Balochistan-Nushki

Introduction

Nushki district lies between 65° 07′ 42″ to 66° 18′ 45″ east longitudes, and 29° 01′ 51″ to 29° 52′ 37″ north latitudes. The district is located in the north of Balochistan, sharing its boundaries in the east with Quetta and Mastung, in the west with Chagai district, in the south with Kharan and Kalat districts, and in the north with Afghanistan.

According to popular legends, the name Nosh-Kah was given to this region by the Khan of Kalat, Mir Noori Naseer Khan I (1749-1794) while he was crossing this area with Ahmad Shah Abdali on his way to fight against the Marathas at Panipat (the Third Battle of Panipat, 1761). The name became Noshkay and was then changed to Nushki by the British.

District at a Glance

Name of District Nushki District
Headquarters Nushki Town
Population[1] 178,796 persons
Area[2] 5,797 km2
Population Density[3] 30.7 persons/ km2
Growth Rate[4] 3.2%
Male Population[5] 51.7%
Female Population[6] 48.3%
Urban Population[7] 25.9%
Tehsils/ Talukas 01 Tehsil:

1.    Nushki Tehsil

Main Towns Nushki town, Badini, Gharib Abad, Mengal, Anam Bostan, Jamaldini, Kshingi, and Dak
Literacy Rate[8] 46.0%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 67.0%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 21.0%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding & fishing 25.5%

 

Community Social & Personal services 33%
Wholesale, Retail Trade, Restaurant & Hotel 20.4%
Plant and Machine Operators 8.3%
Professional and Technical Workers 6.8%
Others 6.0%
Main Crops[12] Wheat, barley, cumin, jowar, bajra, maash, masoor, moong, cotton, rapeseed, mustard, canola, maize, sunflower, and fodder
Major Fruits[13] Apricots, peach, pears, plums, grapes, pomegranates, dates, almonds, watermelon, melon, musk melon, sarda, and garma
Major Vegetables[14] Chilies, onion, tomatoes, coriander, garlic, okra, tinda, radish, turnip, spinach, carrots, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pumpkin, peas, brinjal, luffa, cucumber, and beet root
Forest Area[15] – HA[16]
Black Topped Roads[17] 1080.0 km
Shingle Roads[18] 1162.0 km
Electricity[19] Supplied by Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO)
Telephone Exchanges[20] 03 telephone exchanges with 426 landlines, 2,216 wireless phones, and 315 Broadband connections
Industrial Zones[21] No Industrial Zone or Estate, but there is a small carpet center in the district
Major Industry Flour Mills (2 Units)
Household Size[22] 7.2 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water[23] 27.8%
Houses with Electricity[24] 30.3%

Table 1.1 Nushki District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement 2014 (PSLM); Latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; Separate data for Nushki is not available; Data for Chagai district is being reproduced

[12] Reproduced data for Chagai district

[13] Reproduced data for Chagai district

[14] Reproduced data for Chagai district

[15] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Land Utilization Statistics report 75,392 HA under forests.

[17] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19; includes Chagai district also

[18] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19; includes Chagai district also

[19] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[20] Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19

[21] Government of Balochistan Official Website

[22] 1998 Census; taken as of Chagai district ; 2017 Census data has not been released yet

[23] 1998 Census; taken as of Chagai district; 2017 Census data has not been released yet

[24] 1998 Census; taken as of Chagai District; 2017 Census data has not been released yet

Brief History

Nushki district, which is situated at an elevation of about 914 m (3,000 feet), was the eastern-most Tehsil of Chagai district, and Nushki town was the headquarters of Chagai district till April 2004, when Nushki Tehsil was upgraded to a district level. Most of the early history of the district is, thus, the history of Chagai district and has been recounted in the chapter on Chagai.

Nushki is located 490 km east of Lake Hamun in the Seistan Region of Persia (Iran) near the Afghan-Iran border on the Bolan Pass route, due to which location it has always been the historic gateway between Afghanistan, Iran, and Balochistan.

The Baloch and Brahvi/ Brahui tribes are most likely the oldest inhabitants of the district; the Baloch, according to their popular history, migrated from Aleppo (Syria), and the Brahvis have always lived in Kalat district. The Brahvis gradually moved north to settle in small pockets with a major concentration in the Nushki area.

According to the Nushki District Development Plan 2011, by Government of Balochistan (GoB) in collaboration with UNICEF:

Both the tribes appear to have been firmly established in the beginning of the 16th century in the area, as is seen from a narrative of the flight of the Mughal Emperor Humayun along the valley of the Helmand to Seistan in 1543. In the second half of the 16th century, the District remained under the rule of Safavid Dynasty. Later in history, it appears as part of the Mughal Empire. With the downfall of the Mughal power, the northern portion of Nushki was annexed to the territories of Khan of Kalat, Mir Abdullah Khan (1716 – 1730). In 1733 Sher Khan the Baloch, Chief of Nushki, submitted to Mir Hassan, the second son of Mir Wais and the founder of the Ghilzai Dynasty. Mir Hassan ruled the adjacent Pathan area now forming Quetta and Pishin Districts, and compelled the Baloch tribes to pledge their allegiance.

A few years later, Nadir Shah (Shah of Iran 1688-1747) sent an expedition against Nushki under Muhammad Ali Beg, who inflicted a severe defeat on the Baloch near Shorawak. In 1740, Nadir Shah conferred Nushki as a fief upon the chief of Kharan. Later, it was retaken by Mir Nasir Khan, the great Brahvi ruler of Kalat (1750-1793). Nushki then, became a Niabat of the then Kalat State and remained so for about a century.

The advent of the British in this area commenced with the British agreement of 1878 with the Khan of Kalat. Subsequently, as a result of the partial survey and definitions of the western boundary with Iran from Kuhak to Koh-i-Malik Siah and demarcation of the Afghan Baloch boundary in 1896, the western Sanjrani (present Dalbandin sub-division and Nokundi Tehsil) became part of Kalat State. In November, 1896, the first British political agent of Chaghai was appointed. Nushki continued to be Niabat of Kalat State. Three years later, however, the Niabat of Nushki was leased by the British from the Khan on an annual rent of Rs. 9,000/-. The management of the Niabat was handed over on 1st July, 1899 to the British Government, with the full rights and privileges, as well as full and exclusive revenue, civil and criminal jurisdiction, including all rights to levy dues and tolls. From July, 1899 to 13 August, 1947 the district remained under the British Government.

The northern boundary of the district, which separates it from Afghanistan, was demarcated in 1896 by a joint Afghan-British Commission. The western border with Iran was demarcated by a joint Pakistan-Iran Commission in 1959. (pg. 3-4)

After Independence in 1947 and after the declaration of Balochistan as a province in 1970, Chagai became a district within Quetta Division. As stated already, Nushki remained a Tehsil of Chagai district till April 2004, when it was upgraded to a district level.

Government Structure

At the Federal level, Nushki district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly[1] 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 1

Under the Local Government Act 2010, Amended in 2011, Nushki district has 1 District Council with 8 Union Councils. It has 1 Municipal Committee as follows:

  • Nushki

Each Union Council is represented by 1 member in the District Council. In addition, there is special representation of women (33%) and of workers and peasants (5% each).

Administrative Divisions

Nushki district[2] has a total area of 5,797 km2 and has 1 tehsil, named after its headquarters with Union Councils as follows:

Nushki Tehsil 10 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Nushki Administrative Divisions

Figure 1.3 District Nazim Office, Nushki

[1] This seat is shared by Quetta, Chagai districts

[2]Nushki District Development Profile 2011, P&D Department, GoB with UNICEF

Historical/ Heritage Sites and Tourism/ Picnic Spots

There are no government protected heritage sites in the district, but Nushki District Development Profile 2011, by P&D Department GoB with UNICEF has identified 2 archeological sites in the district which need to be protected under Government of Pakistan Laws. These are:

  • Zangi Nawar Archeological site
  • Khanuwaal Archeological site

The following sites are also of historical significance:

  • Fort of Nushki constructed during British Rule
  • Shrine of Sher Jan Agha

Figure 1.9 Nushki Fort

Other shrines of significance in the district include:

  • Shrine of Zinda Pir or Syed Mahmood
  • Shrine of Syed Khawaja Ahmad
  • Shrine of Chilghazi

Topography

The district is situated on a plain at the base of Quetta Plateau, 884 m (2,900 feet) above mean sea level.

The eastern portion of the district is hilly, whereas the remainder consists of a level plain with sand hills on the north and the center. The terrain elevation varies between 807 m to 2,064 m above mean sea level. From Nushki, the flat Balochistan desert stretches to the north and also westwards toward the Helmand River.

The northwest, southwest and a part of the southeast of the district, including the villages of Buttoe, Zangi Nawar, Zarog, Esa Chah, Darzi Chah, and Kani, consist of sand dunes and interdunal (between dunes) plains.

Nushki district is located in the extreme north of Balochistan province, which is, in turn, in the south of the Pakistan-Afghanistan border. The major hill systems of the district are the Sarlath Range and the Kacha Koh Range. The Sarlath Range is located in the northeast of the district, and the height varies from 1,100 to 1,600 m. The Kacha Koh Range separates the district from Kharan district in the south. The highest peak of this range is 2,184 m high. The east-west length of the district is 115 km and north-south length is 70 km.

The plain known as Dak is an alluvial plain and is naturally fertile.

Figure 1.4 Siah Koh Mountains, Nushki

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

There is no river with perennial water flowing through the district, but there are innumerable channels and hill torrents which originate from the mountains and flow during rains. Very little water, however, reaches the lake basins (hamuns). The most important of these lakes is the Kaisar Rud. Streams include the Kishingi, Bhalla Dose, and Gori.

Nawars (earthen ponds constructed for collection of rain water for use by both humans and animals) are widespread in the district.

Zangi Nawar was an important lake in the district which was listed as a Ramsar Site, but due to a long drought in the region, it dried up, and was de-listed from the Ramsar List. Khanuwaal is another important lake (nawar) of the district.

Forests

The type of forest[1] found in the district is Dry Tropical Forest and covers both Tropical Thorn Forest and Sand Dunes Desert Forest subzones. Overall, the natural vegetation, including shrubs, bushes, and grasses, can generally be referred to as rangelands. The tree species include turpentine tree (Pistacia terebinthus), anab (Tamarix macrocarpa), khar or khus (Pteropyrum aucheri), ghaz or farash/ athel pine (Tamarix articulata), milk broom or bata (Periploca aphylla), mazmung or wild almonds (Prunus eburnean), taghaz or white saxaul (Haloxylon ammodendron) and dwarf saxaul (H. Griffithii). The dominant shrubs in the region include kotor (Stocksia brohinca), caper beans (Zygophyllum atripliciodes), kiri or French tamarisk (Tamarix gallica), milk vetch (Astragalus hycanus), abal or phog (Calligonum comosom), Syrian rue or harmal (Peganum harmala), hing or devils dung (Ferula asafetida), jaur or oleander (Nerium odorum), wolf berry (Lycium barbarum), sagebrush (Artemisia intermedia), kwandi booti or kalpora or mountain germander (Teucrium stocksianum), pea flowered bush (Sophora mollis, and Sophora grifithii), and milk vetch (Astragalus hyrcanus).

The shrub species generally inhabit this region at the base hills and extend over the plains. The saline areas also consist of some plants like prickly salt wart (Salsola kali), sihar or dogbane (Rhazya stricta), camel thorn (Alhagi camelorum), prickly Russian thistle (Salsola foetida) and saxaul (Haloxylon salicornicum). The ground cover is constituted mainly by feather grass (Stipa himalacia), marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum), aucher’s grass (Chrysopogon aucheri) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon spp.).

The banks of the ponds are mostly planted with Tamarix articulate trees.

The type of forests and the area they occupy are included in the data recounted in the chapter on Chagai district.

According to the Nushki District Development Profile 2011, by P&D Department GoB in collaboration with UNICEF as well as the GoB Official Website (retrieved on September 04, 2014), Notified Forest Areas are as follows:

  • Khaisar (57,000 HA)
  • Ahmedwal (18,000 HA)

In addition to the above Notified Forest Areas, the Wildlife Protected Area in the district is as follows:

  • Zangi Nawar Game Reserve.

According to Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19 there is no designated forest area in the District.

Figure 1.5 IUCN BPSD GIS Maps Nushki District

Soils

The plain areas of the district mostly consist of alluvial soil interspersed with tracts of sand and intersected by a low range of stony hills.

Climate

The climate of Nushki district is extremely hot in summer and mild to severely cold in winters. The difference between day and night temperatures is considerable, and the climatic conditions vary from area to area. Since the district falls outside the sphere of Monsoon currents, rainfall is irregular and scanty. Separate data for Nushki could not be collected for rainfall and temperature, and hence, the data for Chagai district is taken to be relevant for Nushki (please refer to the chapter on Chagai for details).

During summer months, a wind called Goreech (northern wind) blows at night, which makes the nights cool. This wind is often replaced by Her Goath (the southern wind) which is very hot and carries dust with it, bringing dust storms in its wake.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 3 of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means moderate to severe damage due to earthquakes.

[1] Nushki District Development Profile 2011, P&D Department GoB, with UNICEF

Population

The following table shows the population of Nushki district as per 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban % Growth Rate%
Nushki District 5,797 178,796 51.7 48.3 25.9 3.21
Nushki Tehsil 5,797 178,796 51.7 48.3 25.9 3.21

Table 1.3 Nushki Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 98.7%
Christians 0.2%
Hindus 0.8%
Ahmadis Negligible %
Scheduled Castes 0.2%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.4 Nushki Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.3%
Punjabi 0.6%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 4.8%
Balochi 92.5%
Seraiki 0.6%
Others[3] 1.1%

Table 1.5 Nushki Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released.

[3] include Brahvi language

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Since separate data for Nushki is not available, the data for Chagai district is being recounted[1]:

  • Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding & fishing (25.5%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (33%)
  • Wholesale, Retail Trade, Hotel & Restaurant (20.4%)
  • Plant & Machine Operators (8.3%)
  • Professional & Technical Workers (6.8%)
  • Others (6.0%)

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released.

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 579,700 HA Reported Area 91,902 HA
Total Cultivated Area 16,510 HA Net Sown 14,909 HA
Current Fallow 1,601 HA Uncultivated Area 75,392 HA
Culturable Waste – HA Forest Area 75,392 HA

Table 1.6 Nushki Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

About 20.3% of the population depends upon agriculture for their sustenance. The district falls under the Tropical Agricultural Zone of Pakistan and Zone II of Balochistan. The major crops are wheat, barley, cumin, jowar, bajra, maash, masoor, moong, cotton, rapeseed, mustard, canola, maize, sunflower, and fodder.

Apricots, peach, pears, plums, grapes, pomegranates, dates, almonds, watermelon, melon, musk melon, sarda, and garma are the fruits of the district, whereas chilies, onion, tomatoes, coriander, garlic, okra, tinda, radish, turnip, spinach, carrots, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pumpkin, peas, brinjal, luffa, cucumber, and beet root are the vegetable produce of the district.

Figure 1.6 A Wheat Field, Nushki

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is the second most important sector of the economy. It is the main source of income for nomadic families. The following table shows the position of the livestock population according to the 2006 Census of Livestock (qtd. in Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19) in Chagai district, in the absence of separate data for Nushki:

Cattle 6,576 Heads Buffalos 20 Heads Sheep 205,725 Heads
Goats 299,363 Heads Camels 17,543 Heads Horses 100 Heads
Mules 83 Heads Asses 4,124 Heads

Table 1.7 Nushki Livestock Statistics

The indigenous livestock breeds of the region are the same as those of Chagai district.

Figure 1.7 Cattle Grazing; Badini, Nushki

Poultry

There are 3 government-owned[1] poultry farms in Chagai district (separate data for Nushki district is not available).

Bee Keeping

Bee keeping is not an economic activity in the district.

Fishing

There are no fisheries in the district. Fishing is carried out in Zangi Nawar Lake and the Khanuwaal Lake.

[1] Table 17 Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock

Irrigation

The major sources of irrigation are flood waters (spate or rod kohi system of irrigation) and rain.

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and area being irrigated by the mode (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 15,774 HA Private Canal Irrigated – HA
Government Canals – Ha Wells 2,448 HA
Tube Wells 13,316 HA Karezes/Springs 10 HA

Table 1.9 Nushki Irrigation Statistics

In order to improve the existing irrigation system, the Government of Balochistan is building small dams all over Balochistan. The dam being built in Nushki district is Kaluwaal Delay Action Dam.

Manufacturing/ Industry

There is no industry in the district.

Mining

Chromite and graphite are being mined in Nushki district[1] and oil and gas exploration is being carried out as well.

Handicrafts

The handicraft cottage industries include products made with the leaves and other parts of the mazri plant. Baskets, mats, and other household goods are made from leaves of this plant. Carpets made with sheep’s wool and other woven articles manufactured by women and girls are common, as are handicrafts like embroidered shirts and caps.

[1] Nushki District Development Profile 2011, P&D Department GoB with UNICEF

Economic Infrastructure

Nushki is a fairly large (area-wise) district[1] of Balochistan, with a population density of just 24 persons per km2. Road density is, however, very low: black topped road density is just 0.04 while shingle road density is 0.08. The RCD highway passes through Nushki, as does the railway line.

Figure 1.10 Nushki Football Stadium

Roads

The road statistics of Nushki district are included in the Chagai district data which is reproduced here (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Roads 2,242.0 km
High Type Roads 1080.0 km
Low Type Roads 1,162.0 km

Table 1.8 Nushki Road Statistics

The most important road of the district is the section of National Highway N-40 connecting Nushki with Quetta and Taftan. Another important road is the road connecting Nushki with Chagai.

Figure 1.11 Road in Nushki Town

Rail and Airways

Pakistan Railways owns a railway line passing through the district. There are small railway stations in the district with Nushki Railway Station being the largest. There is a small airport in the district called the Nushki Airport.

Figure 1.12 Nushki Railway Station

Radio and Television

Like Chagai district, Nushki has no radio or TV stations, but TV can be viewed via cable and radio channels can also be accessed.

Telecommunications

In Nushki district, Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation (PTC) has established 03 Telephone Exchanges with 426 landlines, 2,216 wireless phones, and 315 Broadband connections (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19). In addition, all major cellular services are available in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are a total of 03 post offices in the district. All the major courier companies provide their services in the district as well (Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19).

Banking/ Financial Institutions

Habib Bank of Pakistan and National Bank of Pakistan[2] have their branches in the District. In all there are 08 branches of conventional banks and 01 branch of Islamic bank in the District.

Electricity and Gas

The Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) looks after the supply of electricity.

Figure 1.13 A Grid Station, Nushki

[1]District Development Plan 2011, GoB with UNICEF

[2] List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, provided by State Bank of Pakistan

Education

The following table shows the number of primary, middle, secondary, and mosque schools in the district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 113/56 Middle Schools 20/23
High Schools 21/12 Community Schools 06
Higher Secondary -/- Degree Colleges 01/01
Universities Mosque Schools[1]
Vocational Training Schools[2] 01 Private Schools[3] 04

Table 1.10 Nushki Educational Institutes

Figure 1.14 A Girls School in Faqiran Killi, Nushki

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Nushki district as per Balochistan Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./beds Institution No./beds
Teaching Hospitals Hospitals 01/50
Rural Health Centers 02/- Basic Health Units 11/-
Dispensaries 16/- Mother Child Health Centers 02/-
TB/Leprosy Clinics etc. 01/- Private Hospitals 01/12
Private Dispensaries -/-

Table 1.11 Nushki Health Institutes

Policing

For the purposes of administration, the district is divided into two areas: “A” and “B”. The urban areas of Nushki come under “A” area and the rest of the area of the district falls in “B” area. “A” area is controlled by a regular police force headed by the Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP). This DSP is assisted by Station House Officer (SHO), Inspector Police, and other staff. “B” area is controlled by levies force. Levies are a conventional force to maintain law and order. In levies, men of different tribes are employed. The levies force comes under the direct control of the Deputy Commissioner (DC). Generally, the levies force is well-equipped to deal with the law and order situation in the district.

Policing of the district comes under the Regional Police Officer (RPO) Quetta, who has 1 SubDivisional Police Officer (SDPO) stationed at Nushki. There is only 1 police station[4] in the district.

[1] Included in primary schools

[2] Carpet Training Center

[3] 2011 data

[4] Table no. 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District, 2019 by Federal Bureau of Statistics.

Environment and Biodiversity

Environmental pollution, especially brown pollution, is almost negligible, as there is no industrial set up or heavy traffic in the district.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Following are the vegetation zones[1] and type of vegetation in the district:

  • Uphill Steep Slopes: The zone covers hills of Khaisar and Ahmedwal where vegetation type resembles that of a dry temperate climate. The plant community mainly comprises of shina or wild pistachios (Pistacia khinjuk), turpentine tree (Pistacia terebinthus), Bombay mastic (Pistacia cabulica), Afghan ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides), wild almonds or archin (Prunus ebernea), makhi or joint pine (Caragana ambigua and Ephedra intermedia), kotor (stocksia brahuica), and spurge olive (Daphne oleoides)
  • Foothills and piedmont plains: These have been mostly modified by the local community for agriculture and other land uses. It consists of more or less flat to undulating plains. These are the areas where transition of ecology from arid to semi-arid takes place. The rangelands contain mostly tharkha or sea wormwood (Artimesia maritima), dwarf griffith saxaul (Haloxylon griffithii), ghuzera or dwarf sophora (Sophora grifithii), ghaz, or frash or athel pine (Tamarix articulata), Indian rennet (Withania cougulans), chaste tree or vitex (Vitex agnus–castus), wild almonds (Prunus ebernea), makhi or joint pine (Caragana ambigua), zralg/ Indian barberry (Berberis lyceum), khavi grass (Cymbopogon jwarancus), a fodder for cattle called Stipa ovaristid, Karwan kush (Pteropyrum olivieri), ispandan or Syrian rue (Paganum harmala), kotor (Stocksia brahuica), mungli (Ornithopsis intermedia), pochko or galio (Althaea ludwigii), sareshko (Eremurus vehitinus), shinz or camel thorn (Alhaji camelorum), and sundum or maram grass (Epilacia ammophila) with a sporadic mixture of edible seasonal forage plants, which support thousands of animals, both local, and nomadic
  • Sand dunes and interdunal plains: The northwest, southwest, and part of the southeast of the district, including the villages of Buttoe, Zangi Nawar, Zarog, Esa Chah, Darzi Chah, and Kani, consist of sand dunes and interdunal plains. The main vegetation includes chambarak or African mustard (Malcolmia Africana), drug or love grass (Eragrostis cynosuroides), magher or bladder dock (Rumex vesicarius), wild onion or pimala (Allium rubelum), piunpilli which is a variety of sunflower (Matricaria lasiocarpa), shinz or camel thorn (Alhaji camelorum), taghaz or saxaul (Haloxylon ammodendron), and ghaz or frash (Tamarix articulata)

Fauna

Mammals of the district include desert fox, Asiatic jackal, cape hare, porcupine, and Afghan hedgehog, as well as the endangered goitered gazelle, desert deer, and pygmy jerboa.

Avifauna includes houbara bustard, see-see partridge, a number of sparrows, finches, buntings, and seasonal waterfowl like marbled teal, white-tailed lapwing, little bittern, ferruginous duck, hawks, and sand grouse.

Reptiles found in the area are Turkestan rock gecko, sharp-tailed spider gecko, Lumsdeni gecko, whip-tailed sand gecko, Baloch spiny-tailed lizard, mountain dwarf gecko, short-toed sand swimmer, Easter dwarf skink, Indian desert monitor, Reticulate desert Lacerta, Caspian desert Lacerta, Chagai desert Lacerta, dark-headed dwarf racer, Tartary sand boa, spotted desert racer, dark-headed gamma snake, Maynard’s awl-headed snake, Afghan tortoise, Indian cobra, leaf nose viper, and lizards like Agamura femoralis, and Stenodactylus maynardi.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Wildlife

Zangi Nawar Lake and Game Reserve is a designated Wildlife Protected Area of the district. This provides sanctuary/protection to endangered mammals like desert deer, goitered gazelle, and the pygmy jerboa. It also provides sanctuary to endangered game birds like houbara bustard, see-see partridge, marbled teal, white-tailed lapwing, little bittern, ferruginous duck, and hawks.

Figure 1.8 Zangi Nawar Lake

[1] Nushki District Development Profile 2011, P&D Department GoB with UNICEF