Sindh-Jacobabad

Introduction

Sindh’s Jacobabad district is located between 27° 55Ꞌ to 28° 29Ꞌ North latitudes and 68° 00Ꞌ to 69° 44Ꞌ East latitudes. It is bounded in the East by Kashmore-Kandkot district (Sindh), in the North by Jaffarabad district (Balochistan) and Dera Ghazi Khan district (Punjab), in the South by district Shikarpur (Sindh) and Larkana (Sindh), and in the West by district Shahdadot-Kamber (Sindh). The district is at a height that ranges from 51.8 to 52.7 meters above sea level.

District at a Glance

Name of District Jacobabad District
District Capital Jacobabad Town
Population[1] 1,006,000 persons
Area[2] 2,698 km2
Population Density 372.9 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[3] 1.7%
Male Population[4] 51.2%
Female Population[5] 48.8%
Urban Population[6] 29.5%
Tehsils/Talukas 3 Tehsils:

1.    Jacobabad Tehsil

2.    Gharhi Khairo Tehsil

3.    Thul Tehsil

Main Towns Jacobabad, Garhi Khairo, Thul, Noor Mohammad Pathan, Noor Wah, Mirpur Buriro, Bahadur Khoso, and Mubarakpur
Literacy Rate[7] 35%
Male Literacy Rate[8] 50%
Female Literacy Rate[9] 19%
Major Economic Activity[10] Agriculture, Livestock breeding, Fishing & Hunting 54%
Elementary Occupations 31.8%
Service Workers & Shop & Market Sales Workers 6%
Others 8%
Main Crops Rice, cotton, sugarcane, jowar, wheat, barley, gram, rapeseed & mustard, masoor, sunflower and safflower, and bajra
Major Fruits Mango is the only commercially grown fruit of the district
Major Vegetables Okra, tinda, brinjal, bitter gourd, tomatoes, peas, cucumber, potatoes, turnip, carrots, spinach, cabbage, radish, chilies, garlic, coriander, ajwain, and onion
Forests (Area)[11] 0 HA
Total Provincial Highways[12] 166.5 km
Access Roads[13] 215.1 km
Secondary Roads[14] 604.59 km
No of Grid Stations[15] 2 grid stations with capacity of 132 KV each and 3 with 66 KV each
No. of Tel. Exchanges Data not available.
Industrial Zones 1 Industrial Estate (Jacobabad Industrial and Trading Estate)
Major Industry Cotton ginning, silk and food processing, rice and flour milling, textile dyeing, metalworking, boat building, tanning, tobacco processing, shad fishing, and the manufacture of chemicals, cement, candy, tiles, hosiery, and playing cards
Household Size[16] 7.1 persons/ house
Houses with Piped Water[17] 16.8%
Houses with Electricity[18] 64.5%

Table 1.1 Jacobabad District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census data for Kashmore-Kandhkot have been subtracted

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2013-14 (PSLM); latest available

[8] PSLM

[9] PSLM

[10] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[11] According to Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18, both Land Utilization Statistics and Forestry Statistics report 0 HA of forests in Jacobabad district

[12] Road List issued by Government of Sindh 2009 (Latest available)

[13] Road List 2009

[14] Road List 2009

[15] Environmental & Social Assessment Sindh by HESCO 2007; latest available

[16] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[17] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[18] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites/ Picnic Spots/ Recreational Areas

Brief History

The area now comprising Jacobabad district was under the control of the Aryans, Buddhists, and Alexander the Great. The area came under the rule of Muslims when Mohammad Bin Qasim, after conquering Sehwan and Brahmanabad (now Mansura, Shahdadpur district) took possession of Alore (modern Rohri in Sukkur district). In 1026 AD Mehmood Ghaznavi conquered Sindh and drove the Arabs out. Sindh changed rulers again in the 11th century, when the Soomras, a Rajput clan, took over control of the region. The Soomra Empire (1024-1351) extended from Bhakkar (Punjab) to the sea, and thus included the entire Sindh area. The Sammas (1351-1524) unseated the Soomras, and took possession of Sindh in the 14th century, who were then defeated by Shah Beg Arghun in 1522 AD. After the Arghuns, the Sikh Tarkhans ruled the Northern part of Sindh, including the Jacobabad area, from about 1554 to 1591, when the Mughal army, under the leadership of Khankhana Abdul Raheem was sent by King Akbar to conquer Sindh. The Sindhi army, under the leadership of Jaani Beg (ruler of Thatta), faced the Mughal army at Sehwan, but was defeated, and Sindh was brought under the control of the Mughals. Thus Sindh, including the Jacobabad region, became part of the Delhi/Mughal Empire. Jacobabad at that time was called Khangarh and was so thinly populated that it looked deserted.

Towards the end of the 17th century, the Kalhoras (who trace their descent from Hazrat Abbas, Prophet Muhammad’s PBUH uncle), initiated guerrilla warfare with the Mughals, until, in 1658, under Nasir Muhammad Kalhora, they successfully opposed the Mughal Imperial troops and organized themselves into a regular government. In 1701, Yar Mohammad Kalhora, assisted by the Talpur tribe, seized Shikarpur and obtained a grant of land consisting of the area between River Indus and the Nara desert by Emperor Aurangzeb. In 1783, Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur, the first of the Talpur line, established himself as Raees (ruler) of Sindh. The Talpur Mirs successfully resisted the incursion of the British East India Company into their lands, but in 1838, the first Afghan war necessitated the dispatch of British troops to join the main army through the Indus, leading to the arrival of a large British Army in Sindh. The Talpur Mirs did not allow this army to proceed, prompting General Auckland (who was leading this army) to threaten to invade Hyderabad (which included the Jacobabad region); the threat of invasion was enough, and the British Army obtained permission to proceed. However, the British left a huge reserve army behind, one that became a constant reminder of the British threat in the region, leading to the signing of a peace treaty between the Talpur rulers of Sindh and the East India Company in 1841.

Sindh was annexed to British rule in 1843 when the British Army, under Sir Charles Napier, invaded Sindh, after the Talpurs had disbanded[1] their own army. Sir Charles Napier was appointed Governor of the province by the British Queen; he divided Sindh into 3 collectorates: Karachi, Hyderabad, and Shikarpur. The Shikarpur Collectorate consisted of present day Sukkur, Upper Sindh Frontier Province (which included Jacobabad, named Khangarh at the time) and Larkana districts except for the talukas of Sehwan, Dadu, and Johi.

When John Jacob was sent to Khangarh (in Upper Sindh Frontier Province) to establish control of the frontier, he made the city (now Jacobabad) his headquarters. He was only allowed into Mir Talpur’s territories which extended to the Balochi state of Burdica in the East, and Kalat, another sovereign Balochi state, in the North. John Jacob established a cantonment within the narrow belt belonging to the Mirs, and brought peace to the area, which allowed infrastructure development to begin. Land growers, attracted by the stability offered by the British cantonment, started to arrive, and were followed by businessmen and artisans, resulting in the establishment of a thriving town on the site of the village of Khangarh. This town was named after its founder, John Jacob, and was called Jacobabad. General John Jacob died in December 1858 at Jacobabad and was buried in the Christian cemetery located in the West of town.

During British rule, Jacobabad was the administrative headquarters of the Upper Sindh Frontier District of the Bombay Presidency.

During the Independence movement, the area remained loyal to the British powers, but, given its geographical location, it was included in Pakistan at the time of Partition (1947). It consisted of 5 talukas: Garhi Khairo, Jacobabad, Kandhkot, Kashmore, and Thul talukas. For administrative reasons, the district Kashmore-Kandhkot was created out of this district in April 2005, and Kandhkot and Kashmore talukas were made a part of the new district.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Jacobabad district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly of Pakistan 03
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly of Sindh 03

Jacobabad has 2 Municipal Committees:

  • Jacobabad
  • Thul

The district has 3 Town Committees:

  • Garhi Khairo
  • Mirpur Buriro
  • Sardar Sohrab Khan Sarki

Administrative Divisions

There are 3 talukas in Jacobabad district:

Jacobabad Taluka 15 Union Councils
Garhi Khairo Taluka 06 Union Councils
Thul Taluka 19 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Jacobabad Administrative Divisions

Heritage Sites/ Picnic Spots/ Recreational Areas

There are a number of cultural/ heritage sites and parks in the district where families can go for a day long outing. An annual horse and cattle show is held in January; it is a big event that attracts tourists from other parts of Sindh and Pakistan.

Some of the cultural/heritage sites are as follows[1]:

  • Usta Bhalidino Mosque
  • Waghan Wsari Masjid
  • Clock tower
  • General John Jacob’s House/ DC House
  • General John Jacob’s Tomb
  • Dil Murad Mosque
  • Shrine of Long Shah
  • Nizam Ji Therriri (grave chamber)
  • Dad Dari Mosque
  • Hadiro Tomb
  • Kot Jungo Fort
  • Jamia Mosque, Bahadur Pur
  • Jamia Mosque, Ghoas Pur
  • Tomb of Hazrat Ghos
  • Jan Muhammad Mosque
  • Thul of Toujpul
  • Alam Shah Mosque
  • Tomb of Manjhi Khan Khund
  • Tomb of Rehan Khan Village
  • Victoria Tower, Jacobabad
  • Messenger House/ Pigeon Tower
  • Ghauspur Jheel
  • Sindhi Dhor

 

Figure 1.3 Sketch of General John Jacob’s House, c1855-56[2]

Figure 1.4 Victoria Tower, Jacobabad

 

[1] Sindh Strategy for Sustainable Development IUCN; None of these are protected under Government of Pakistan Laws; no description is available for these sites in current literature.

[2] Source: https://www.travel-culture.com/pakistan/jacobabad.shtml?fb_xd_fragment

[1] Please see Hyderabad chapter for details

Topography

Jacobabad district has a uniform and predominantly flat topography formed mainly by the Indus alluvial plains. The district is about 52 meters above mean sea level. The western border of the district is flanked by the Kohistan area (the barren hilly tract consisting of outlying spurs of the Kirthar Range).

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

River Indus is the only perennial river of the district. Ghauspur Jheel (lake) and Sindhi Dhoro/lake are 2 lakes of the region surrounded by wetlands. Both lakes are freshwater lakes. Dhi Dhand is a seasonal lake in the district.

Forests

Since the bifurcation of the district in 2005, there are no forests in the district.

Soils

The alluvial sediments that cover the entire area belong to the quaternary[1] period. Indus alluvium constitutes the main soil groups in the area, which have a loamy, and clayey texture and are part saline. The alluvium has been laid down by the Indus River and consists largely of relatively permeable silt loams, loams, and silty, clayey loams. The Indus River alluvium extends to depths of more than 135 m. The uppermost layer of the soil is not more than one to 2,000 years old and, therefore, its properties are expected to be related to the sedimentary environment in which it was deposited. Some of the Indus alluvial soils are highly saline, primarily containing sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. The salinity of the Indus alluvial soils decreases with increasing depth.

Climate

Climatically, Jacobabad belongs to the upper section of Sindh known as Siro. The thermal equator passes through this region. The climate of Jacobabad is, thus, hot and arid, and is one of the hottest places in the world. The temperature is usually high, particularly from April to August. The mean maximum and minimum temperature in June, the hottest month, is 44.3 °C and 29.4 °C respectively. In January, the coldest month, the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 22.6 °C and 8 °C respectively. Average rainfall in the district ranges from 24 mm to 72 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district falls under Zone 2 A of Pakistan’s Seismic Zone Map[2] which means that there will be moderate to low damage by earthquakes.

[1]The quaternary is the current and most recent of the 3 periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS)

[2] Please see map included in Pakistan chapter

Population

The following table shows the population of the District as per 2017 Census:

Taluka/district Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Jacobabad District 2,698 1,006,297 51.2 4885 29.5 1.7
Jacobabad Taluka 664 382,513
Garhi Khairo Taluka 733 158,360
Thul Taluka 1,301 465,424

Table 1.3 Jacobabad Population Statistics

Religions[1]:

Islam 97%
Hinduism[2] 2.7%
Christianity 0.5%
Ahmadis 0.04%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.4 Jacobabad Religions

Languages[3]:

Sindhi 93.5%
Balochi 3.2%
Urdu[4] 0.6%
Punjabi 0.3%
Pashto 0.5%
Others 1.6%

Table 1.5 Jacobabad Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[2] Most followers of Christianity and Hinduism reside mainly in the urban areas of the district

[3] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[4] Mainly concentrated in the urban areas

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The major economic activities of the district are[1]:

  • Agriculture, Livestock breeding, Fishing & Hunting (54%)
  • Elementary Occupations (31.8%)
  • Service Workers & Shop & Market sales workers (6%)
  • Others (8%)

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of Jacobabad district[1]:

Land Use Area Land Use Area
Geographical Area 267,000 HA Reported Area 267,000 HA
Cultivated Area 195,000 HA Net Area Sown 71,000 HA
Current Fallows 124,000 HA Forest Area – HA
Culturable Waste 38,000 HA

Table 1.6 Jacobabad Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

Nearly 70.6[1]% of rural population of Jacobabad district is involved in agriculture and its allied livestock breeding. Rice, jowar, bajra, sesanum, maize, wheat, gram, mustard & rapeseed, barley, cotton, sugarcane, sunflower, and safflower are the main crops of the district.

The vegetables produced in the district are okra, tinda, brinjal, bitter gourd, tomatoes, peas, cucumber, potatoes, turnip, carrots, spinach, cabbage, radish, chilies, garlic, coriander, ajwain, and onion.

The only fruit produced in the district is a variety of mangoes.

Livestock

Livestock breeding contributes roughly one-third to the total share of agricultural production. The following table shows the statistics of livestock being bred in Jacobabad district[2]:

Cattle 507,000 Heads Buffaloes 469,000 Heads
Sheep 370,000 Heads Goats 524,000 Heads
Camels 2,000 Heads Horses 2,000 Heads
Asses 83,000 Heads Mules 1,000 Heads

Table 1.7 Jacobabad Livestock Statistics

Bhagnari cow, cross breed cattle, kundi buffaloes, kamori goat, barbary goat, a variety of thoroughbred horses and mehra camels are various breeds of livestock in Jacobabad district.

Poultry

Most farmers keep a few head of poultry for their eggs and meat requirements. Data on number of poultry farms for the district is not available.

Fishing

Commercial and local fishing is carried out in River Indus, irrigation canals, and other water courses in the district. Fishing is also carried out in the Ghauspur Jheel, Sindhi Dhoro, and Dhi Dhand, a seasonal lake.

Bee Keeping

Honeybee keeping was introduced in Pakistan in the 1980s, when IUCN and UNDP introduced apiculture in the coastal villages of Sindh as an alternate source of income for local populations that had been dependent on the Mangrove forests for their livelihood. Apiculture has, since then, been slowly and gradually growing as a cottage industry in nearly all parts of Pakistan, including districts like Jacobabad.

Irrigation

Jacobabad district is irrigated by both Sukkur and Guddu Barrages. The following table shows the irrigation statistics of the district[1]:

Mode of Irrigation Area Mode of Irrigation Area
Total Irrigated Area 8,755 HA Canal Irrigated 4,753 HA
Well Irrigated 5 HA Tube Well Irrigated 3,997 HA
Un-irrigated 69,176 HA

Table 1.9 Jacobabad Irrigation Statistics

The district has a large network of water courses which supply water for irrigation and other purposes. According to Environmental Impact Report by Country Survey and Mapping Services and Fincon Services Inc., there are a total of 2,089 water courses in the district, providing water to remote areas.

The following list includes the main canals and distributaries in the district[2]:

  • Kirthar Canal: off-takes from Sukkur Barrage, runs through the district, and flows up to Dadu via Larkana
  • Pat Feeder Canal, Begari Canal, and Desert Canal or the Shahi Wah: from Guddu Barrage, to irrigate the district
  • Noor Wah, Unar Wah, Sone Wah, Koreja Branch and Jamali Wah: large canals flowing from the main trunk canals named above. These main link canals feed hundreds of water courses
  • Jamali Wah: runs through Jacobabad city and is the main source of the city’s water supply

Figure 1.5 Begari Canal headworks, Jacobabad

 

Economic Infrastructure

The economic infrastructure of the district consists of roads, water supply, and sewerage system. The ground water in the district is slightly saline but is fit for human consumption and irrigation. The district headquarters, Jacobabad city, is connected with its tehsil headquarters through black topped roads. The district is also connected to other parts of the country through Pakistan’s railway network.

Roads and Transport

The only major road passing through this district is N-65, which enters this district from Shikarpur and exits towards Dera Murad Jamali, with a total length of 25 km in this district. Provincial and local roads connect the surrounding cities like Sukkur, Shahdadkot, Larkana, and Shikarpur to Jacobabad.

The following table shows the Road Statistics of the District as provided in the Road List 2009 issued by the government of Sindh:

Provincial Highways 166.5 km
Access Roads 215.1 km
Secondary Roads 604.6 km

Table 1.8 Jacobabad Roads Statistics

According to Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18, there are a total of 594 km of black topped roads in the district which are maintained by the Highway Department.

Important roads of the district include:

  • Jacoababad-Garhi Khairo-Shahdadkot Road
  • Jacobabad-Thul-Kandhkot Road
  • Ubaro-Guddu-Kashmore Road
  • Sukkur-Jacobabad Road (National Highway N-65)

Rail and Airways

The district is linked to Karachi and Peshawar through the Pakistan Railways’ main line going from Karachi to Peshawar/ Torkham. The railway station is at Jacobabad and is a railway junction, from where the tracks branch off towards Kashmore and Dera Ghazi Khan. There are smaller railway stations at Thul and Garhi Kharo.

Jacobabad is home to the third largest airport in the country in terms of area. The Jacobabad airport is one of the few airports in Pakistan that can be used jointly for military purposes and commercial flight operations. Also known as PAF Shahbaz, the facility is a Forward Operational Base (FOB) which becomes fully operational during wartime.

Radio and Television

There is an FM radio station in Jacobabad district. PTV transmission can be viewed through boosters throughout the district and Cable TV can also be viewed.

Telecommunications

There are digital telephone exchanges in all talukas of Jacobabad district. Internet facility is also available and nearly all the major cellular companies also operate in the district, providing mobile coverage to the entire region.

Post Offices

Pakistan Post has its main and branch offices in each tehsil of Jacobabad district and all major courier services of the country operate in the district.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

Most of the nationalized banks of Pakistan and some private banks have their branches in all talukas[1] of the district. Banks providing financial services in the district are:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Falah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • JS Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Sindh Bank Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 26 branches of conventional and 3 branches of Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Jacobabad district gets its electricity through the grid stations and transmission lines provided by Hyderabad Electricity Supply Corporation which is a subsidiary of WAPDA and is responsible for supplying electricity to most districts of Sindh. There 3 66 KV and 2 132 KV grid stations in the district.

Education

The literacy rate of the district is 35% with 59% of the urban and 26% of the rural population considered literate. The following table shows the number of educational institutions in the district[1]:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/ Girls
Primary Schools 1,128/182 Middle Schools 45/24
High Schools 39/9 Higher Secondary Schools -/ –
Colleges 03/01 Commercial Institutions 01/ –
Technical Institutions 01/ – Vocational Training 01/03
Universities[2] 01

Table 1.10 Jacobabad Educational Institutes

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Jacobabad district[3]:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 05/288 Dispensaries 33/10
Rural Health Centers 03/24 Basic Health Units 27/54
T B Clinics 06/- Mother Child Health Centers (MCHC) 05/13
Private Hospitals 10/144 Private TB Clinics 01/-
Private Dispensaries 12/15 Private MCHC 01/-

Table 1.11 Jacobabad Health Institutes

Policing

District Police Officer (DPO) Jacobabad is the head of the police department, who reports directly to the Additional Inspector General Police Larkana Zone and is assisted by 4 Subdivisional Police Officers (SDPOs). There are 23 police stations in the district.

Figure 1.6 A Pedlar Selling his Wares in Thul, Jacobabad

Figure 1.7 A Bazaar in Thul, Jacobadad

Figure 1.8 Civil Hospital Jacobabad

 

Figure 1.9 F 16 Aircrafts at Shahbaz Airbase

 

[1] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[2] Liaquat University of Health Sciences has a campus and hospital in Jacobabad

[3] Health Profile Sindh District 2017

[1] List of Reporting Banks by State Bank of Pakistan 2019

 

[1] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[2] Jacobabad District Profile, by Small Medium Enterprise Development Authority, (SMEDA)

[1] 1998 census, 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[2] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18, Livestock Census 2006

[1] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[1] 1998 Census Data; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Environment and Biodiversity

Jacobabad is mainly a rural district with only 29.5% of its population living in urban areas, which means that the district’s environment remains relatively unaffected by industrialization’s negative impact on air and water. The district’s water supply is dependent on surface water, available through Guddu Barrage, and its associated canals. The ground water in most parts of the district is slightly saline but fit for agricultural purposes. Ambient air quality is good.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Flora of the district include mostly thorny trees usually found in arid regions, categorized as Scrub Dry Tropical Thorn Forest Zone, and typical of the natural vegetation of the Indus Basin. It has the capacity to survive and grow in areas with extremely high temperatures and low precipitation. The flora consists of thorny and hard wooded species. Shisham or talhee (Dalbergia sisso), kikar (Acacia nilotica), mullah or ber (Ziziphus numularia), frash (Tamarix aphylla) and mulberry (Morus alba) are the common trees found along canal banks, and irrigated lands.

Sarkanda or wild sugarcane (Saccharum munja), dhaman (Cencherus ciliarus), ajwain or camel thorn (Alhagi maurorum), khabbal or Bermuda grass (Cynodan dactylon), white or jungli jute (Corchorus sp.) and bhakara or puncture vine (Tribulus terrestris) are some of the common weeds found in Jacobabad.

Fauna

Jackal, fox, palm squirrel, house rat, Indian desert jird, jungle cat, Balochistan and Indian gerbils are common fauna of the district. Babblers, crows, doves, egrets, larks, mynas, sparrows, lapwings, plovers, lesser pied kingfishers, black-capped kingfishers, white-breasted kingfishers, warblers, little green bee-eaters, and the bulbul are common birds of Jacobabad district. Migratory birds include eagles, hoopoes, Pipit’s rosy pastors, nightjars, shrikes, swallows, teals, quails, vultures, and wheatears.

Protected Areas

Following is a list of the protected wildlife areas of the district:

  • Indus Dolphin Sanctuary: Spanning Ghotki, Sukkur, Shikarpur, and Jacobabad districts, the Indus Dolphin Sanctuary is a protected area on the Ramsar list. This provides sanctuary to, and a breeding ground for, the endemic blind Indus Dolphin or Bhulan
  • Ghauspur or Rup Jheel: This lake is also on the Ramsar list of internationally important wetlands. It is a fresh water lake, with extensive grassy marshes in a depression on the flood plain on the West Bank of the Indus River. The lake is fed by local run-off and seepage from a nearby irrigation canal, and has no outlet. It is surrounded by seasonally flooded fields. Bunds (small dams) have been constructed to increase the water level which fluctuates by up to 2 meters. This wetland and its surrounding lands are privately owned
  • Sindhi Dhoro Jeel: This lake is also a major wetland that is on the Ramsar list of internationally important wetlands. It is located at 28° 09′ N, 69° 04′ E coordinates. A similar, but much smaller lake, is located close by, to the Northwest. Like Rup Jheel, this wetland and its surrounding lands are also privately owned
  • Ghondak Dhoro: This is a protected wildlife sanctuary and an important wetland providing sanctuary to water fowl, the jungle cat, as well as the Balochistan and Indian gerbils