, Kotri Kabeer
  • The tomb of Makhdoom Muhammad Kabeer, Kotri Kabeer
  • Tomb of Makhdoom Sakhi Allahyar at Kotri Kabeer
  • Tomb of Bibi Satti[1]
  • Jamia Mosque, Kotri Kabir
  • Miran Jo Kot, Deh Dingo

There are also a number of gardens and areas near canals that provide great picnic spots. Rohri Canal and Sehra Canal, passing through the heart of Taluka Moro, are two such canals.

[1] This and the following 2 sites have been listed in Sindh Strategy for Sustainable Development by IUCN

[1] Sahita is the name of a caste/ tribe of Sindh. Mr. Lok Ram Dodeja wrote in his Sindhi book Muhinjo Watan Muhinja Manhoon that the Sahita tribe is related to Sahita Singh, the son of Moda Singh Rajput. In fact, the old name of Nawabshah was Sahati. The majority of the members of the Sahita tribe live in Central Sindh, especially in the districts of Khairpur, Naushero Feroze, Nawabshah, Hala, and Hyderabad.

[2] The following details have been summarized from A Gazetteer of Sindh Province by Albert William Hughes

[3] Khilafat Movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by the Muslims of India to exert influence over the British government; they were attempting to persuade the British not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate after the first world war in which Turkey sided with Germany.

[4] Till 2005 there were 14 Union Councils. In 2005, 3 UCs were made part of newly created Mehrabpur Tehsil

[5] Till 2005 there were 14 Union Councils. In 2005, 5 UCs were made part of Mehrabpur Taluka

[6] 3 UCs from Bhiria and 5 from Kandiaro

Topography

The district is part of the Indus valley, and the entire district is a plain with average elevation being about 50 meters above sea level. Geographically, the district belongs to vicholo or Central Sindh.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The only river in the district is River Indus which flows from North to South along its western boundary. There is only one lake (dhand or dhora) in the Moro Taluka of Naushero Feroze district named Kandiaro-Moro dhora.

Forests

There are riverine forests along the banks of Indus River and some irrigated plantations in the district. The total area of these forests is 10,000 HA, according to Forestry Statistics. The chief vegetation of these forests consists of babul (Acacia nilotica), bahan or poplar (Populus euphratica), lai or athel pine (Tamarix aphylla), lai or salt cedar (Tamarix dioca), and kandi or khejri (Prosopis cineraria).

Some of the forests of the district are Mithiani Reserved Forest, Bhorti Reserved Forest, Bhounr Reserved Forest, Mohabat Dero Reserved Forest, Kamal Dero Reserved Forest, New Jatoi Moro Forest, and Dalipota Reserved Forest.

Soils

The soil is fertile and sandy, with hard clay loams. Soils in some areas are Kalarish[1].

Climate

Climatically, Naushero Feroze district belongs to vicholo or Central Sindh, where average windspeed is 18 km/ hour during the June Monsoon. The temperature is lower than that of Upper Sindh but higher than Lower Sindh. Dry hot days and cool nights are the main summer characteristics.

Naushero Feroze has extremes of cold and hot climate. However, there is slight variation between the climate of the northern and the southwestern part of the district. The southwestern portion enjoys the advantage of the sea breeze. The summer season commences from April and continues till October. May, June, and July are the hotter months, with June being the hottest month. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures recorded during June are 44 °C and 28 °C respectively. The months of August and September are humid and stifling. November to March are winter months. December, January, and February are the colder months, with January being the coldest month. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during January are 28 °C and 8 °C respectively.

Mean annual rainfall in the district is 140 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district falls under Zone 2 A of Pakistan’s Seismic Map, which means that there will be moderate to low damage by earthquakes.

[1] Kalarish soils are alkaline in nature with low infiltration capacity. Cultivation is possible with irrigation waters and good drainage, otherwise crops like rice which are tolerant of stagnant water can be grown.

Population

The following table shows the population of Naushero Feroze district as per the 2017 Census:

Admin. Unit

 

Area

Km2

Population

 

Male

%

Female

%

Urban % Growth Rate %
Naushero Feroze District 2,945 1,612,373 51.7 48.3 23.6 2.09
Bhiria Taluka 686 301,044
Kandiaro Taluka 934 322,439
Moro Taluka 609 368,789
Naushero Feroze Taluka 716 372,821
Mehrabpur Taluka[1] 247,280

Table 1.3 NF Population Statistics

Religions[2]

Muslims 98.5%
Christians 0.04%
Hindus 1.3%
Ahmedis 0.1%
Scheduled Castes 0.03%
Others 0.05%

Table 1.4 NF Religions

Languages[3]

Urdu 5.7%
Punjabi 4.4%
Sindhi 88.4%
Pushto 0.1%
Balochi 0.8%
Saraiki 0.4%
Others 0.2%

Table 1.5 NF Languages

[1] Created by taking 3 Union Councils from Bhiria Taluka and 5 UC’s from Kandiaro Taluka, Area still not available.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[3] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The major economic activities of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing & Hunting (56%)
  • Elementary Occupations (30%)
  • Others (14%)

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Southern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture and its allied livestock breeding is the mainstay of the economy with 57.6% of the population engaged directly or indirectly in these sectors. Agriculture in the district depends mostly on canals. Important crops are wheat, barley, gram, tobacco, rapeseed and mustard, cotton, rice, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, maize, sesanum, moong, masoor, sugar beet, guar seed, linseed, and sunflower.

Important vegetables grown in the district include onions, potatoes, peas, ladyfinger, tinda, brinjal, bitter gourd, cucumber, long melon, turnip, carrots, spinach, tomatoes, cauliflower, sweet potatoes, radish, fenugreek, chilies, garlic, coriander, and fennel.

Major fruits are guava, mango, banana, watermelon, musk melon, citrus, ber, chikoo, and dates.

Land Use

The following table shows the land use pattern of Naushero Feroze district as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Land Use Area Land Use Area
Total Area 302,000 HA Reported Area 302,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 209,000 HA Net Sown 160,000 HA
Current Fallows 49,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 93,000 HA
Culturable Waste 29,000 HA Forest Area 10,000 HA

Table 1.6 NF Land Use Statistics

Livestock Breeding

Livestock is the second most important source of income in the district. Livestock mostly consists of sheep, goats, cattle, donkeys, camels, and horses. These animals play a vital role in the economy of the district and provide food of rich nutritional value such as milk and meat, as well as their by-products such as butter, oil, cheese, curd, skin, and intestines. Sheep provide wool. Bullocks and camels are kept for farming as well as for nutritional purposes. The following table shows the livestock statistics of the district as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Livestock Heads Livestock Heads
Cattle 335,000 Buffaloes 531,000
Sheep 52,000 Goats 820,000
Camels 3,000 Horses 1,000
Asses 36,000 Mules 1,000

Table 1.7 NF Livestock Statistics

Cross breed cattle, kundi buffaloes, kooka, dumbi, and kachhi sheep, kamori, and barbary goats, and thorough bred horses are indigenous to the district.

Irrigation

The district is irrigated through canals off-taking from the Sukkur Barrage. The Rohri Canal passes through the center of the district and irrigates the central and eastern parts. Other canals/ water courses passing through the district are Naulakha Branch/ Siyal Distry, Salehpur Minor, Kandiaro Minor, Sehra Minor, Budak Minor, Nasrat Wah, and Jatoi Minor. The Indus River flows near the western border of the district.

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and command area of each mode as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Mode Of Irrigation Area Mode Of Irrigation Area
Total Irrigated Area 147,592 HA Canal Irrigated 134,271 HA
Well Irrigated – HA Tube Well Irrigated 13,321 HA
Un-Irrigated Area 12,552 HA

Table 1.9 NF Irrigation Statistics

Poultry

In rural areas, poultry in small numbers is bred in homes, mostly by women, for eggs and meat. Most of the commercial poultry farms are located around urban centers. There are 247 poultry farms[1] in the district.

Fisheries

Inland fishing is taken up on a large scale in Naushero Feroze district. Fishing is carried out not only in the River Indus but all the canals and the dhora formed by the water seepage from the canals.

Mining

Pakistan Petroleum Limited is exploring prospects for oil and gas in the Ranipur Block, part of which is located in Naushero Feroze. There is no other mining activity in the district.

Manufacturing/ Industry

There are no designated industrial areas in the district. Most of the manufacturing industries (agro-based) are scattered in the district.

There are a total of 19 manufacturing industries[2] in the district. These include 2 units of flour mills, 11 units of Cotton Ginners & Oil Mills, 03 units of Cotton Ginning Mills, 01 unit of MDF Board Mill and 02 units of Rice Mills.

Handicrafts

Embroidery, leather goods, Sindhi ajrak, and Sindhi caps among others are the main handicrafts of the district. Others include artisanal furniture, and shoes. Cotton handlooms producing khes, cotton bed sheets, and cotton rugs, as well as the carpet industry, are important cottage industries of the district.

Economic Infrastructure

The economic infrastructure in the district consists of roads, water supply, and sewerage systems. The district headquarter of Naushahro Feroze is linked with its Taluka headquarters, Moro, as well as Kandiaro through black topped roads. The district is also linked via rail network to other parts of Pakistan.

Roads and Transport

The National Highway N-5 passes through the district headquarter and all Taluka headquarters are connected through metalled roads.

According to the Road List issued in June 2009 by Sindh Government, there were:

Provincial Roads 70.7 km
Access Roads 478.7 km
Secondary Roads 337.6 km

Table 1.8 NF Road Statistics

According to the Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18, total roads in the district are 700 km.

Some of the important roads of the district include:

  • National Highway N-5
  • Dadu‒Moro Road
  • Moro‒Tharushah‒Kandiaro Road

Rail and Airways

The main Pakistan Railway line from Karachi to Peshawar runs through the district connecting Padidan, Bhiria Road, and Mehrabpur Talukas to the rest of Sindh. Mehrabpur Railway Station is a very busy station, while Paddidan is a railway junction from where smaller tracks connect to those parts that are not linked by the main railway line.

There is no airport in the district, and the nearest airport is the Mohen-jo-Daro Airport, Larkana.

Figure 1.3 Tharoo Shah Railway Station

Radio and Television

Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Pakistan Radio) does not have a broadcasting station in the district but there is a privately-owned Radio Station in the district called Hot FM, owned by Mehran Media Pvt. Ltd.

There is no television station in Naushero Feroze district, but TV can be viewed through boosters and cable.

Telecommunications

No statistical data is available, but PTCL provides telephone connections in all parts of the district. In addition, most of the major cellular phone service providers make their services easily available within the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

Pakistan Post Office has its offices in all Taluka headquarters with Urgent Mail Service (UMS) also easily available. Some private courier services of Pakistan like TCS, OCS, Leopards, and PDHS have their branches in various areas of the district, especially Nashero Feroze city.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

The following banks have their branches[1] in the district:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Sindh Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.

In all there are 66 branches of conventional banks and 4 branches of Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

The district gets its electricity through the national grid, maintained by HESCO (Hyderabad Electric Supply Corporation). Most of the rural areas of the district are also on the national grid and have electricity.

Natural gas is used as cooking fuel in the urban areas of the district; some rural areas also use gas as cooking fuel.

Irrigation

The district is irrigated through canals off-taking from the Sukkur Barrage. The Rohri Canal passes through the center of the district and irrigates the central and eastern parts. Other canals/ water courses passing through the district are Naulakha Branch/ Siyal Distry, Salehpur Minor, Kandiaro Minor, Sehra Minor, Budak Minor, Nasrat Wah, and Jatoi Minor. The Indus River flows near the western border of the district.

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and command area of each mode as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Mode Of Irrigation Area Mode Of Irrigation Area
Total Irrigated Area 147,592 HA Canal Irrigated 134,271 HA
Well Irrigated – HA Tube Well Irrigated 13,321 HA
Un-Irrigated Area 12,552 HA

Table 1.9 NF Irrigation Statistics

Education

The literacy rate of the district according to Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey (PSLM) 2014-15 is 64% with 71% urban and 63% of the rural population being literate.

The following table shows details of all government educational institutions of the district as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 1,835/171 Middle Schools 122/34
High Schools 58/15 Higher Secondary Schools -/-
Colleges 05/03 Post Graduate College -/-
Technical schools 03/- Commercial Training 02/-
Vocational training 02/03 Medical Colleges/University
Engineering University -/- Universities

Table 1.10 NF Educational Institutes

In addition, there are a number of privately-owned educational institutions in the district.

Health

The following table shows the number of government health institutions in Naushero Feroze district as per Health Profile Sindh Districts 2017:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 03/157 Dispensaries 76/-
Rural Health Centers 12/169 Basic Health Units 45/90
T B Clinics 11/- Mother Child Health Centers 03/-
Private Hospitals 29/207 Private TB Clinics -/-
Private Dispensaries -/- Private MCHC -/-

Table 1.11 NF Health Institutes

In addition there are 2 Unani Shifa Khanas[2] in the District

Policing

The Deputy Inspector General (DIG)Sukkur is directly responsible for policing Sukkur, Ghotki, Khairpur, and Naushero Feroze districts. The District Police Officer Naushero Feroze district is the head of all police stations in the district. In all, there are 23 police stations[3] in the district.

Figure 1.4 Graves of Unknown Soldiers of the Battle of Halani, Halani

Figure 1.5 Shrine of Noor Muhammed Shah & Imam Ali Shah near Naushero Feroze

Halani Road, Mehrabpur

 

[1] List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan.

[2] Unani Shifa Khanas use herbal medicines for treatment.

[3] Sindh Police Official website

[1] Table 17 Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock

[2] http://skillingpakistan.org/employer/province/9/district/49 retrieved July 2020

Environment and Biodiversity

Generally, the district is devoid of industry and, hence, the only air pollutants are dust particles. The ground water in the district is slightly saline but is fit for human consumption and irrigation.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

There are riverine forests along the banks of River Indus and some irrigated plantations. Predominant species found in riverine forests are babul (Acacia nilotica), bahan or poplar (Populus euphratica), lai or athel pine (Tamarix aphylla), lai or salt cedar (Tamarix dioca), and kandi or khejri (Prosopis cineraria).

Other trees grown along the roads and canal banks include eucalyptus or sufaida (Manilkara zapota), cono or common tug tree (Conocarpus lanrcifolius), neem (Azardica indica) and West Indian pea or manjadri (Agati grandiflora).

Other flora of irrigated areas include gum Arabica or babul (Acacia nilotica), Indian walnut or white sirin (Albizia procera), ash leaved bead tree or neem (Azadirachta indica), pudding pipe tree or amaltas (Cassia fistula), Ethiopian teak or kono (Conocarpus lancifolius), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), red gum or sufaida (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), banyan tree or bargad (Ficus benghalensis), jungle jalaibee or Manila tamarind (Pithecellobium dulce), silk cotton tree or simal (Salmalia malabarica), Egyptian pea or jantar (Sesbania aegyptiaca), arjun tree (Terminalia arjuna), and tulip tree or pipal (Thespesia populnea).

Plants growing in the dhands formed by seepage of water from the canals of the district include reed grass or nar (Arundo donax), banafsha or water velvet (Azolla pinnata), pani jo phog (Bergia suffruticosa), water thyme or pani jo booti (Hydrilla verticillata), rush or kal (Juncus martimus), water willow or aabi bed (Justicia heterocarpa), lotus or paboro (Lotus garcinii), water grass or naro gah (Phragmites karka), sedge or delo (Scirpus capitatus), and elephant grass or pan (Typha angustata).

Fauna

The mammals of riverine forests include hog deer, wild boar, fishing cat, jungle cat, small Indian civet, and smooth-coated otter, as well as foxes, jackals, rodents, porcupine, and wild boar.

The avifauna includes doves, black and grey partridges, cuckoos, koel, woodpeckers, parakeets, bulbuls, babblers, black drongos, bee-eaters, finches, and house sparrows, bank mynas, cattle egrets, pigeons, kites, crows, mynas, and Alexandrines. Some rare species of birds found in the district are hornbills, green pigeon, and barbets.

The reptilian species of this modified habitat include krait, cobra, saw-scaled viper, rat snake, and monitor lizard.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Wildlife

There are Reserved Riverine forests in the district. A protected wildlife sanctuary is Mohabat Dero Wildlife Sanctuary near Mohabat Dero Jatoi in Kandiaro Taluka. Sanctuaries like this provide sanctuary to mammals, avifauna and reptiles, including the smooth-coated otter.