Balochistan-Harnai

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Introduction

Harnai district is located between 67° 13Ꞌ 12” to 68° 24Ꞌ 34” east longitudes and 29° 41Ꞌ 59” to 30° 23Ꞌ 2” north latitudes. The district is bounded on the north by Ziarat district, on the south by Sibi district, on the west by Quetta and Mastung districts, and on the east by Loralai district.

District at a Glance

Name of District Harnai District
District Headquarter Harnai Town
Population[1] 97,017 persons
Area[2] 2,492 km2
Population Density[3] 38.9 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 1.2%
Male Population[5] 53.5%
Female Population[6] 46.5%
Urban Population[7] 25.3%
Tehsils/Talukas

02 Tehsils:

1.    Harnai Tehsil

2.    Shahrig Tehsil

Main Towns Harnai, Shahrig, Khost, Timur, Spin Tangi, Trikh Tangi, Gachina, Badra, Tangi
Literacy Rate[8] 29.0%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 44.0%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 12.0%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding & fishing

26.1%

 

Community, Social & Personal Services 25%
Construction 19%
Electricity, Gas & Water 16%
Others 13.9%
Main Crops Wheat, barley, rapeseed & mustard, masoor, rice, jowar, bajra, maize, sesanum, moong, maash, moath, sugarcane, gram, cotton, sunflower, sugar beet, guarseed, and linseed
Major Fruits Apples, apricots, grapes, peach, plum, pear, pomegranate, mangoes, citrus, guava, loquat, dates, watermelon, and musk melon
Major Vegetables Tomatoes, okra, tinda, spinach, turnips, cabbage, carrots, bitter gourd, pumpkin, cauliflower, peas, brinjal, cucumber, chilies, garlic, and coriander
Forests (Area)[12] – HA[13]
Black Topped Road[14] 707 km[15]
Shingle Roads[16] 282.0 km[17]
No. of Grid Stations Electricity supplied by Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO)
No. of Tel. Exchanges[18] 02 Telephone Exchanges, with 248 landline connections, 352 wireless phone connections and 132  broadband connections
Industrial Zones There is no Industrial Estate in the district
Major Industry There is no Industry in the district
Household Size[19] 6.9 persons per house
Houses (Piped Water Inside)[20] 31.7%
Houses with Electricity[21] 54%

Table 1.1 Harnai District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics report 30,359 HA under forests.

[14] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Include Sibi District also.

[16] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Include Sibi District also.

[18] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] 1998 Census (Same as Sibi district); 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[20] 1998 Census (Same as Sibi district); 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[21] 1998 Census Same as Sibi district); 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites/ Tourist AttractionsTourist/ Picnic/ Archaeological Areas

Brief History

The areas now included in Harnai district[1] were a tehsil of Sibi district till 2007, when the Harnai and Shahrig tehsils of Sibi district were combined to form a single district: the Harnai district. According to local traditions, the name Harnai refers to an influential Hindu personality, Harnam Das, who was either the Hindu Ruler of the area or the founder of the town Harnai. The district is located in the Harnai or Zawar Valley. As it was a part of Sibi district, the general history of Harnai shares the historical vicissitudes of Sibi, the early history of which, in turn, is that of Kachhi (Makran) and Multan. All local traditions affirm that the former rulers of this part were Hindus, called Sewas, resulting in the name Siwi, which later became Sibi. For a detailed account of the region’s history, please refer to the history included in the chapter on Sibi district.

In about 1250 AD, the Sibi areas, including the areas of Shahrig and Harnai, were held by the Langah tribe who were Hindu by descent, and a branch of the Solanki Rajputs or Jats. When Timur (Tamerlane) left India after sacking Delhi in 1398, a period of anarchy followed, resulting in Multan becoming independent and ruled by the Langahs while Sibi, Harnai, and Shahrig became dependencies of Multan.

Until the end of the 15th century, the areas were a part of the Ghaznavid Empire and a dependency of Multan with Nasiruddin Qabacha as its Governor. Shah Beg of the Arghun Dynasty took control of Sibi district in 1511, bringing Sibi under the control of Kandahar. However, during Mughal rule (1526 onwards), the territory was once again ruled from Multan by the Mughal emperors.

During the reign of Mughal Emperor, Akbar the Great, the Harnai area was a part of the Bhakkar Sarkar[2] of Multan Suba (province) and enjoyed peace and prosperity. During the reign of Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb Alamgir, however, the Baloch tribes of the region rebelled; the Emperor appointed his grandson, Prince Mohammad Moizuddin, Governor of Multan to control these rebelling tribes. At this time, Sibi and its dependencies were held by Mirza Khan Barozai, the Chief of the Panri Tribe,[3] who administered the affairs of Upper Sindh also. Prince Moizuddin’s forces attacked the Barozais; Barozai’s son was killed in the encounter. In 1712, Yar Muhammad Kalhora of Sindh was appointed Governor of Bhakkar by Prince Moizuddin.[4]

In 1739, Nadir Shah (the Shah of Iran from 1736 to 1747) annexed the provinces west of the Indus to his Persian Empire. Nadir Shah gave the Kachhi area (which included Sibi and Multan) to Muhabbat Khan of Kalat as Jagir (land grant) in compensation for the murder of Abdullah Khan, his father, by Nur Muhammad Kalhora. The Kachhi areas are still spoken of as having been acquired for Kalat by the “spilled blood” of Abdullah Khan.

After Nadir Shah’s death in 1747, the Panri Afghans seized the opportunity to again acquire Sibi, and the Barozais (the subclan of the Panri tribe) were made Chiefs, but the Barozais were unable to assert their authority over the Harnai/Zawar Valley. However, the Barozais stayed in power during the rule of Barakzais.[5]

The Baloch tribes that had started coming to this region with the Mughal Emperors Babar and Humayun in the 16th century began gaining strength; of these, the prominent tribes were the Lasharis, Rinds, Tareens, Marris, and Bugtis. The Marris and Bugtis were the strongest tribes; they both claimed to be the subjects of the Khans of Kalat, but in name only. During the last 2 years of the First Afghan War (1839-42), an Assistant Political Agent was posted by the British to Sibi and on the conclusion of the war, the district was handed over to Kalat. Sibi district then came under Barakzai rule again in 1843.

In the years following, the Marris acquired ground in the district and their advances were not checked until Sibi, Shahrig and Duki were assigned to the British in 1879 through the Treaty of Gandamak,[6] which was signed between the British and the Afghan Government. The Marris and Bugtis had been controlled from the Dera Ghazi Khan district of Punjab prior to the establishment of the Balochistan Agency in 1877; this charge was delegated to the Political Agent in Thal-Chotiali,[7] the name first given to the district on its establishment in 1879. The Kuat Mandai Valley,[8] which belonged to the Marri tribe, had been held by the British since 1881 as security for the payment of a fine inflicted after the Marri expedition of 1880.

The British Colonial influence started extending to the Sibi region in the late forties of the 19th century, when, in 1839, Misri Khan, the head of the Panri tribe, tendered his services to Shah Shuja and was taken into British service with a number of his followers. They were referred to as the Baloch Levy. Long and intense tribal wars ensued, which ultimately paved the way for the final annexation of the Sibi region to the British Colonial Empire.[9]

In November 1887 the Kach-Kowas and Harnai valleys, as well as Sibi, Duki, and Thal-Chotiali were declared parts of British India and, instead of a Political Agent, a Deputy Commissioner was assigned for administration. The Harnai valley area remained a part of British India till 1947, when it was handed over to Pakistan as part of the Sibi district.

In 1887, Quetta was linked by rail via Harnai, Khost, Chappar Rift, and Bostan. This route through the Chappar Rift is considered one of the most admired engineering projects in this part of the world. The railway tracks and bridge span one of the most scenic routes in the region, which features extremely difficult terrain with mud gorges made of gypsum clay (soft clay). The Chappar Rift itself is a 5 km wide cleft with high hills on either side.

Harnai is also a well-known name due to the legendary Pushtu love story of Gul Makai and Musa Jan. Many epic stories (recorded in ballads and oral literature) are associated with them, and their shrine is located in Sarkhan village, Harnai. The lovers are buried in the same grave.

The district is mostly inhabited by the Bor Tareen Pakhtun tribe (a clan of the Barakzai tribe) who arrived in India with Sultan Muhammad Ghauri in the 12th century. They started settling in various parts of the subcontinent during the 15th and 16th centuries.

Until 2007 Harnai was a tehsil of Sibi district; in August 2007, the Balochistan Government created Harnai district by separating Harnai and Shahrag tehsils, and some parts of the sub-Tehsil of Khost from Sibi district.

[1] Contents in this section have been drawn from Baluchistan District Gazetteer Series: Sibi District, Major A. McConaghey.

[2] Sarkar meant a district during Mughal Rule

[3] Panri or Panni are a Pashtun tribe, also known as Balailzai. Their chiefs are mostly from the Barozai clan, which is a subclan of the Balailzais

[4] Prince Muizuddin later ascended the throne of Delhi with the title of Jahandar Shah and ruled for one year only; he was succeeded by his murderer and cousin, Farrukhsiyar

[5] The Barakzai Dynasty (Afghanistan) was established by Dost Muhammad Khan after the Durranis were removed from power in 1826.

[6] Through this treaty, Afghanistan ceded various frontier areas to the British while retaining full suzerainty over Afghanistan

[7] Thal-Chotiali was a district of Balochistan, the northeastern part of which has been merged with Loralai district since 1903 and the southern and western parts with Sibi district.

[8] Also spelled as Quat-Mandai Valley; it is located in Sibi district

[9] Please refer to the chapter on Sibi District.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Harnai district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly[1] 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly[2] 1

Under the Local Government Act 2010, Amended in 2011, Harnai district has 1 District Council with 9 Union Councils. It has 2 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Harnai
  • Shahrig

Each Union Council is represented by one member in the District Council. In addition, there is special representation of women (33%) and of workers and peasants (5% each).

[1] This seat is shared by Sibi, Kohlu, and Dera Bugti districts

[2] This seat is shared by Sibi district

Administrative Divisions

The district has a total area of 2,492 km2 and is divided into 2 tehsils as follows:

Harnai Tehsil 04 Union Council
Shahrig Tehsil 02 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Harnai Administrative Divisions

Heritage Sites/ Tourist Attractions

The Harnai Railway Station Building was constructed during the British Raj and has architectural and historical significance. The shrine/grave of Gul Makai and Musa Jan, the protagonists of the legendary love story, is also important. Other shrines in Shahrig Tehsil include:[1]

  • Shrine of Nano Nika, a saint of Manra Valley, said to have miraculously produced a spring of fresh water
  • Shrine of Mian Shadi Nika of Kowas
  • Shrine of Kharwari Nika at Goshki near Ziarat
  • Ismail Nika’s shrine at Khost
  • Shrine of Sheikh Musa, said to be the progenitor of all Sheikhs. He is said to have produced water to irrigate Shahrig Tehsil
  • Shrine of Bare Shah of Mian Kach

Tourist/Picnic Areas

The Harnai Pass is one of the major tourist attractions of the district. Other attractions include the Akhtarabad town, which is a scenic location. The area is surrounded by mountains from where a number of perennial hill torrents and springs flow. These provide excellent picnic grounds.

Harnai is also popular for hunting of various species of partridges; the main hunting areas are Tarikan Ghar, Poar, Warikha, and the forest of Bair.

[1] Baluchistan District Gazetteer Series: Sibi District, Major A. McConaghey and District Development Profile 2011, by GoBalochistan and UNICEF.

Topography

Harnai district is a valley surrounded by mountains and hills on all sides. The valley extends from Chappar Mountains to Spin Tangi. The terrain elevation varies from 192 m to 3,545 m above mean sea level.

The highest peak in the district is the Khalifat (3,486 m) of the Central Brahvi Range, which is in the North of Harnai Valley. This range slopes down to the Shahrig plain. The hills of the Central Brahvi Range appear in the form of parallel ridges, with narrow valleys in their midst, and join the Suleiman Mountains near Quetta.

The hills of the Zarghun Mountain Range form the apex of the Central Brahvi Range, and spread east and southeast of the Harnai Valley. The highest peak of this range is the Zarghun Sar which is 3,578 m high. Between the mountains are deep ravines. These hills are composed mainly of limestone.

Located to the west of the Khalifat is the Chappar Mountain Range, with heights ranging from 2,029 to 1,721 m (the highest peak is 1,424.6 m high). The Chappar Mountain Range is a range of limestone hills housing the Chappar Rift which is a narrow gorge through which a railway line was built during British rule.[1]

The lower heights of the Khalifat Mountains are well-wooded, and the rest of the hills are generally bare.

Passes

The main mountain pass connecting Ziarat valley with Harnai is the Harnai Pass.

Famous Mountain Peaks

  • Khalifat (3,486 m high)
  • Zarghun Sar (3,578 m high)
  • Chappar Mountain (2,029 m high)

The Chappar Mountains are famous due to a 100 m wide crack/rift known as the Chappar Rift in the middle of the mountains. This rift has always been part of a by-road leading from the Plains of Sindh to the Zhob River Valley. This is the shortest route between Sindh (through Sibi) and Iran.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The district belongs to the Nari River Basin. The river is known as Babai in the Shahrig area of the district. A large number of tributaries join the Nari River at various points; the notable ones are Harnai Rud, Mara Rud, Sehan Rud, and Watagan Rud. After flowing through the Luni Country (Sibi), the Nari River is joined by Lakhi Stream and Narechi Stream. This portion of the river is perennial and is called Beji River. Dada Stream and Sangan Stream from Harnai join the Beji River. This river disappears into the Sibi Plain through the Nari Gorge.

Other hill torrents of the district are Shahrig Rud, Palosin River, Kaitkhur Nadi, Shah Haider Nala, and Shina Nala.

The district is the only district of Balochistan that has perennial water courses.

Forests

There are no forests in the District as shown by the following table (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area – A Scrub Forests – A
Rangelands – A Coniferous Forests – A
Irrigated Plantations – A Riverine Forests – A
Coastal/Mangrove Forests – A

Table 1.3 Harnai Forests

While the Balochistan Development Statistics text does not record forest acreage, the Harnai District Profile 2011 by P & D Department Balochistan shows that the region features forested areas. It asserts that, “characterized significantly by monsoon showers, the district has a reasonable and diversified forest cover out of which a considerable area has been notified as State Forest; while the rest of the area is unclassified wasteland [mostly community-owned]. Juniper forests of Thore Shore at the western areas of the district and olives along its northern boundary, running from Chappar Rift to Spin Thangi, are the prime ecosystems” (p. 26).

There are 5 notified forest areas (Harnai District Profile 2011 by GoB) as follows:

  • Churmy Panr (11 HA)
  • Tangisar (03 HA)
  • Nishpa (04 HA)
  • Deng Loeghar (11 HA)
  • Khalifat (13 HA)

The lower slopes of the Zarghun Mountains are covered with juniper forests; this area, known as Tor Shor, is shared by Harnai and Ziarat districts.

The Juniper Forests of the Zarghun Range mainly consist of Pashtun juniper (Juniperus macropoda), and Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa polycarpos) among others. The bushes include common plum (Prunus), luni (Cotoneaster), Asian hawthorn (Crataegus), Mormon tea (Ephedra), pea shrub (Caragana, Berberis) and rose (Rosa spp.). The ground cover is constituted mainly by feather grass (Stipa himalacia), marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum), sea wormwood (Artemisia maritime), Aucher’s grass (Chrysopogon aucheri) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon sp.).

The other forest type is the Sub Tropical Dry Semi-Evergreen Scrub Forests (Nishpa Forest)‒Olive-Acacia Type. The main trees in those forests are wild olives (Olea cuspidata) and phulai (Acacia modesta). The predominant shrubs are hopbush (Dodonaea), kankera (Gymnosporia spinosa), mazri palm (Nannorrhops ritcheana) and jharber (Zizyphus nummularia). Most of the olive and wild pistachio trees have been removed for fuel wood purposes.

Figure 1.3 A Juniper Tree

Figure 1.4 Juniper Forest

Figure 1.5 IUCN GIS Map Haranai District

Soils

The soil of the Harnai Valley is mostly alluvial and fertile, but due to scarcity of water, the area is not highly vegetated.

Climate

Harnai district is at a height of 2,500 m above sea level, and was a part of the highland area of Sibi district. The climate is pleasantly cool in summer and extremely cold in winter. The minimum and maximum winter temperatures of Harnai are -2 ˚C and 20 ˚C. The summer is extreme in the area, and the minimum and maximum temperatures are 20 ˚C and 48 ˚C. Harnai has a fertile rainy season during the monsoons. According to data collected from Sibi Meteorological Station, the mean annual rainfall in Sibi[2] is 50 mm.

Seismic Activity

According to the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, Harnai district falls in Zone 4 of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means severe damage due to earthquakes.

[1] This railway line was called the Sindh-Pishin Railway. The line is still active and is a part of the Rohri-Chaman Railway Line.

[2] Rainfall data for Harnai is not available.

Population

The following table shows the population of the district as per 2017 Census:

District

Area

km2

Population Male% Female%

Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Harnai District 2,492 97,017 53.5 46.5 25.3 1.24
Shahriq Tehsil NA 21,688        
Harnai Tehsil NA 75,329        

Table 1.4 Harnai Population

Religions[1]

Muslims 93.8%
Christians 1%
Hindus 3.7%
Ahmadis 0.1%
Schedule Castes Negligible %

Table 1.5 Harnai Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.5%
Punjabi 1.1%
Sindhi 1%
Pushto 89.8%
Balochi 7.2%
Seraiki 0.3%
Others[3] 0.2%

Table 1.6 Harnai Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[3] Includes Tareeno dialect of Pushto language

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

In the absence of separate data for Harnai district, the data for Sibi district is being reproduced here. The major economic occupations,[1] thus, are:

  • Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding & fishing (26.1%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (25%)
  • Construction (19%)
  • Electricity, Gas & Water (16%)
  • Others (13.9%)

Land Use

The following table shows the land use statistics of Harnai district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Area 249,200 HA Reported Area 36,842 HA
Total Cultivated Area 6,483 HA Net Sown 6,483 HA
Current Fallow – HA Uncultivated Area 30,359 HA
Culturable Waste – HA Forest Area 30,359 HA

Table 1.7 Harnai Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

Harnai district, like Sibi district, belongs to the Southern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. The crops grown in the district include wheat, barley, rapeseed & mustard, masoor, rice, jowar, bajra, maize, sesanum, moong, maash, moath, sugarcane, gram, cotton, sunflower, sugar beet, guarseed, and linseed.

The fruits grown in the area include apples, apricots, grapes, peach, plum, pear, pomegranate, mangoes, citrus, guava, loquat, dates, watermelon, and musk melon.

The vegetable crops include tomatoes, okra, tinda, spinach, turnips, cabbage, carrots, bitter gourd, pumpkin, cauliflower, peas, brinjal, cucumber, chilies, garlic, coriander, and cumin seeds. Licorice or mulathi is also grown in the district.

Livestock

Livestock plays an important role in the rural economy.

The following table shows the livestock statistics for Sibi district (since separate data for Harnai district is not available) as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Cattle 54,709 Heads Buffaloes 6,133 Heads Sheep 200,946 Heads
Goats 208,133 Heads Camels 1,866 Heads Horses 2,776 Heads
Mules 52 Heads Asses 10,473 Heads

Table 1.8 Harnai Livestock Statistics

The main livestock breeds of the district include lohani and bhagnari cattle; Harnai, dumbi, balochi, and bibrik sheep; lehri, and khorasani goat; piddie breed of donkey; and brahui camel. The sheep are mostly reared for their wool.

Figure 1.6 Lohani Cattle

Figure 1.7 Khorasani Goat

Poultry

There are 03 poultry farms in the district[2] according to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock).

Fishing

Fish in the Nari River are found in the lower reaches near the plains, and hence, very little fishing activity is carried out in the district.

Bee Keeping

Bee keeping is not a significant economic activity in the district.

Irrigation

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area irrigated by it for Harnai district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 7,385 HA Private Canal Irrigated – HA
Government Canals – HA Wells 410 HA
Tube Wells 1,645 HA Karezes/Springs etc. 5,330 HA

Table 1.10 Harnai Irrigation Statistics

The Government of Balochistan is planning to construct Wam Tangi Dam in the district.

Mining

Coal, oil, and natural gas are being mined in the district.

Industry and Manufacturing

There are no industries in the district. In 1953, Quaid-i-Millat, Khan Liaquat Ali Khan inaugurated the Harnai Woolen Mills factory which remained in operation till 1998 when it was closed. Now the manufacturing units consist of some flour mills and brick kilns. The data on the total number of these production units is not available.

Trade

Coal, oil, and natural gas mined in the district are its major trade commodity. These minerals are exported to other parts of Pakistan as well as other parts of the world.

Handicrafts

The handicrafts of the region consist of household items made with the leaves of the mazri palm. Other handicrafts include rugs made of goat hair, and sacks made of hides and skin (used for carrying water); jewelry made by goldsmiths, as well as carpentry, and pottery are also major cottage industries.

[1] 1998 Census (same as Sibi district); 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] In the absence of separate data for Harnai district, data for Sibi District has been reproduced here.

 

Economic Infrastructure

The district is linked via black topped roads and rail to other parts of Pakistan. The district is also linked via rail to other parts of Pakistan.

Roads

According to the Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19 the road statistics of the district are included in the statistics for Sibi district. The statistics for Sibi district are being reproduced here:

Total Roads 989.0 km
High Type Roads 707.0 km
Low Type Roads 282.0 km

Table 1.9 Harnai Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district include:

  • Quetta-Harnai Road
  • Harnai-Loralai Road
  • Harnai-Shahrig road (un-paved)
  • Kach-Shahrig-Harnai Road
  • Harnai-Kuchlak Road (connecting Harnai to National Highway N-25 which connects Karachi-Bela-Khuzdar-Kalat-Quetta-Chaman)

Rail and Airways

There is a railway station each in Harnai, Spin Tangi, Khost, Peshi, and Nakus. There is no commercial airport or air force base in the district. The nearest airport is the Sibi Airport which caters to domestic flights only.

Radio and Television

There are no TV or radio broadcasting stations in the district, but radio programs broadcast from Karachi, Quetta, Islamabad and Zahidan (Iran), as well as Kabul (Afghanistan) and the BBC can be accessed throughout the district. TV can be viewed through cable.

Telecommunication

Harnai district is connected to other parts of Pakistan and the world via a modern digital telephone exchange. There are 02 telephone exchanges in total, which provide 248 landline connections, 352 wireless phones and 132 broadband connections in the district.[1] Cellular phone services, with considerable coverage in all major towns, are also available.

Post Offices

There are a total of 03 post offices[2] in the district. All the major courier companies provide their services in the district as well.

Electricity and Gas

Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) looks after the supply and transmission of electricity to the district.

Banking/ Financial Services

According to the “List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019”, provided by the State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have their branches in the district:

  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank
  • Habib Bank Ltd.

In all there are 03 branches of various conventional banks and 01 branch of Islamic bank in the District.

Education

The following table shows the number of educational institutions in Harnai district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 98/44 Middle Schools 07/12
High Schools 10/05 Community Schools 14
Higher Secondary -/01 Degree Colleges 01/-
Universities Mosque Schools[3]
Vocational Training Schools

Table 1.11 Harnai Educational Institutes

In addition there are private educational institutions providing education at all levels.

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Harnai district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./beds Institution No./beds
Teaching Hospitals Hospitals 1/30
Rural health Centers 01/10 Basic Health Units 07/-
Dispensaries 08/- Mother Child Health Centers 01/-
TB/Leprosy Clinics etc. -/- Private Hospitals -/-
Private Dispensaries 01/-

Table 1.12 Harnai Health Institutes

Policing

The district functions under both the levy system as well as the Balochistan Government’s police force. A levy is a conventional force for maintaining law and order. Installed during British rule, levy members are recruited along tribal or clan lines. The levies fall under the direct command of the Deputy Commissioner (DC), with powers delegated to the assistant commissioners, and tehsildars, among others. The levies in a district are classified as Sepoy, Hawaldar, Dafeedar, Jameedar, and Risaldar. Every district in Balochistan has its own levy, named after the district. Recently, at the initiation of the DC administration, a new levy force has been recruited on the district level, known as the Task Force. This Task Force is better trained and equipped with advanced weapons.

In addition to the Levies Force, another corps—the Sibi Scouts‒was raised to assist the Frontier Corps (FC) in maintaining law and order in the district.

Policing of Harnai district is the responsibility of the Regional Police Officer (RPO) Sibi. The RPO is assisted by 1 SubDivisional Police Officer (SDPO) stationed at Harnai. In all, there is no police station[4] in the District.

Figure 1.8 Chappar Rift Bridge, North Western Railway (c. 1935)

Figure 1.9 A Water fall in Harnai

Figure 1.10 View of Harnai Girls’ School

[1] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19.

[2] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[3] included in Primary schools

[4] Table 19 (a) Number of Police Stations by Divisions/District 2019, by Federal Bureau of Statistics.

Environment and Biodiversity

Due to a lack of manufacturing industry, the environment of the district is free from industrial pollution. The only source of pollution is dust and vehicle emissions.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Major tree species are obusht (Juniperous excelsa polycarpos), wild ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides), shinay or wild pistachio (Pistatia khinjjak), surai or rose (Rosa beggeriana), injir or fig (Ficus johannis), olive (Olea cuspidate), rorae or desert teak (Ticoma undulata), gum Arabica (Acacia Senegal), and palosa (Acacia modesta).

In the valleys, ghaz (Tamarix spp.) is found in streambeds. The main shrubs and bushes are anang (Lonicera hypoleuca), chank (Cerasus rechingrii), delako (Convolvulus spinosus), Gringosehchob or steeple bush (Spiraea brahuica), makhi (Cartagena ambigua), mateto (Salvia cabulica), malaghune (Daphne oleoides), sparea (Lonicera quinquelocularis), shenalo (Astragalus stocksii), tharkha (Artemisia maritime), Oman (Ephedra nebrodensis), wild almond (Prunus ebernea), and zralg (Berberis lyceum).

The ground cover is constituted mainly by herbs like weezha (Pennisetum orientale), washta (Stipa pennata), margh (Dicenthium annulatum), sagarrai (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), and shezgi (Eremurus aurantiacus). Vegetation zones[1] of the district consist mainly of the following categories:

  • Uphill Steep Rocky Cliff: These include Zarghoon Hills (Tore Shore), where obust or Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa polycarpos) is the predominant climax species associated with wild pistachios (Pistacia khinjjak) and wild ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides). Along the northern boundaries of the district, Deng Loeghar, Khaliphat, and Thore Khan Hills are areas where these trees and shrubs grow; here, olive forests are the most common
  • Foothills and Piedmont Plains: These have mostly been modified for urbanization, agriculture, and other land uses. However, wherever the area is still undisturbed, it is dominated by a variety of shrubs like tharkha (Artimesia meritima), wild almonds (Prunus ebernea), makhi (Caragana ambigua), zralg (Berberis lyceum) and ghuzaira (Sophora grifithii) associated with a number of herbs and grasses. Mazri palm (Nannorrhops ritchiena) mixed with the grass of Sargari (Cymbopog on schoenanthus), dominates the ecosystem
  • Dry Stream Beds: Tamarix Spp. is most commonly found in this zone

Fauna

Mammals in the region include Suleiman markhor, wolf, common red fox, Blandford’s or Afghan fox, Asian jackal, striped hyena, Indian crested porcupine, cape hare, hedgehog, migratory hedgehog, beech or stone marten, marbled pole cat, Afghan pika, house mouse, long-tailed hamster, grey hamster, and the Persian jird.

Avifauna include accentor, bulbul, bunting, chat, chough, chakor partridge, eagle, falcon, lark, magpie, owl, shrike, see-see partridge, and vulture.

Reptiles include lizards, Afghan tortoise, saw-scaled viper, and the Levantine viper.

Protected Areas and Endangered Fauna

There are no protected areas in the district even though all juniper forests are a cultural asset, and should be protected.

[1]Harnai District Profile, 2011 by P & D department, Balochistan