Sindh-Tando Allahyar

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Introduction

District Tando Allahyar belongs to Middle Sindh, also known as the Vicholo region, a climatic region that extends about 161 km North of Hyderabad. The district is located between 68° 34Ꞌ 23” to 68° 57Ꞌ 35” East longitudes and 25° 12Ꞌ 24’’ to 25° 45Ꞌ 17’’ North latitudes. It is situated 25 km Northeast of Hyderabad at a strategic location between Mirpurkhas and Hyderabad. This district is bounded by Mirpurkhas district on the East, Sanghar district on the North, Hyderabad, and Matiari districts on the West and Tando Muhammad Khan and Badin districts on the South.

District at a Glance

Name of District Tando Allahyar District
District Headquarter Tando Allahyar Town
Population[1] 837,000 persons
Area[2] 1,554 km2
Population Density 538.6 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[3] 2.8%
Male Population[4] 51.7%
Female Population[5] 48.3%
Urban Population[6] 31.3%
Tehsils 3 Talukas:

1.    Chamber Taluka

2.    Jhando Mari Taluka

3.    Tando Allahyar Taluka

Main Towns Rashidabad, Tando Allahyar, Piyaro Lund, Bukera Sharif, Missan, Usman Shah Hurri, Sanjar Chang, Sultanabad 1, Dhingano Bozdar, and Tando Soomro
Literacy Rate[7] 38%
Male Literacy Rate[8] 48%
Female Literacy Rate[9] 28%
Major Economic Activity[10] Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting 47.9%
Construction 14.5%
Wholesale, Retail, Hotels/Restaurants 18.8%
Community, Social & Personal Services [11] 18.8%
Main Crops Cotton, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, maize, sesanum, wheat, rapeseed & mustard, moong, maash, arhar, masoor, soya bean, and sunflower
Major Fruits Bananas, chikoo, dates, guava, jaamun, mangoes, musk melon, watermelon, papaya, phalsa, citrus, ber, and mulberry
Major Vegetables Peas, onions, okra, tinda, brinjal, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pumpkin, melon pumpkin, luffa, cucumber, long melon, purslane, arum, beans, field vetch, turnips, carrots, spinach, tomatoes, cauliflower, cabbage, sweet potatoes, radish, knoll khol, garden peas, lettuce, chilies, ginger, and spearmint
Forests (Area)[12] 135 HA[13]
High Type Roads[14] 534 km
Low Type Roads[15]
No. of Grid Stations[16] 4 in total. Of these, 3 are 132 KV each and 1, at Chamber, is 66 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[17] 12
Industrial Zones No Industrial Estate in the district. Small industry is thriving
Major Industry[18] Sugar Mill 1 Unit
Cotton Ginning Factories 10 Units
Oil Mills 1 Unit
Flour Mills 1 Unit
Household Size[19] 5.8 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[20] 47.3%
Houses with Electricity[21] 73.6%

Table 1.1 TAY District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census.

[2] 1998 Census; only TAY Tehsil.

[3] 2017 Census.

[4] 2017 Census.

[5] 2017 Census.

[6] 2017 Census.

[7] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[8] PSLM

[9] PSLM

[10] 1998 Census, only TAY Tehsil; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[11] This includes data for Tando Allahyar, Matiari, and Tando Mohammad Khan Districts also

[12] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[13] The Land Utilization Statistics have nil area marked as Forests, reason being 135 HA of Elchi forest and 114 Acres of the Hingorani forest existed till 2008. These have now been encroached upon and converted into agricultural land.

[14] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[15] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[16] Environmental & Social Assessment HESCO, by Elan Partners Ltd. 2007 latest available.

[17] District Profile by TAY District Government

[18] District Profile by TAY District Government

[19] 1998 Census, only TAY Tehsil; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[20] 1998 Census, only TAY Tehsil; Same as for Hyderabad District; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[21] Hyderabad District Census Report, 1998, only TAY Tehsil; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites/Recreational Areas/Picnic Spots

Brief History

After the invasion of the region by Muhammad Bin Qasim in the 8th century, and the Arab rule, the region was ruled by the Soomra (1024-1351 AD), Samma (up to 1527), Mughal (1524-1739), Kalhora (1701-1736) and the Talpur (1783-1843) dynasties. Under the Kalhora’s rule, a tribe named the Dal was in charge of the Tando Allahyar region. The name of the Sardar of the Dal was Kundhi; hence, Tando Allahyar was called Kundhi-ji-wasi. Many developmental projects were completed during his leadership; a military cantonment was established and other developments, especially in trade, were initiated.

In 1783 AD, the Kalhora were defeated by the Talpur, and Sindh was divided into 7 parts for administrative purposes. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur was made the ruler of Kundhi-ji-wasi. After his death, his elder son, Mir Allahyar Khan, was made the Amir. He constructed a mud fort to protect the town. This mud/clay fort is located at a distance of 3 km from the current center of the town, and is now known as the Kacho Qilo. A large number of people seeking security and refuge moved to this area under the protection of the Mir; thus, initially, it was called Allahyar Jo Tando (Allahyar’s Town).

In 1906, during the British Raj, a railway station was established here. This step brought about a revolution in the town, increasing its importance as an agro-trading hub. It shaped Tando Allahyar into what it is now, and its name shifted from Allahyar Jo Tando to Tando Allahyar.

In 1933, after the construction of a canal off-taking from Sukkur Barrage, agriculture in the city of Tando Allahyar improved. Until Partition in 1947, the city housed a large number of Hindu citizens. The temple of Baba Ramdevji Rama Pir was, in fact, seen as a symbol of the town’s Hindu-Muslim unity and peaceful co-existence. However, after the Partition, a number of Hindu followers left for India. The temple remains in the town center, attracting hundreds of pilgrims from all around the region.

Chamber town was founded by Mr. Chibhar Khan Laghari, who reserved this part of his land for the settlement of a few castes and tribes traditionally involved in agriculture and trade (often Hindus) in the nineteenth century. The present name of Chamber town is a distortion of Chibhar. Before Partition, the number of Hindus living in the town was much higher than that recorded after Partition.

Jhando Mari Taluka was named after its ruler, Rais Jhando.

Until April 2005, Tando Allahyar was the headquarter of Tando Allahyar Taluka of district Hyderabad; on 4 April, 2005, district Hyderabad was divided into 4 districts: District Hyderabad, District Tando Allahyar, District Tando Muhammad Khan, and District Matiari.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Tando Allahyar district is allocated a set number of representatives[1] in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 2

The district has 1 Municipal Committee (Tando Allahyar), and 5 Town Committees:

  • Nasarpur
  • Sultanabad
  • Chamber
  • Sanjar Chang
  • Piyaro Lund

Administrative Divisions

District Tando Allahyar consists of 3 Talukas as follows:

Taluku Tando Allahyar 8 Union Councils
Taluka Jhando Mari 4 Union Councils
Taluka Chamber 5 Union Councils

Table 1.2 TAY Administrative Divisions

Heritage Sites/Recreational Areas/Picnic Spots

Rashidabad, a town under development for the under-privileged people of the district contains a number of parks which provide good places for a picnic and family recreation. Some of the parks include the A. Ghani Park, Shah Latif Public Park, and Aslam Park.

Some of the important heritage buildings[1] of the district include:

  • The Temple of Rama Pir: constructed in 1800 AD. An annual fair is held at the temple
  • Nasar-ji-Mosque in Nasarpur, also known as Jamia Masjid or Shah Jehan Masjid, Jhando Mari Taluka: The mosque is located on the West bank of Indus River and has been built with solid square bricks and mud. In the recent past, this mosque has been renovated and opened for the public to perform namaz (prayers)
  • Kiraiji Masjid, Nasarpur
  • Sheikh Baeed (Bayzeed) Mausoleum:This mausoleum (tomb) is located on the Oderolal road, about a distance of 1.5 km from Nasarpur. It is one of the oldest mausoleums in the region, constructed with solid bricks and mud. This mausoleum was located in the center of ancient Nasarpur
  • Mirza Shah Hasan Argoon (Mud Fort):This Fort was built with mud during the era of Mirza Shah Hasan Arghun. In recent years, the surroundings of the fort have been encroached upon for cultivated lands, and it seems that all signs of the existence of this fort will vanish soon
  • Qraqari Masjid:This historical mosque was built in the era of Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great. It was built using bricks with clay and had 3 pillars and dome-shaped doors. The design of the mosque is a reflection of Mughal art. In the recent past, this mosque has been rebuilt and opened for prayer services
  • Lal Ka Maqbara (Mandar):The tomb of Sheikh Tahir Amar Lal (real name was Mangla, son of Ratan) was built near the historical Shah Jahan Masjid and the bank of River Indus. Sheikh Tahir is also known as Zinda Peer according to Hindu belief. This tomb was built at his birth place in Nasarpur
  • Ibrahim Shah Chokundi:This is the tomb of Ibrahim Shah, located in Ward no.5 and the ancient Shahi Bazar, Nasarpur. The renowned saint and poet of Sindh, Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai resided in this tomb along with his father during his visit to Nasarpur
  • Masjid Arbab, Nasarpur: The design and structure of this mosque is a mirror of Mughal art. This mosque was constructed using stones and clay, and it has 4 pillars and 3 dome-shaped doors
  • Shrine of Hazrat Misri Shah Imam:Misri Shah was born in 1828 in Nasarpur. His father’s name was Syed Buland Shah. Shah Imam belonged to Syed Hashim Shah’s family (7th generation), and is famous due to his Kafi writing. He is also known as the king of the Kafis. He died in Nasarpur and was buried besides his Murshid (teacher) Kamil Syed Shah Muhammad Jilani. His annual Urs (festival) is celebrated on the 6th, 7th and 8th Safar (2nd month of the Islamic calendar) in Nasarpur. Shah Imam died in 1895
  • Tomb of Sheikh-ul-Sind, Moulana Abdul Haq Rabbani:Molana Abdul Haq Rabbani (real name: Muhammad Wariyal) was born in 1910 in a poor family of Muhammad Ramzan of Nasarpur, and was rewarded with the title of Sheikh-ul-Sindh for his philanthropy. He established a madrassa (Islamic elementary school) named Madresa Mazhar ul Haq in Nasarpur as well as a high school in Mirpurkhas. He died on December 19, 1983 and was buried in the graveyard of Shah Ahmed Gori (Jiye Shah) in Nasarpur
  • Tomb of Sheikh Bhirkio: Located 25 km Southwest of the Tando Allahyar town, the shrine complex of Shaikh Bhirkio is one of the more important Suharwardi centers in Sindh. This complex houses 2 mosques and the tomb, all of which are adorned with ceramic tiles from Hala

Figure 1.3 Rama Pir Mandir, Nasarpur

 

Figure 1.4 Shrine of, Nasarpur

[1] District Profile, Tando Allahyar, by District Government Tando Allahyar, 2007

[1] Pakistan Emergency Situation Analysis, TAY district by USAID, Oct. 2014

Topography

District Tando Allahyar is situated in the South of Sindh, between Hyderabad and Mirpur Khas districts. The district consists of a high plateau that is rectangular in shape with wide sandy sections in the East.

The district consists of flat and fertile lands that are irrigated by a network of canals. The Naseer Canal (named after Mir Naseer Khan Talpur who constructed this canal in 1933) runs through the district irrigating almost the entire district with the help of several branch canals and water courses.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

There are no rivers or streams in the district, but 3 irrigation canals—Nagin Distributary, Khesano Minor, and Nasir Branch—flow through Tando Allahyar which provide water not only for irrigation purposes but for domestic uses also. Ground water is sweet and potable in all 3 talukas of Tando Allahyar district.

Forests

There were 2 major forest reserves in Tando Allahyar district: Elchi Reserved Forest and Hingorani Reserved Forest. Both these forests have been encroached upon, and converted into agriculture lands.

Soils

The soil of the riverine area is alluvial loam with varying proportions of clay and sand. New deposits are almost pure sand, but become stable through continuous deposits of clay and silt. The origin and composition of the soil in the irrigated plantations is also similar to that of the riverine areas. Most of the soils in Tando Allahyar district are loamy and clayey of older river plains.

Climate

The climate of Tando Allahyar is hot, dry, windy, and semi-humid. The hottest months of the summer are June and July, while the coldest months of winter are December and January. Hot winds blow from May to August, from the Southwest to Northeast, while cold winds blow from North to South in November, December, and January. The nights in Tando Allahyar district are generally very pleasant.

Summer season extends to October, during which the mean monthly maximum temperature oscillates between 39 °C and 42 °C. Winter starts in November and is not severe. Lowest temperature recorded in January has been 1°C. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures for January are 25 °C and 1 °C respectively. On the whole, the direction of winds during the winter is from the North and Northwest. Humidity varies, with highest being 65% during August and lowest 41% in April.

To combat the heat and to make brick buildings habitable, traditional architecture includes the addition of “badgers” or “manghu” to the tops of the buildings, which are often referred to as “wind catchers”. These look like chimneys on roof tops and are placed in directions that allow the cool breeze to enter the buildings during summer.

Mean annual rainfall in the district is 230 mm.

Seismic Activity

Tando Allahyar falls in Zone 2 A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means damage due to earthquakes will be minor to moderate.

Population

The following table shows the population figures for the District as per 2017 Census:

District/Taluka Area

km2

Population Males% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Tando Allahyar District 1,554 836,887 51.7 48.0 31.3 2.8
Tando Allahyar Taluka[1] 395,996
Chamber Taluka 209,208
Jhando Mari Taluka 231,683

Table 1.3 TAY Population Statistics

Religions[2]

Muslims 73%
Christians 0.1%
Hindus/Jatis 25%
Ahmadis 0.3%
Scheduled castes 1.3%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.4 TAY Religions

Languages[3]

Urdu 10.8%
Punjabi 4.2%
Sindhi 80.1%
Pushto 0.7%
Balochi 2.0%
Seraiki 0.5%
Others 1.5%

Table 1.5 TAY Languages

[1] 2017 Census.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[3] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The major economic activities of the district, from the 1998 Census (2017 Census Data has not been made public yet), are:

  • Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting (47.9%)
  • Construction (14.5%)
  • Wholesale, Retail, Hotels/Restaurants (18.8%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (18.8%)[1]

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Irrigated Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture and its allied livestock breeding is the mainstay of this district’s economy. The district produces the best quality of sugarcane available in Pakistan.

Cotton, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, maize, sesanum, wheat, rapeseed & mustard, moong, maash, arhar, masoor, soya bean, and sunflower are the crops grown in the district.

Fruits grown in the district include apples, bananas, dates, chikoo, guava, grapes, jaamun, mango, watermelon, musk melon, papaya, phalsa, citrus, ber, and mulberry.

Okra, tinda, brinjal, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pumpkin, melon pumpkin, luffa, cucumber, long melon, purslane, arum beans, field vetch, lotus roots, chilies, turmeric, and spearmint are the vegetables grown in the district.

Land Use

Agriculture is the predominant use of land in Tando Allahyar. The following table shows the land use statistics of the district as per Sindh Bureau of Statistics 2017-18:

Land Use Area Land Use Area
Geographical Area 173,000 HA Reported Area 173,000 HA
Cultivated Area 116,000 HA Current Fallows 45,000 HA
Net Area Sown 70,000 HA Forest Area – HA
Culturable Waste 26,000 HA Un-cultivated Area 57,000 HA

Table 1.6 TAY Land Use Statistics

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the livestock population of the District according to 2006 Livestock Census (latest available) and as stated in Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Cattle 58,000 Heads Buffaloes 139,000 Heads Sheep 17,000 Heads
Goats 213,000 Heads Camels 1,000 Heads Asses 12,000 Heads
Horses 1,000 Heads Mules – Heads

Table 1.7 TAY Livestock Statistics

Red Sindhi breed of cows are indigenous to Hyderabad district which was the parent district of Tando Allahyar; similarly, barbary goat, and thoroughbred horses are also native breeds.

Poultry

In rural areas, poultry in small numbers is bred in houses by women for eggs and meat. Most of the commercial poultry farms are located around urban centers. There are nearly 342 poultry farms[2] in the district.

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in various canals and water courses in the district, and the fish is consumed locally.

Bee Keeping

Honey-bee keeping was introduced in Pakistan in the 1980s by IUCN and UNDP. They introduced apiculture in the coastal villages of Sindh, especially in Badin and Thatta. Now bee keeping is one of the allied activities of agriculture, livestock breeding and fisheries, hunting.

Irrigation

Main source of irrigation are canals and tube wells. Branches of the Nara Canal like Naseer Canal irrigate the district, while branch canals of Khesana Canal irrigate the western part of the district. Other modes of irrigation are tube wells and wells.

The following table[1] shows the mode of irrigation and area irrigated by the mode.

Total Irrigated Area 51,677 HA Un-Irrigated Area 19,048 HA
Canal Irrigated 28,571 HA Tube Well Irrigated 23,106 HA
Well Irrigated – HA

Table 1.9 TAY Irrigation Statistics

[1] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

Mining

Oil and gas are being mined in the district. In addition, there are coal-mining prospects in the district.

Manufacturing/ Industry

There is no industrial estates/ zones in Tando Allahyar, but there are some industrial units[3] operating in the district. In all, there are 13 industrial units, of which 10 are cotton ginning, one is sugar, one is an oil mill and one a flour mill.

Following table gives type and number of industrial units according to the Official Website of National Vocational & Technical Training Commission[4]

Type of Industry No. of Units Type of Industry No. of Units
Sugar Mills 01 Flour Mills 01
Cotton Ginning 06 Cotton Textile 01

Handicrafts

There is a variety of hand-woven cloth that is manufactured in Tando Allahyar district in both silk and cotton. The weavers or cloth-makers are called kori. Silk and cotton cloths like khaadi, soosi and garbi, are some of the cloth that is woven in the district. Printed cloth, leather goods, and goods crafted from ivory are also made in the district.

 

Economic Infrastructure

Tando Allahyar district is connected to the rest of the country through the National Highway (N-5) which passes through Gharo (Mirpur Sakro Taluka). The main Karachi‒Lahore‒Peshawar railway line also passes through the northern parts of the Tando Allahyar district.

Roads and Transport

The Super Highway (M-9) passes through Tando Allahyar district and links it with Karachi. In addition, the district is connected through provincial highways to Hyderabad and Sanghar.

The Road List 2009, issued by GoS does not have separate data for Tando Allahyar district. The data recorded in Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18 is being reproduced here:

High Type Roads 534 km
Low Type Roads – km

Table 1.8 TAY Road Statistics

Some of the important road links of the district include:

  • Tando Muhammad Khan‒Tando Allahyar Road
  • Naseer Canal Road
  • Chamber Road
  • Mirwah Road
  • Tando Adam Road

Rail and Airways

The district is connected by rail to all parts of Pakistan. There are 3 railway stations in the district:

  1. Tando Allah Yar Railway Station
  2. Tajpur, Nasarpur, Sultanabad Railway Station
  3. Rashidabad Railway Station

There is no airport in the district, and Hyderabad International Airport is the nearest airport.

Radio and Television

There is no television station in Tando Allahyar but TV can be viewed through TV boosters and cable. There is a private radio station called FM 91 Highway.

Telecommunications

The district has telephone facilities[1] available not only in urban areas but in many villages also. There are 12 telephone exchanges in the district, with one each in Tando Allahyar, Chamber, Usman Huri, Sanjar Chang, Mubarak Jarwar, Bahar Khan Mirjat, Masu Buzdar, Naseer Khan Leghari, Bukera Shareef, Khowaja Goth, Dehngano Buzdar, and Tando Soomro. In addition, internet facility is easily available.

Post Offices / Courier Services

There is a main Post Office in each of the Taluka Headquarters in the district. In addition, there are branch offices, and urgent mail service being provided by GPO Pakistan. Other courier services of Pakistan also have their delivery services in the district.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

The following banks have branches in the district[2]:

  • Allied Bank of Pakistan
  • Askari Bank
  • Habib Bank
  • Muslim Commercial Bank
  • Meezan Bank
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • PICIC
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank

In all there are 26 branches of conventional banks and 5 branchees of Islamic Banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Tando Allahyar district gets its electricity through the national grid. The Hyderabad Electricity Supply Corporation[3] is responsible for supplying electricity. There are 3 grid stations that are 132 KV each. Most of the rural areas of the district are also on the national grid and have electricity.

Irrigation

Main source of irrigation are canals and tube wells. Branches of the Nara Canal like Naseer Canal irrigate the district, while branch canals of Khesana Canal irrigate the western part of the district. Other modes of irrigation are tube wells and wells.

The following table[4] shows the mode of irrigation and area irrigated by the mode.

Total Irrigated Area 51,677 HA Un-Irrigated Area 19,048 HA
Canal Irrigated 28,571 HA Tube Well Irrigated 23,106 HA
Well Irrigated – HA

Table 1.9 TAY Irrigation Statistics

Education

The literacy rate of Tando Allahyar district is only 38% with 60% urban and 32% rural population recorded as literate (PSLM 2014-15; Latest available).

The following table shows the number of educational institutions in the district, as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 602/78 Middle Schools 36/07
High School 31/06 Higher Secondary -/-
Degree College 02/- Technical Institutes 01/-
Commercial Institutes 01/- Vocational institutes 01/01

Table 1.10 TAY Education Statistics

There are private schools in the district, but no detailed data is available.

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Tando Allahyar district as per Health Profile Sindh District 2017

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 02/132 Dispensaries 66/-
Rural Health Centers 03/24 Basic Health Units 14/28
T B Clinics 02/- Mother Child Health Centers 03/-
Private Hospitals 06/180 Private TB Clinics -/-
Private Dispensaries 13/- Private MCHC 02/-

Table 1.11 TAY Healthcare Institutes

Policing

Additional Inspector General (AIG) Police Hyderabad is in charge of the entire police department of Hyderabad, Matiari, Tando Allahyar, Tando Mohammad Khan, Badin, and Nawabshah. The District Police Officer TAY reports directly to AIGP Hyderabad. There are 4 police stations[5] in the district.

Figure 1.5 Tomb of Sheikh Bhirkio

Figure 1.6 Naseer Canal, TAY

Figure 1.7 Water Filter Plant, Rashidabad, TAY

[1] Data as provided on the official website of District Government Tando Allahyar

[2] List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan

[3] Environmental and Social Assessment of HESCO 2007; latest available.

[4] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[5] Official Website Sindh Police

[1] This includes data for Hyderabad, Matiari, and Tando Mohammad Khan districts also

[2] Table 17 Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock

[3] District Profile, TAY by Saleem Maajid Chowdhry for District Government TAY.

[4] http://www.skillingpakistan.org/employer/province/9/district/52 retrieved on July 2020

Environment and Biodiversity

Tando Allahyar district is a vast fertile alluvial plain where cultivation is dependent upon canal irrigation. Rashidabad, a small township located on the Hyderabad‒Mirpurkhas Road, is being developed as an environmentally safe town, where smoking is not allowed anywhere. On the whole, since the district is mostly rural, the air quality is good, but generally, the physical environment of the district suffers due to high growth rate of the population.

Flora and Fauna

Since separate data for Tando Allahyar district is not available, the data for Hyderabad district has been taken to be representative of that for Tando Allahyar. Some of the highlights are being included[1] here.

Flora

The district belongs to the Riverine Tract Habitat of Sindh. The dominant flora includes varieties of lai (Tamarix), wild sugar cane (Saccharum), and poplar (populus); babul (Acacia), and bulrush (Typha) growth is common wherever the water is stagnant or slow moving, for example near dhands.

Other flora includes bahan (Populus euphratica), ber (Zizyphus numularia), lai (Tamarisk gallica) and jhao (Tamarisk dioca). On the roadside and gardens, Indian fig (Ficus indica), pipal (Ficus religious), the siras (Mumosa sirissa), neem (Azadirachta indica) and tamarind (Tamarandus indica) are found.

Ornamental flowers of the district are rose, jasmine, and tuberose.

Fauna

Mammals found in the riverine forests include the hog deer, wild boar, jackals, wolves, and porcupine. Among birds, partridges (both black and gray), and the sand grouse are common in the forest plantations. Many varieties of waterfowl, like cattle egret, Indian reef heron, and Mongolian sand plover are also found. Other birds found in the district are little brown dove, koel or cuckoo, Indian scoops owl, and Indian great horned owl.

Wildlife Protected Areas

No data available.

 

 

[1] For details, please consult the chapter on Hyderabad

[2] District Profile, Tando Allahyar, by District Government Tando Allahyar, 2007