Share now

Energy Resources

Pakistan has extensive energy resources, including fairly sizable natural gas reserves, some proven[1] oil reserves, coal, and a large hydropower potential. Pakistan is a world leader in the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) for personal automobiles.


Electricity produced in Pakistan is from 4 main sources: hydel, thermal, nuclear, and wind.

There are 5 major power producers of electricity in the country:

  1. Water & Power Development Authority (WAPDA)
  2. Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC), now Karachi Electric (KE)
  3. Independent Power Producers (IPPs)
  4. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)
  5. Generation company (GENCOs)
  6. WAPDA develops and maintains the transmission and distribution lines, while also generating electricity through hydel power plants. WAPDA, in fact, is the only company authorized to produce hydel power by building dams.

WAPDA was restructured in 1998 into distinct entities comprising of 4 GENCOs (Power Generating Companies), 10 DISCOs (Distribution Companies) and one TransCO (transmission Companies; NTDC). The 4 GENCOS produce electricity using fossil fuel. The 10 DISCOS are responsible for distributing power to the end user and the NTDC is in charge of the overseeing of transmission and distribution.

  1. KESC (now KE) uses both natural gas and coal as fuel to produce electricity, and looks after the transmission and distribution of electricity to Karachi.
  2. The IPPs use fossil fuel for production of electricity. They generate electricity which is then sold to WAPDA for transmission and distribution.
  3. The PAEC generates electricity using atomic energy. This electricity is also bought by WAPDA for transmission and distribution.
Hydel Generation

The following table shows the details of the installed capacity of each of these power producers (as of January 2019).

WAPDA Hydel Power Projects[2]

Name of Power Plant Amount of Electricity Generated
Tarbela 3,478  MW
Mangla 1,000  MW
Ghazi Barotha 1,450  MW
Warsak 243  MW
Chashma 184  MW
Rasul 22  MW
Shadi-Waal 14  MW
NandiPur 14  MW
Kurram Garhi 4  MW
Renala 1  MW
Golen Gol; Chitral 108  MW
Khan Khwar 72 MW
Allai Khwar 121 MW
Gomal Zam Dam 17 MW
Jabban/Malakand 22 MW
Duber Khwar Dam 130 MW
Chickochi Mallian 13 MW
Jinnah Power Project 96 MW
Dargai 20  MW
Tarbela 4th Extension 1410 MW
Chitral 1 MW
Neelum Jhelum 969 MW
Total Hydel 9417 MW

Table 1.26 Pakistan Hydel Power Plants

In addition a total of 372 MW of Hydel power generated through Independent Power Producers and added to the national grid[3].

Thermal Generation

As per government of Pakistan policy, all thermal power generation has been restructured and 4 corporatized companies have been formed and registered:

  • Jamshoro Power Generation Company Limited (GENCO-1) headquartered at Jamshoro, district Dadu, near Hyderabad Sindh
  • Central Power Generation Company Limited (GENCO-2) headquartered at Guddu, district Jacobabad, Sindh
  • Northern Power Generation Company Limited (GENCO-3) headquartered at Muzaffargarh, Punjab
  • Lakhra Power Generation Company Limited (GENCO-IV) at Khanote, Sindh

These GENCOs have commenced full operations. The total generating capacity of all GENCOs is 5,640 MW[4]

Karachi Electric Supply Company

The KESC has plants located in Karachi, producing a total of 1,756 MW of power, distributed as follows[5]:

Thermal Power Station, Korangi 107 MW
Gas Turbine Power Station, Korangi 248 MW
Gas Turbine Power Station, SITE 107 MW
Thermal Power Station, Bin Qasim 1,832 MW
Gul Ahmad Energy 136 MW
Tapal Energy 104 MW
Others (Owned by KE) 550 MW
Total (KE) 3,084 MW

Table 1.27 Pakistan KE Power Stations

Independent Power Producers (IPPs)

The total amount of electricity produced by IPPs is Hydel 372 MW, Thermal 16,946 MW and Renewable Energy 2047 MW[6], with power plants located all over Pakistan; distribution of the amount of power produced according to plant capacity for some major Thermal Power plants is as follows:

Hub Power Project 1,292 MW
AES Lalpir Ltd, Mahmood Kot, Muzaffargarh 362 MW
AES Pak Gen, Mahmood Kot, Muzaffargarh 365 MW
Altern Energy Ltd, Attock 31 MW
Fauji KabirWala Power Company, Khanewal 157 MW
Gul Ahmad Energy Ltd, Korangi 136 MW
Habibullah Coastal Power Ltd 140 MW
Japan Power Generation, Lahore 120 MW
Koh-e-Noor Energy Ltd, Lahore 131 MW
Liberty Power Limited, Ghotki 235 MW
Rousch Power, Khanewal 450 MW
Saba Power Company, Sheikhpura 134 MW
Southern Electric Power Co. Ltd, Raiwind 117 MW
Tapal Energy Limited, Karachi 126 MW
Uch Power Ltd, Dera Murad Jamali 586 MW
Attock Gen Ltd, Morgah Rawalpindi 165 MW
Atlas Power, Sheikhupura 225 MW
Engro Energy Ltd, Karachi 227 MW
Kot Addu Power Co. Ltd. (Privitized) 1,638 MW
Renewable Energy 2047 MW

Table 1.28 Pakistan IPP Power Stations

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

Total energy produced through atomic power plants is 9,051 MW, generated by the following power plants[7]:

KANUPP, Karachi, Sindh 137 MW
Total (Nuclear) 9,051 MW

Table 1.29 Pakistan Atomic Energy Power Plants


The gas industry has been developing rapidly since the 1950s, following the discovery of the large natural gas field in Sui, Balochistan (9.6 TCF of gas in place) and the construction of the first pipeline providing natural gas to Karachi. The gas potential of Pakistan is far from being realized, as significant discoveries of natural gas fields are made frequently in the Central Indus basin, but remain untapped.

Pakistan, with a large gas transmission system employing pipelines, has one of the most extensive gas networks among developing countries. It extends to all the major cities of Pakistan—from Karachi in the South, to Peshawar in the North. There is one major interconnected network providing high-BTU (British thermal unit) gas, owned and operated by the Transmission and Distribution Company (T&Ds). In addition, the Mari Gas Company Ltd (MGCL) supplies a small distribution system by installing pipelines that provide medium-BTU gas to a number of power and fertilizer plants. There are a few additional, small, dedicated high-pressure gas transmission pipelines.

A total[8] of 12,971 km of transmission, 139,827 km of distribution and 37,058 service gas pipelines in Pakistan supplies gas to 2,552 cities and villages of Pakistan.

[1] Oil reserves that have been discovered but are untapped.

[2] State of Industry Report 2019 by National Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA).

[3] National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) Annual report 2019

[4] National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) Annual report 2019

[5] NEPRA annual Report 2019

[6] NEPRA Annual Report 2019

[7] NEPRA Annual Report

[8] Economic Survey of Pakistan 2018