Balochistan-Loralai

Introduction

Loralai district is located between 67° 41′ 18″ to 69° 44′ 22″ east longitudes and 29° 54′ 50″ to 30° 41′ 28″ north latitudes. It is situated in northern Balochistan, at an elevation of 1,450 m above mean sea level. The district is bordered by Zhob and Kila Saifullah districts in the north, Kohlu Agency/ district and Sibi district in the south, Barkhan and Musakhel districts in the east, and Sibi and Ziarat districts in the west.

The name of the district has been derived from the Loralai stream, which is a confluent of the Anambar and Nari rivers. The town of Loralai (headquarters of the district) is located to the north of the Loralai stream. The original name of the district was Bori, after the Bori Valley, but as the Loralai town developed, the British moved the headquarters of the district to the Loralai city and renamed the district Loralai district.

Figure 1.3 Loralai City

District at a Glance

Name of District Loralai District
Headquarters Loralai Town
Population[1] 397,400 persons
Area[2] 7,199 km2
Population Density[3] 48.8 persons/ km2
Growth Rate[4] 2.5%
Male Population[5] 53.3%
Female Population 46.5%
Urban Population 16.3%
Administrative Units 03 Tehsils:

1.    Bori Tehsil

2.    Duki Tehsil

3.    Mekhtar Tehsil

Main Towns/ Villages Loralai, Mekhtar, Bori, Duki, Chamalang, Alif Mirjanzai, Zikria, Wahvi, Poonga, and Kili Lahore
Literacy Rate[6] 44%
Male Literacy Rate[7] 61%
Female Literacy Rate[8] 22%
Major Economic Activity[9] Agriculture, forestry, hunting & fishing 40.3%
Community, Social & Personal Services 33.1%
Wholesale, Retail & Restaurants/Hotels 9.4%
Construction 6.3%
Mining & Quarrying 5.3%
Electricity, Gas & Water 2.3%
Others 3.4%
Main Crops Wheat, barley, maize, jowar, moong, maash, masoor, gram, bajra, cotton, and tobacco
Major Fruits Almonds, apples, apricots, grapes, peach, pomegranate, plum, cherries, watermelon, and musk melon
Major Vegetables Peas, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, okra, tinda, radish, spinach, turnip, carrots, cauliflower, brinjal, cucumber, chilies, garlic, cumin, and coriander
Forests (Area)[10] 60,389 HA[11]
Total Black Topped Roads[12] 783.0 km
Shingle Roads[13] 603.0 km
Electricity[14] Electricity is supplied by Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO)
Telephone Exchanges[15] 04 telephone exchanges with 1,918 landlines, 854 wireless phones, and 1,688 broadband connections
Industrial Zones[16] Land has been earmarked for a mini Industrial Estate in Loralai
Major Industry[17] Marble 11 Units
Flour Mills 1 Units
Household Size[18] 7.4 persons per house.
Houses with Piped Water[19] 21.8%
Houses with Electricity[20] 60.6%

Table 1.1 Loralai District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census; area of Sanjawai tehsil has been subtracted from the data, since Sanjawai tehsil was added to Ziarat district in 2001.

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[7] PSLM

[8] PSLM

[9] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[10] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[11] Land Utilization Statistics report 166,797 HA area under forests.

[12] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[14] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] District Development Profile, Loralai District 2011 P&D Department, GoB

[17] District Development Profile, Loralai District 2011 P&D Department, GoB

[18] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[19] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistorical/ Heritage Sites and Tourism/ Picnic Spots

Brief History

The earliest history of this part of Balochistan is obscure and can thus be presumed to be the same as that of the early history of Balochistan province. The district formed the eastern-most dependency of the Kandahar province of Afghanistan, and its possession alternated from time to time between the Mughals, Safavids, and the Afghans.

It is known[1] that about 1383 AD, the Maliks of the Kurat Dynasty[2] ruled this area, but were overthrown by Amir Timur (or Tamerlane, the founder of the Timurid Dynasty); Kandahar, together with other areas also fell into the hands of the Timurid Dynasty. These territories were conferred by Amir Timur on his grandson, Pir Muhammad; at that time, Kandahar province’s territories extended to the frontiers of Sindh, and included the Loralai district.[3]

During the first half of the 15th century, Kandahar remained under the reign of Timur’s successors; in 1470, the governor of the area, Sultan Husain Mirza of Herat, appointed an Arghun (Amir Shuja Ud Din) as governor of northeastern Balochistan. The first Mughal Emperor, Babar, in 1504-5 AD, after conquering Kabul, went on to conquer India. He passed through Balochistan on his way back from his conquest, and acquired it. The province remained under Mughal rule until 1559 AD, when it passed into the hands of the Safavid kings of Persia, under whose reign it remained until 1595 AD. Later in the same year (1595), it was acquired again by the Mughal Emperor Akbar. During his reign, the territory of Duki formed one of the dependencies of Kandahar province. In 1622 AD, Kandahar (including the Loralai areas) again passed to the Safavids when Shah Abbas (5th Safavid King) conferred the Government of Pishin and its tribal dependencies (including Loralai/ Duki), upon Sher Khan Tarin.

Sher Khan Tarin was a strong ruler and became semi-independent, refusing (7 years later) to submit to the Governor of Kandahar, Ali Mardan Khan. A battle ensued, Sher Khan Tarin was defeated, and was forced to retire to Duki.

Around 1655 AD, Emperor Shahjahan made efforts to regain the province of Kandahar from the Safavids and, with this end in view, sent a large expedition under the command of his elder son, Prince Dara Shikoh. The Prince was able to occupy Duki, which had been held by the Persian (Safavid) troops, but lost the war, and Kandahar province, permanently.

The province continued to be under the rule of the Safavids but the Afghan inhabitants had become so highly discontented owing to the persecutions by the Persian governors that there was an uprising against them under the guidance of Mir Wais Ghilzai in 1709 AD. After gaining power, Ghilzai established the Ghilzai rule in Kandahar. In 1737, after a rule of about 30 years, Ghilzai power lost to Nadir Shah,[4] who, in 1737 AD, conquered Kandahar, and established his rule.

In 1747 AD, Nadir Shah was assassinated, and the Afghans, with a view to organize a regular government of their own, selected Ahmed Shah Durrani as the ruler of Kandahar. Ahmed Shah at first attempted to administer the Duki Valley (Loralai district) as a district of Kandahar and appointed a governor named Agha Jan to represent him; Agha Jan was murdered by the Tarins. Ahmed Shah Durrani marched on Thal with a strong force to avenge this murder. The Tarins immediately surrendered to him, pleading Agha Jan’s tyranny as a reason for killing him, to avoid repercussions. They were able to appease the King’s wrath, and an annual tax (kaldar) was levied, instead, on all Tarin cultivators living on the Thal and Anambar perennial streams.

The Durranis were followed by the Barakzais in 1826 AD under the first Amir of Afghanistan, Dost Muhammad, and almost the entire district came under the nominal rule of the Barakzai Dynasty. According to the Treaty of Gandamak,[5] signed between the British and the then Amir of Afghanistan, King Muhammad Yaqub Khan, on 25 May, 1879 AD, the Duki and Thal Chotiali lands, along with other parts of Balochistan, passed into the hands of the British.

Different parts of the district came under British control at different times. With the increase of British influence in Balochistan, most of the tribes petitioned to be taken under British protection and expressed their willingness to pay revenue. By 1884 AD, the British administration was established in the form of an Agency. During the early 1880s, some lethal attacks were made upon British subjects by different clans of the Kakars under the influence of Shah Jahan of Zhob. Accordingly, British troops were moved into Zhob and Sir Robert Sandeman held a darbar at Bori (Loralai).The chiefs of the Bori Valley attended this meeting and surrendered after the defeat of Shah Jahan (the Chief of Bori Valley) by the British. On 22 November, 1894 AD, the Bori and Zhob chiefs reached an agreement accepting the supremacy of the British Government and promised to put a stop to further raids on British troops and territory, and to pay a fine. Gradually, British administrative control over the region was strengthened. On November 1, 1887, the district was declared a part of British India. In 1903 Loralai district was formed with Musakhel and Bori Tehsils transferred from Zhob district, and the Duki, Sanjawi, and Barkhan Tehsils from Thal Chotiali district.

In 1947, prior to the creation of Pakistan, a referendum was held by the British in which the tribesmen of Loralai district, like other districts of the Frontier Region, opted for Pakistan, and Loralai became a part of Pakistan.

After partition, in 1991, Barkhan Tehsil (which was a part of Loralai district) was separated and formed into a district. In 1992 Musakhel was also detached from Loralai and upgraded to a district level. Sanjawi Tehsil was added to Ziarat district in 2001, after which the district took its current shape.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Loralai district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 2

Under the Local Government Act 2010, Amended in 2011, Loralai district has 1 District Council with 36 Union Councils. It has 2 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Loralai
  • Duki

Each Union Council is represented by one member in the District Council. In addition, there is special representation of women (33%) and of workers and peasants (5% each).

Administrative Divisions

Loralai district has a total area of 9,830 km2 and is divided into 3 tehsils and 20 Union Councils:

Duki Tehsil 09 Union Councils
Bori Tehsil 09 Union Councils.
Mekhtar Tehsil 02 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Loralai Administrative Divisions

[1] Balochistan District Gazetteer Series Loralai 1907, p.32

[2] Kurat dynasty was a Tajik dynasty that ruled Khorasan (Iran) during the 13th and 14th centuries

[3] Loralai District Gazetteer, 1907

[4]Persian Shah, ruler of Afghanistan, and founder of the Afsharid Dynasty

[5] This treaty ended the Second Anglo Afghan War

Historical/ Heritage Sites and Tourism/ Picnic Spots 

The following sites[1] of historical/heritage importance are protected under the Government of Pakistan (GoP) Laws:

  • Tor Dher site, Tor Dher, in Kili Lahore, Loralai
  • High Mound, Dabarkot: This mound is situated 18 km northeast of Duki town. Various artifacts like stone beads, copper pieces, a gold pin, sheet metal, and large mud bricks were collected which dated the site to at least the Harrappa Age
  • Pre-Historic Mound, Harian Hyder Zai, Loralai

The following sites are important archeological sites and need to be protected by the GoP:

  • Rana Ghundai Archeological Mound: Excavations show that it is a pre-historic site believed to be dated to the Chalcolithic to Bronze Age. It is located 16 km north of Loralai town, on the road to Dera Ghazi Khan. It was discovered and excavated in 1927. Trail trenches were again laid down in 1946 and 1970. Cultural material from the site includes flint blades, bone points, bone needles, painted pottery with designs of a humped bull, black buck, and geometric designs with polychrome
  • Chinjan, Loralai: This site belongs to the Chalcolithic to Bronze Age. The site is located 68 km southwest of Loralai. It was discovered in 1984 but was not excavated. Surface collection of cultural material includes painted pottery, flint blades, and terracotta figurines, including balls

There is only one important shrine in the district, which belongs to Mian Abdul Hakim (Nana Sahib) in Duki.

[1] Most of the information in this section has been drawn from Guidelines for Critical and Sensitive Areas Government of Pakistan 1998, and Balochistan Conservation Strategy.

 

Topography

Loralai district consists of a series of long, narrow valleys hemmed in by rugged mountains of varying heights. The hill ranges vary in elevation from 924 to 3,100 m. The highest mountains are in the northwest, along the border with Ziarat, Pishin, and Qila Saifullah districts. The main range—which stretches through the district on the east in one continuous chain of mountain peaks from the Gomal River in the north to the Indus in the sout—is the Suleiman Range. The direction of the mountain ranges in the western half of the district is mostly from the west to the east, while the direction in the eastern half is from northwest to southwest. In the western part, the main ranges are the Shoreghar, Nagarghar, Murdarghar, Ghulamghar, Saraighar, Dabbarghar, Landaghar, Pitaoghar, and Damanghar. In the eastern part of the district, the important mountain ranges are Sebatghar, Mandghar, Gadabarghar, Spinkaighar, Dadarghar, and Torghar.[1] The Sialu Mountain forms the southwestern boundary with the Thal plain.

The highest peaks in the district are Murdargarh at 2,357 m and Sialu at 2,473 m.

In the north is the Bori Valley which runs east and west and is bounded on the north by the Damanghar Range and other ridges. On the south it is bounded by the Kru Mountains; these mountains continue westwards to Murdarghar Mountains. The next important valley is Thal Chotiali Valley, which is low and flat, and looks akin to an inland sea when viewed from the neighboring hills.[2]

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The Anamber River and its tributaries are the main rivers providing drainage to the western and central portions of the district, while the eastern drainage is through the Suleiman Mountains. The principal tributaries of the Anambar are Kohar or Babai, Siab, Sehan, Lakhi, and Loralai streams. Another important river is Narechi, which rises northeast of Chamalang Valley with its tributary, Baladhaka. The Thal and Beji rivers irrigate parts of the Duki and Thal plains as well.

A large number of hill torrents rise in the hills/mountains during the rainy season. Some of these are Wani, Khaji, Ghbarg, Dab, Sini, and Nakoi.[3]

Forests

The type of forests found in the area are Sub Tropical Broadleaved Evergreen Scrub Forests mainly of olive and phulai. The western part of the district, comprised of a portion of Surghund, supports Dry Temperate Steppe Forests. Generally, mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) has invaded about 10% of the plain area of the district; specifically, in Duki plains, mesquite has almost dominated the native vegetation.

The following table shows the types of forests and their area in the district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 149,224 A Scrub Forests 47,910 A
Rangelands 55,551 A Coniferous Forests 45,763 A
Irrigated Plantations – A Riverine Forests – A
Coastal/Mangrove Forests   A

Table 1.3 Loralai Forests

There are 15 notified natural forests, which include Tomagh, Kohar, Spinwar, Surghund, Nargassi, Gaddebar, Duki Mesquite, Grass Rakh (at Gumbaz), Narechi, Sialu, Khwara Churman, Karahi, Sadozai Kach, Yateabad, Jahangir Shahr, and Khumak. Combined, these forests measure 103,787 HA (149,224 A) in total.

The major trees found in the higher hills are obusht or juniper (Juniperus excelsa polycarpos), wild pistachio or shina (Pistacia khinjjuk) and wild ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides). Olives (olea) grow in the lower hills. Phulai or Amritsar gum (Acacia modesta) is found at the east-end of Bori Valley.

Wild bushes include janglee badaam (Prunus ebernea), sparae or cotoneaster (Cotoneaster spp.), tharkha or wormwood (Artemisia maritime), Oman or joint fir (Ephedra nebrodensis), makhi or pea shrub (Caragana ambigua), khakshir or flixweed (Sisymbrium sophia), zralg or barberry (Berberis lyceum), and surae or wild rose (Rosa lacerans). The areas adjoining Musakhel and Kohlu districts contain main tree species like olive (Olea ferrugenea), phulai (Acacia modesta), and hop bush or jhiar (Dodonea viscosa). Shrubs and herbs include kandiari or kankera (Gymnosporia spinosa), ber (Zizyphus nummularia), and mazri palm (Nannorrhops ritchiana) also known as dwarf palm.

Soils

Most soils in Balochistan have a homogenous porous structure, conducive for plant growth; they are mostly calcareous, and their uniformly distributed lime content ranges between 5 and 30%. Where the lime content is high, the soils are hard when dry, but soft and friable when moist. Their organic matter content is generally low, at 0.3 to 0.5%.

Mountain and hill slopes are bare rock without soil cover. Small patches contain shallow or very shallow, strongly calcareous, gravelly, and stony loams. The valleys contain alluvial accumulations, while the formation of various hill ranges consists of earth, sand, and limestone. The soil of Bori Valley consists of a reddish loam and is highly productive. There is also white loam (spin), red loam (sra), dark bluish (shingandh), gravelly (raghan) and saline and inferior soil (sharah) in the Bori Valley. In Duki, pale grey loess occurs, as well as sweet soil (khozha), dark bluish (shingandh), sandy soil (sagana), gravelly (ghilan) and saline (tirkha). In Sanjavi, soft red soil containing silt or mat (kharina), dark bluish (shingandh), sandy loam (sagana), and gravelly (dabarlina) soil is found.[4]

Figure 1.4 IUCN GIS MAP Loralai District

Seismic Activity

Loralai district belongs to Zone 3 of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means moderate to severe damage due to earthquakes.

Climate

The area can be divided into Semi-Arid, Sub Tropical, and Continental Highlands zones based on the climate of each zone. Generally, the climate and temperatures vary with elevation. At high altitudes, the climate is cold and dry with occasional snowfall and severe frosts. In the lower elevations, especially in the south and east (Tehsil Duki), the temperature is more uniform and it is hot during the summers. The district lies outside the Monsoonal belt and therefore rainfall is scanty and uncertain. However, in recent years, rains have increased. Rainfall occurs twice a year, mainly in March and during the Monsoon season (which is July and August). A part of the winter precipitation is in the form of snow. In July and August, along the eastern belt on the Suleiman Range, the weather is predominantly influenced by the Monsoon season.

June is the hottest month, with mean maximum and minimum temperatures of about 38 °C and 24 °C respectively. January is the coldest month, during which the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 16 °C and 4 °C respectively.

The average annual rainfall in the district is 398 mm.

[1] Loralai District Profile 1998 by GoPakistan.

[2] Loralai District Development Plan 2011, by GoB and UNICEF

[3] Names have been drawn from Loralai District Gazetteer, 1907.

[4] Balochistan District Gazetteer Series Loralai, 1907

Population

The following table shows the population of Loralai district as per 2017 Census:

Tehsil/ Taluka Area

km2

Population Male % Female % Urban % Growth Rate%
Loralai District 9,830 397,400 53.5 46.5 16.3 2.46
Duki Tehsil NA 153,000
Bori/Loralai Tehsil 3,785 203,562
Mekhtar Tehsil NA 40,838

Table 1.4 Loralai Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.3%
Christians 0.2%
Hindus 0.2%
Ahmadis 0.3%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Loralai Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.8%
Punjabi 1.2%
Sindhi 0.2%
Pushto 92.1%
Balochi 3.4%
Seraiki 0.8%
Others[3] 1.5%

Table 1.6 Loralai Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

[3] includes Brahvi language

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The main economic occupations of the district are[1]:

  • Agriculture, forestry, hunting & fishing (40.3%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (33.1%)
  • Wholesale, Retail & Restaurants/Hotels (9.4%)
  • Construction (6.3%)
  • Mining & Quarrying (5.3%)
  • Electricity, Gas & Water (2.3%)
  • Others (3.4%).

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 801,800 HA Reported Area 318,523 HA
Total Cultivated Area 132,379 HA Net Sown 29,385 HA
Current Fallow 102,994 HA Total Uncultivated Area 186,144 HA
Culturable Waste 59,104 HA Forest Area 58,967 HA

Table 1.7 Loralai Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

Loralai district belongs to the Tropical Agro-Ecological Zone of Balochistan and Western Dry Mountain Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. The district thus, depends on rainfall for its agriculture. The crops of the district include wheat, barley, maize, jowar, moong, maash, masoor, gram, bajra, cotton, and tobacco.

The fruits grown in the district include almonds, apples, apricots, grapes, peach, pomegranate, plum, cherries, watermelon, and musk melon.

The vegetable produce of the district includes peas, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, okra, tinda, radish, spinach, turnip, carrots, cauliflower, brinjal, cucumber, chilies, garlic, cumin, and coriander.

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is the second most important sector of the economy. It is the main source of income for nomadic families. The following table shows the position of the livestock population according to the 2006 Census of Livestock (qtd. in Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 131,806 Heads Buffaloes 4,628 Heads Sheep 784,961 Heads
Goats 331,737 Heads Camels 716 Heads Horses 943 Heads
Mules 248 Heads Asses 9,150 Heads

Table 1.8 Loralai Livestock Statistics

Livestock breeds of the district include kohi (camel); koh-i-Suleiman or lohani (cattle); shinghari and sperki or pidie (donkey); Balochi (horse); kakari, musakhaili, kajjale and bybrik (sheep); and koh-i-Suleiman (goat).

Poultry

There are 13 poultry farms in the district (Table 17, Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock).

Bee Keeping

Bee keeping is not a viable economic activity of the district.

Fishing

There are no fisheries in the district and fishing activity is negligible.

Irrigation

The main sources of irrigation in the district are dug wells, tube wells and dug karezes/springs. The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area being irrigated by the mode (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 27,569 HA Government Canals – HA
Private Canals – HA Wells – HA
Tube Wells 26,929 HA Karez/Spring/Others 640 HA

Table 1.10 Loralai Irrigation Statistics

According to the IUCN official website[4] there are 50 karezes in the district; some of these are Gubra Karez, Manzaki Karez, Kili Ghez Wall Karez, Moneeza Kallan Karez, Mahiwal Karez, Jadeed Karez, Musa Jan Karez, and Kanoor Abad Karez.

Two small Delay Action Dams, the Surghund Dam and Dargai Zarkhail Dam, are being built in Loralai to counter the water shortage in the district.

Manufacturing/ Industry

In Loralai district, 11 marble units as well as 1 flour mill has been established.

Mining

Coal, marble, and fluorite are the major minerals found in the district; occurrences of glass sand and talc have been reported. Gypsum and anhydrite is found in large quantities as well.

Oil and gas is being explored in the district.

Figure 1.5 Chamalang Coal Mines, Loralai

Handicrafts

In Loralai district, the main handicraft is embroidery work. In Duki, embroidery work includes motifs like Gulan, which represents a flower, as well as Charposh, Khajur (or a date tree), and Sukrai. In Loralai, the best known is Chakan, a type of embroidery that is done on sleeves, front pieces of shirts, as well as on Masae or Paicha (trousers), and Gaiters which are traditionally worn by Pashtoon women.

Other handicrafts include carpets, goat hair blankets, and rugs, tents, embroidered caps, as well as household items made of mazri palm leaves.

 

Economic Infrastructure

The district has national highways, as well as provincial and district roads. A major road link is the National Highway N-70 which links Killa Saifullah with Dera Ghazi Khan. There is no railway or airport in the district. All parts of the district are accessible by roads.

Roads

The district is linked with other parts of Pakistan through black topped roads. Shingle roads mostly connect villages within the district. According to the Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19 the road statistics of the district are as follows:

Total Roads 1,386 km
High Type Roads/black topped 783.0 km
Low Type Roads/Shingle 603.0 km

Table 1.9 Loralai Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district are:

  • National Highway N-70, which connects Multan with Kila Saifullah, passes through the district connecting Mekhtar with Loralai town
  • Sinjawi Road, connecting Loralai with Ziarat
  • Kohlu Road, connecting the district with Kohlu and Barkhan

Rail and Airways

There is no railway or airport in the district. The nearest railway stations and airports are at Dera Ghazi Khan and Quetta.

Radio and Television

Loralai has only 1 radio station, which was established in 2004-05. The most popular broadcasts are BBC and programs from Quetta Radio Station. There are 2 PTV boosters operating in the area. In the interior of the district, television programs can only be seen through dish antennas. 2 cable TV operators—one of which[1] is Pakistan Telecommunication Company Ltd (PTCL)—have recently started operations in Loralai city.

Telecommunications

The district is connected to other parts of the country through telephone and telegraph. There are 04 telephone exchanges in Loralai district which provide 1,918 landlines, 854 wireless phones, and 1,688 broadband connections in the district (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19). Cellular phone companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 07 post offices in the district. Most of the courier services provide services in the district as well (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19).

Banking/ Financial Institutions

The following banks[2] all have their branches in the district:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Al-Falah Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al-Islami Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 16 branches of different conventional banks and 07 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO)[3] looks after the supply of electricity. Electricity is also provided by WAPDA through Sibi transmission, as well as the Rakhni, Makhtar lines. The only grid station in the district is located at Loralai. A 132 KV transmission line passes through Sibi, Harnai, and Shahrag to Loralai. Another 132 KV transmission line passes through Rakhni, Makhtar to Loralai. There are 3 feeders in the district: Loralai city, Loralai Cantonment, and Duki.

Education

The following table shows the number of primary, middle, secondary, and mosque schools in the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 489/183 Middle Schools 37/17
High Schools 18/10 Community Schools 36
Higher Secondary 02/- Degree Colleges 01/01
Universities Mosque Schools[5]
Vocational Training Schools 03 Private Schools 02

Table 1.11 Loralai Educational Institutes

Balochistan Residential College is a private college at Loralai.

Figure 1.7 Balochistan Residential College, Entrance Gate

Figure 1.8 Entrance Gate to Government Girls College

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Loralai district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./beds Institution No./beds
Private Hospitals Hospitals 02/256
Rural health Centers 02/20 Basic Health Units 37/-
Dispensaries 46/- Mother Child Health Centers 04/-
TB/Leprosy Clinics etc. 01/- Private Dispensaries 01/-

Table 1.12 Loralai Health Institutes

Policing

For the purposes of law enforcement, the district is divided into two areas: “A” and “B”. The urban areas come under “A” area, and the rest of the area of the district falls in the “B” area. “A” area is controlled by a regular police force headed by the Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP), who is, in turn, assisted by a Station House Officer (SHO), Inspector Police, and other staff. The “B” area is controlled by a levies force. Levies are a conventional force to maintain law and order. In levies, men of different tribes are employed. The levies force comes under the direct control of the Deputy Commissioner (DC). Generally, the levies force is well-equipped to deal with the law and order situation in the district

The Regional Police Officer (RPO) Loralai is in charge of the police force. This RPO is assisted by 1 SubDivisional Police Officer (SDPO) stationed at Loralai. There is 01[6] police station in the district in total.

Figure 1.9 Frontier Corps (FC) Post Kasa Marbal Hill Loralai

 

[1] Loralai District Development Plan 2011 by GoB andUNICEF

[2] List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 provided by State Bank of Pakistan

[3] Loralai District Development Profile 2011, P&D Department, GoB, with UNICEF

[4] Address: http://waterinfo.net.pk/?q=karez; For the names of all 50 karezes, please visit this IUCN site. The karezes named here include karezes in the Musakhel District

[5] included in primary schools

[6] Table no. 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District 2019 by federal Bureau of Statistics.

[1] 1998 Census; ; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet.

Environment and Biodiversity

The district has a wide range of environmental and resource degradation problems. The major problems are depletion of aquifers, de-vegetation of rangelands, destruction of wildlife habitats, and depletion of wild flora and fauna. Other problems are deforestation of watersheds, water pollution, unplanned urban growth, and unmanaged urban solid wastes.

In the absence of industrial units, there is no brown pollution. A shortage of fuels has caused deforestation, and much of the bushes and shrubs have also been used for cooking and heating purposes. All these processes have resulted in green pollution. The cutting of trees not only increased deforestation, but also increased soil erosion, and has created problems in watershed areas.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

A list of the flora[1] of the district by vegetation zones follows:

  • Mountains: The mountains in the district consist of rugged terrain from 914 to 3,048 m. Main vegetation occupying this zone is obusht or juniper (Juniperus excels polycarpos), wild ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides) and shina or wild pistachios (Pistacia khinjjuk) mixed with janglee badaam or wild almonds (Prunus ebernea), sparae or cotoneaster (Cotoneaster spp.), Oman joint fir (Ephedra nebrodensis), makhi or pea shrub (Caragana ambigua), khakshir or flixweed (Sisymbrium sophia), zralg or barberry (Berberis lyceum), surae or wild rose (Rosa lacerans), malaghunae or wild olives (Daphne oleoides), washta (a type of grass; Stipa piñata), wizha or karley rose (Pennisetum orientale), sargarae or camel grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), pamangi (Boucerosia aucheriana), sursanda (Hymenocrater silifolius), and zira (Cuminum cyminum)
  • Foot Hills: The foot hills, consisting of undulating terrain, contain shrawan wild olives (Olea cuspidate), phulai (Accacia modesta), annag or sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), makhi or pea shrub (Caragana ambigua), Guzera dwarf sophora (Sophora griffithii), gung or chasteberry (Vitex agnus castus), karkana or ber (Zizyphus nummularia), zralg or barberry (Berberis lyceum), chinjan butae (a type of ivy; nepeta glomerulosa), danawal shinbutae or false amaranth (Digera arvensis), gandarae or sweet scented oleander (Nerium odorum), gangu or manguli (orthonopsis intermedia), gargolae or ber (Zizyphus oxyphylla), halia or asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), isapghol (Plantago ovate), jamboi or black mustard (Brassica nigra), karpolae or ja’adah (teucrium stocksianum), khamazurgae or Indian rennet (Withania cougulans), khokhae or round headed leek (Allium sphaerocephalum), maurae or blue mint bush (Ziziphora clinopodioides), shezgae or foxtail lily (Eremurus aurantiacus), tarkha or wormwood (Artemisia maritima), urgalum or harmal (Rhazya stricta), zawala or yarrow (Achillea santolina), and mazri palm or dwarf palm (nannorhops ritichiana)
  • Plains: The plains of the district contain ghaz or athel pine (Tamarix orientalis), khamazurgae or Indian rennet (Withania cougulans), lawanae asu or bindweed or morning glory (Convolvulus spinosus), lukha or common cattail (Typha angustifolia), malavi or grape vine (Vitis vinifera), marmandi chaste tree (Vitex negundo), mashkanae (a type of grass; saccharum munja), Nar or common reed (Phragmites communis), saba or needle grass (Stipa capillata), sargarae or khavi grass (Cymbopogon jwarancusa), sarghasae or wild sweetcane (Saccharum ciliare), shorae or dwarf saxaul (Haloxylon grifithii), spalmae or aak (Calotropis procera), spanda or harma (Peganum harmala), zoze or camel thorn (Alhagi camelorum), sperkae or ajwain seeds (Carum copticum), and tarkha or wormwood (Artemisia meritima)

Figure 1.6 Wild Olive Tree

Fauna

Mammals of the district include wolf, hill fox, Asiatic jackal, striped hyena, cape hare, porcupine, Afghan hedgehog, and stone marten. Avifauna includes chakor, see-see partridge, magpie, houbara bustard, a number of sparrows, finches, buntings, seasonal/migratory waterfowls, hawks, and sand grouse. The area also provides a corridor to migratory bird species; the key species are common crane and demoiselle crane. Reptiles include Afghan tortoise, Indian cobra, saw-scale viper, levantine viper, and goh.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Fauna

There are no wildlife protected areas in the district.

[1] Almost all of the information in both the flora and fauna sections has been drawn from: Loralai District Development Profile 2011, P&D Department, GoB, with UNICEF