Sindh-Larkana

Introduction

District Larkana is situated in the northern part of the Sindh province. Its main city is Larkana. It is the home district of two former Prime Ministers of Pakistan: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto.

District Larkana is located between 67° 56” 20Ꞌ to 68° 29” 34Ꞌ East longitudes and 27° 7” 31Ꞌ to 27° 56” 2Ꞌ North latitudes. This district is bounded by Shikarpur district on the Northeast, Khairpur on the East, Jacobabad district on the North, Kamber-Shahdadkot and Dadu districts on the West, and Naushero Feroz district on the South.

District at a Glance

Name of District Larkana or Larkano District
District Capital Larkana City
Population[1] 1,524,000 persons
Area[2] 1,948 km2
Population Density 782.3 persons per km2
Population Growth Rate[3] 2.2%
Male Population[4] 51.0%
Female Population[5] 49.0%
Urban Population[6] 46.0%
Tehsils/ Talukas 4 Talukas:

1.    Dokri Taluka

2.    Larkana Taluka

3.    Ratodero Taluka

4.    Baqrani Taluka

Main Towns Garhi Khuda Bakhsh, Larkana, Dokri, Naudero, Ratodero, Warah, Rashid Wagah, Fatehpur, Goth Pathan, Pir Bakhsh Bhutto, Purano Abad, Dhamarah, Akil, and Agani
Literacy Rate[7] 58%
Male Literacy Rate[8] 72%
Female Literacy Rate[9] 45%
Major Economic Activity[10] Agriculture, livestock breeding, fishing & hunting 65%
Professionals 21.3%
Service Workers, shop & Market sales workers 3.9%
Other 9.8%
Main Crops Wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, jowar, rape and mustard, bajra, barley, masoor, gram, and safflower
Major Fruits Citrus, mangoes, olives, guavas, melons, jaamun, dates, and bananas
Major Vegetables Potatoes, tomatoes, turnips, cauliflower, peas, carrots, cucumber, onion, okra, tinda, brinjal, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, luffa, cucumber, field vetch, lotus root, garlic, coriander, ajwain, fennel
Forests (Area)[11] 65,563 HA (most of it riverine forests)[12]
Total Metaled Road[13] 1,116 km
Shingle Roads[14] – km
No. of Grid Stations[15] 4 Grid Stations in total with 2 having capacity of 132 KV each and 2 with 66 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges Data not available
Industrial Zones[16] One Industrial Estate with 313 industrial[17] plots.
Major Industry[18] and No. of Industrial Units[19] Textile, Food Manufacturing, Ice Factories, Plastic Pipes, Chilies & Other Spice Units, Steel & Clay Pots, Readymade Garments, Furniture and Handicraft Units
Sugar 1 Unit
Rice Husking Mills 109 Units
Cotton Ginning 3 Units
Flour Mills 4 Units
Household Size[20] 5.9 persons per house
Houses (Piped Water Inside)[21] 17.1%
Houses with Electricity[22] 84%

Table 1.1 Larkana District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census; area of Larkana, Dokri, and Ratodero Talukas only

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2013-14 (PSLM); Latest Available

[8] PSLM

[9] PSLM

[10] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[11] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[12] Land Utilization Statistics in the same document has an area of 69,000 HA marked as forests.

[13] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[14] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[15] Environmental & Social Assessment for HESCO by Elan Partners Ltd; latest available.

[16] Larkana Profile by Small & Medium Enterprise (SMEDA)

[17] Pakistan Emergency Situation Analysis, Larkana District 2014 by USAID; Latest available.

[18] SMEDA

[19] Sindh Development Institute, Larkana Economic Profile 2006; Latest available.

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites and Recreation/Picnic Spots

Brief History

The history of Larkana district, like Sindh’s history, can be dated as Governmental back as 2600 BC, when Mohen-jo-Daro, an ancient city, was a bustling metropolis. The archaeological remains of Mohen-jo-Daro are located about 30 kms to the South of Larkana city, in Dokri Taluka, on the West bank of River Indus. The excavations at Mohen-jo-Daro show a city with structures built by manufactured baked bricks, shops lining the streets, and a grand market place. It has been proven that this city used to trade with Ancient Mesopotamia.

Historically, Larkana shares in the political vicissitudes of Sindh. It is known, though, that from 320 AD to 525 AD, Sindh was ruled by the Gupta family. A tribe known as the Chandia helped the Guptas ascend the throne in Sindh and, as their reward, the Guptas gifted the areas now known as Larkana district to them; the Chandias subsequently named this jagir Chandka.

The region, like Sindh, was conquered by Alexander the Great, the Greco-Bactrians, Scythians, Kushans, and the Sassanids, as well as the Arab conquerors who were subsequently dethroned by the Ghaznavids, the Soomras, the Sammas, and the Arghuns. The last of the Arghun rulers, Mirza Khan (1519-92) was defeated by Mughal Emperor Akbar’s forces, bringing the rule of the Arghuns to an end, and making Sindh a part of the Multan province of the Mughal Empire. During the interval between the death of Akbar the Great in 1605 and the invasion of Nadir Shah[1] in 1739, the city of Shikarpur was founded by the Daudputras. In 1701 AD, the Kalhoras[2] were made the Subahdar (governor of a province) of Mughal Emperor by the Mughal Grand Vizier, Mirza Ghazi Beg. Over time, the Kalhoras took control of Shikarpur and made it their capital, from where their dominion was extended to Sibi in 1711. Noor Muhammad Kalhora, who ruled from 1719-1736 AD, consolidated his empire by conquering Northern Sindh (Bhakkar Sarkar), Central Sindh (Sehwan Sarkar) and Southern Sindh (Thatta Sarkar), after which he declared Sindh independent of the Mughals. In 1736, Noor Muhammad Kalhora was officially declared as the Kalhora Nawab of Sindh and was given the title Nawab Khuda-Yar Khan by the Mughal Emperor, Muhammad Shah Zafar. During the rule of the Kalhoras, Sindhi language and arts flourished, especially during the period of Mian Sarfaraz Ahmed Khan Kalhora.

In 1777 AD, Ghulam Nabi Khan, brother of Ghulam Shah Kalhora, was killed in a battle with Mir Bijar Talpur. He was succeeded by his brother Abdul Nabi Khan, who was acknowledged as the sovereign of Sindh with Mir Bijar Talpur as his Minister. The struggle for power between the Talpurs[3] and Kalhoras ended in a battle at Halani in which the Talpurs defeated the Kalhoras. The Talpurs made Nawab Wali Mohammad Khan the Governor of Larkano or Chandko, as it was called then.

The Talpurs continued to rule Sindh till they were defeated by the British at the Battle of Miani in 1848, and Sindh was occupied by the British, who divided it into 3 parts: Karachi, Hyderabad, and Shikarpur. Larkana included Dadu and was a part of the Shikarpur district. In 1930, Dadu was made a separate district, and Larkana remained a part of Shikarpur.

Larkana city itself is a settlement that is purely the result of the construction of a canal, Ghaari Wah, a canal dug at the behest of the Kalhora rulers. Larkana (house of Lariks) was founded about 300 years ago by a tribe of Sindhis called Lariks on the banks of this canal. This town gradually grew on the right bank of Ghaari canal during the reign of Mian Noor Mohammad Kalhoro. Sailors from Laar areas[4] started settling in the region and the city earned its name Larkana or Larkano. It featured fruit and flower gardens along the canal. The city has been called the Eden of Sind or Shiraz of Sind or even Bagh-e-Anam which led to it being known as the Garden City, mostly because of the numerous gardens that thrived in the city. The most famous of these gardens are the Tajar Bagh and Gyan Bagh as well as Tolani Bagh, Riyali Bagh, Baaey-jo-Bagh, Thanwar Bagh, Karamam Bagh, Lahori Bagh, Dharami Bagh, and Lekhraj Bagh. Among these gardens, the mangoes from Tolani Bagh and the ber from Dharami Bagh were famous and much in demand. Two public parks also adorned the city namely Bolus Park which was used for political and social gatherings and Mazdoor Park which was used as an open air study place by budding students. Larkana city is now the largest city on the West bank of River Indus in Sindh.

At the time of Partition, Larkana district comprised of Larkana Taluka, Kamber Taluka (also spelled Qamber) and Ratodero Taluka. In 2005, the Government of Pakistan bifurcated the district, forming a new district with Qamber Khan Taluka and Shahdadkot town and called it Qamber-Shahdadkot. Now Larkana district consists of Ratodero Taluka, Dokri Taluka, Larkana Taluka and Bakrani Taluka (from Dokri Taluka).

Larkana has been, and continues to be, the center of education, business, and politics. It is the home town of 2 former Prime Ministers, 3 Chief Ministers, and many ministers of Pakistan.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Larkana district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 04
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 05

Larkana has one Municipal Corporation as follows:

  • Larkana Municipal Corporation

Larkana has 2 Municipal Committees:

  • Ratodero Municipal Committee
  • Naudero Municipal Committee

The district has 4 Town Committees:

  • Garello
  • Arija
  • Dokri
  • Badah

Administrative Divisions

Larkana district is divided into 4 talukas as follows:

Larkana Taluka 18 Union Councils
Dokri Taluka 08 Union Councils
Ratodero Taluka 09 Union Councils
Baqrani Taluka 09 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Larkana Administrative Divisions

Heritage Sites and Recreation/Picnic Spots

Following are the important archaeological/heritage sites protected under Government of Pakistan Laws:

  • Mohen-jo-Daro: Five thousand year old remains of the Indus Valley’s ancient civilization. Mohen-jo-Daro was one of the world’s first cities and was contemporaneous with ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations. It is sometimes referred to as an Ancient Indus Valley Metropolis by historians
  • Tajjar Building: constructed in 1833 as a temporary residence for Nawab Wali Mohammad Leghari, a nawab of the Khairpur state. He was buried within the site during the Kalhora period
  • Jinnah Bagh: Larkana City
  • Tomb of Shah Baharo: this tomb is in Shah Baharo Colony near Jelas Mandi, Larkana. Shah Baharo was an Amir of Larkana during the Talpur era. The tomb was constructed in 1773 by Ghulam Shah Kalhoro
  • Tomb of Mian Muhammad Saleh Qadri: located in Qadri Mohalla, Larkana. Constructed during the Talpur era, this tomb was constructed by Mian Muhammad Saleh Qadri’s son, Mian Ghulam Muhammad, in his father’s memory
  • Madafan-e-Garhi Khuda Bakhsh Bhutto: this is a historical graveyard, with graves of notable personalities like Sir Shahnawaz Bhutto, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, Shaheed Mir Murtaza Bhutto, and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto. This cemetery is often called the Graveyard of the Martyrs

Important Mosques, shrines and parks of the district include:

  • Eid Gah, Jamia Mosque, Larkana City
  • Lohar or Lahori Jamia Masjid: this is one of the oldest mosques in the district, and is located in Larkana City
  • Qasmia Masjid, Larkana City
  • Allahwari Masjid, Baqrani
  • Jaffri Imam Bargah, Larkana City
  • Dargah Syed Daral Shah Bukhari, Larkana City

Jinnah Bagh, Zulfiqar Bagh, Shahnawaz Children’s Park, New Railway Park 1 & 2, Nawa Tak Park, Kamal Ata Turk Park, and Tank Chowk Park are some of the notable parks in the district.

Figure 1.6 Tomb of Shah Baharo

 

Figure 1.7 Bhutto Tombs, Garhi Khuda Baksh

 

[1] Nadir Shah was the King of Persia and founder of the Afsharid Dynasty of Persia (Iran)

[2] The information about the Kalhoras has been drawn from The Contribution of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro in the Development of Larkana & Kamber-Shahdadkot Districts by Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi.

[3] The Talpurs were a Baloch tribe who had come to Sindh and made it their home. They had acknowledged the Kalhoras as their spiritual leaders. Slowly and gradually their power grew until, after the murder of their leaders (Mir Behram Khan and Mir Sobdar Khan), they started a war with the Kalhoras, defeating them at the Battle of Halani in 1782.

[4] Southern part of Sindh i.e. Thatta and Badin

Topography

Topographically, the district is divided into 2 parts: the Canal Irrigation Tract or the Piedmont Plains and the Eastern Tract.

The Canal Irrigation Tract or the Piedmont Plains[1] are dominated by alluvial fans[2] deposited by the Indus in the past.  These plains extend eastward from the edge of Kirthar Range up to the old flood plains of the Indus River. This is a low lying, vast, flat land containing canal irrigated areas. The tract is bounded by 2 protective bunds (embankments or levees): one in the West, to stop the hill torrents of the Kirthar Range and the other in the East, to safeguard against flood water from the Indus.

The Eastern Tract is located between the flood protection bund of the Indus River and the main river itself. This tract consists of old flood plains stretching between the Piedmont Plains and the active flood plains along the Indus River.

Important topographic characteristics of old flood plains include basins, old channel beds, meander bars, and levees.  These areas are protected from active flooding by an embankment constructed along the western bank of the Indus.  The narrow strip of land between the protective embankment and the river is subject to active flooding.  Main characteristics in this area include level to gently undulating meander bars and levees, level plains, basins, and channel infills.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The Indus River is the only river flowing near Larkana from Northeast to Southwest, touching the borders of the district along Ratodero, Larkana, and Dokri talukas. The only other sources of surface water are the irrigation canals, some of which flow along the natural water courses formed by hill torrents after being strengthened and straightened. Important canals of this network include the Ghar Wah and Qadu Wah.

There are many natural depressions called dhands (lakes) which retain water for a considerable period after rains.

Forests

The forests of the district belong to the Scrub Dry Tropical Thorn Forest Zone. The total area under forests in Larkana district is 69,000 HA. The district has both riverine forests and irrigated plantations.

The flora of riverine forests includes babul (Acacia nilotica), bahan or euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica), athel pine or farash (Tamarix aphylla), lai or salt cedar (Tamarix dioca) and kandi (Prosopis cineraria).

The important flora of irrigated plantations include ritha or soapnut tree (Sapindus trifoliatus), talhee or shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), babul (Acacia nilotica), mulberry (morus alba), neem (Melia azadirech), and cono or common tug tree (Conocarpus lanrcifolius). Simal or cotton trees (Salmalia malabarica or bombax cieba) are also raised for various economic and environmental returns.

Some of the important forests are Salihani, Agani, Nauabad, Amrote, Keti Chandka, Khuhra, Madeji, Khokhar, Tajudero, Visar, Adamji, Sharifpur, Dasu, Behman, Hassan Wahan, Gajidero, Abrepota, Beli Gaji, Bagi, Shahbeg, Gangherko, and Tatri.

Soils

The soils of Larkana consist mainly of very shallow, high mountain soils, and rock outcrops. A thin top layer of the soil in the active flood plains consists of fine silt, while the underground material is clayey.  Soil material in basins and the channels is homogenized to a depth of about 50 cm.  Occasionally, sandy soils in small patches are also found in these areas.  In the old flood plains, meander scars, and levees possess soils which vary from very fine sand to silt-loam.  The soil material in the level plains and basins consists of silty-clay and clay.

Climate

The district has extreme hot summers and mild winters. The network of canals adds humidity to the heat. The summer starts in April and continues till October, after which the nights begin to cool and day temperatures also begin to ebb. June is the hottest month when the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 44 °C and 28 °C respectively, while January is the coldest month, when the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 23 °C and 05 °C respectively.

Dust storms are common in the summer and hot winds blow continuously for about 40 days starting in May.

June and July are the Monsoon months when the district gets its maximum amount of rains. Mean annual precipitation of the district is only 88 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2 A of the Seismic Zone Map[3] of Pakistan which means that it falls in the minor earthquake zone of Pakistan.

[1] Piedmont Plains are the areas located at the foot of mountains or hills

[2] An alluvial fan is a fan or cone-shaped deposit of sediment built up by, and crossed by, streams

[3] See map included in the chapter on Pakistan

Population

The following table shows the population of Larkana district as per the 2017 Census:

District/Taluka     Area km2 Population Male% Female % Urban % Growth Rate %
Larkana District 1,948 1,524,391 51% 49% 46% 2.2
Larkana Taluka 549 738,069
Dokri Taluka 837 225,294
Ratodero Taluka 562 331,584
Baqrani Taluka 229,444 Part of Dokri Taluka in 1998

Table 1.3 Larkana Population Statistics

Bakrani taluka was created out of Dokri Taluka, and hence the area, urban proportion, and mean annual growth rate are included in the data for Dokri Taluka.

Religions[1]

Islam 98.5%
Hinduism 1.4%
Christianity 0.1%
Ahmadis 0.1%
Others Negligible %

Table 1.4 Larakana Religions

Languages[2]

Sindhi 95.1%
Urdu 3.6%
Balochi 0.5%
Punjabi 0.3%
Seraiki 0.1%
Pashto 0.06%
Others 0.4%

Table 1.5 Larkana Languages

[1] 1998 Census; includes data for Kamber-Shahdadkot District also; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The major economic activities of the district are[1]:

  • Agriculture, livestock breeding, fishing & hunting (65%)
  • Professionals (21.3%)
  • Service Workers, Shop & Market Sales Workers (3.9%)
  • Other (9.8%)

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Southern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture in the region is mostly dependent on canal irrigation. Important crops are wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, jowar, rape and mustard, bajra, barley, masoor, gram, and safflower.

Important vegetables grown in the district are potatoes, tomatoes, turnips, cauliflower, peas, carrots, cucumber, onion, okra, tinda, brinjal, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, luffa, cucumber, field vetch, lotus root, garlic, coriander, ajwain, and fennel.

Major fruits are citrus, mangos, olives, guavas, melons, jaamun, dates, and bananas.

Land Use

The following table enumerates the major land use statistics of the district as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Land Use Area Land Use Area
Total Area 201,000 HA Reported Area 201,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 50,000 HA Net Sown 48,000 HA
Current Fallow 2,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 152,000 HA
Culturable waste 52,000 HA Forest Area 69,000 HA

Table 1.6 Larkana Land Use Statistics

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is the second most important source of income in the district. The livestock mostly consists of sheep, goats, cattle, donkeys, camels, and horses. These animals play a vital role in the economy of the district and provide food with rich nutritional value such as milk and meat, and their by-products such as butter, oil, cheese, curd, skin, and intestines. Sheep provide wool, while bullocks, and camels are kept for farming as well as for nutritional purposes.

The following table shows the number of livestock recorded in the district by Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Cattle 216,000 Heads Buffaloes 531,000 Heads
Sheep 52,000 Heads Goats 248,000 Heads
Camels 1,000 Heads Horses 1,000 Heads
Asses 82,000 Heads Mules 890,000 Heads

Table 1.7 Larkana Livestock Statistics

Indigenous livestock breeds include kooka sheep, barbary goat, cross-breed cattle, and thorough bred horses.

Figure 1.3 Kooka Sheep

Figure 1.4 Barbary Goat

Irrigation

The district is irrigated by the canals off-taking from the Sukkur Barrage. Rice Canal (seasonal) and Dadu Canal (perennial) pass through the district and irrigate the agricultural fields. Other canals include Kirthar Canal, Warah Branch, and Ghaari Wah. Other modes of irrigation include tube wells and wells.

The following table shows the modes of irrigation and area irrigated by each mode as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Mode of Irrigation Area Mode of Irrigation Area
Total irrigated area 25,008 HA Canal Irrigated 17,386 HA
Unirrigated Area 22,811 HA Tube Well Irrigated 7,622 HA

Table 1.9 Larkana Irrigation Statistics

Poultry

In rural areas, poultry, in small numbers, is bred in houses by women for eggs and meat. Most of the commercial poultry farms are located around urban centers. There are 259 poultry farms[2] in the district.

Fisheries

Fishing is an important economic activity in the district. It is mostly carried out in the River Indus and irrigation canals of the district.

Minerals and Mining

Oil and gas are being mined in the district. In addition, there are reliable signs that coal is present in the district.

Manufacturing/ Industry

There is one Industrial Estate in Larkana district. It covers 59 acres, and the total number of industrial plots are 313. The average size of the plots is about 1 to 2 Kanal[3].

Textile, sugar, and rice husking mills are the important industries in the district.

According to the Census of Manufacturing Industries Pakistan 2005-06 (latest available), there are 84 units that are manufacturing food products & beverages, as well as machinery & equipment.

Other manufacturing units operative in Larkana are flour mills, rice mills, as well as processing units like those for chilies and spices, and processed foods. The district also has ice factories, and oil mills, and factories that produce plastic pipes, steel pots, and clay pots, readymade garments, candles, simple to stylish bricks, and furniture.

Handicrafts

The main cottage industry in the district is the making of embroidered caps and dresses by women. This handicraft has a strong, reliable market in local towns. Other cottage industries include the making of lungi, and soosi cloth, as well as specialized gold ornaments, with embedded mirrorwork.

Figure 1.5 Ralli Quilt Work by women from Larkana

 

Economic Infrastructure

Larkana has a network of black topped and kutcha (non-metaled) roads in all parts of the district. All taluka headquarters/ capitals are connected with the district capital, Larkana, either by road or by rail.

The Pakistan Railways runs through the district from North to South. Larkana railway station is a railway junction from where trains take different directions, connecting all parts of Pakistan with Larkana..

Roads and Transport

All taluka headquarters are connected with the district capital by black topped roads. Most of the kutcha (non-metaled) roads are in the western half of the district.

As per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18, Larkana had 1,116 km of High Type roads and no low type roads.

As per the Road List issued by the Sindh Government in 2009 (Latest available), the district[1] has the following road work:

Provincial Roads 215.2 km
Access Roads 1,018.8 km
Secondary Roads 661.9 km

Table 1.8 Larkana Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district are:

  • Indus Highway or National Highway N-55 links Larkana with Jacobabad, Shikarpur, and Sukkur in the Northeast and with Dadu and Hyderabad in the South.  This road meets the junction of Super Highway and National Highway at Jamshoro
  • Miro Khan Road connects Larkana with Miro Khan (total length: about 28 km)
  • Moenjodaro Road is a 24 km long connection between Larkana and the important archaeological site of Mohen-jo-Daro.  The same road provides access to the airport located in Mohen-jo-Daro’s vicinity
  • Naudero Road is 18 km long and connects Larkana with Naudero town
  • Lakhi-Naudero-Larkana Road
  • Larkana-Shahdadkot-Qubo Saeed Khan Road

Rail and Airways

Larkana is connected by railway line with Shikarpur in the Northeast, Dadu in its South, and Jacobabad in the North. Other than Rato Dero, all other taluka capitals are linked by rail. The Karachi-Quetta main railway line crosses the district in a North-South direction and connects Larkana with Sukkur and Quetta.  The same line links Larkana with Badeh, Dokri, Mohen-jo-Daro, Naudero, Dadu, Sehwan, Kotri, and Karachi.  Another line branches from Larkana and enters Jacobabad district via Shahdadkot and Kamber.

Mohen-jo-Daro airport operates regular flights from Karachi and Sukkur.  Onward connections from these two cities link Larkana with all international airports in Pakistan.

Figure 1.8 Larkana Airport

Radio and Television

There is no television station in Larkana, but TV can be viewed through boosters and cable. Radio Pakistan has a broadcasting station located in Larkana city as well as an FM radio station.

Telecommunications

Larkana is a modern city with telecommunications services easily available. Pakistan Telecommunications Corporation (PTCL) has exchanges in all taluka headquarters and the district is linked with other parts of Pakistan and the world through both PTCL lines and most of the mobile phone companies, which are operating in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

Pakistan Post Office has its offices in all taluka headquarters with Urgent Mail Service (UMS) also easily available. TCS, the leading courier service provider in Pakistan, has offices at two locations in Larkana. In all, there are 36 post offices[2] in the district.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

The following banks have their branches[3] in the district:

  • Al-Baraka Bank
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Al-Falah Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Bank Islami Pakistan Ltd.
  • Faisal Bank Ltd.
  • First Women Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • National Investment Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Silk Bank Ltd.
  • Sindh Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 62 branches of conventional banks and 6 branches of Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

The district gets its electricity through the national grid. Hyderabad Electric Supply Corporation is responsible for providing electricity to the district. There are 2 grid stations of 132 KV and 2 that are of 66 KV capacity in the district.

Larkana Taluka and other taluka headquarters are connected to the natural gas lines.

Education

The literacy rate[4] of Larkana district is 58% with 53% urban and 29% rural population recorded as being literate.

The following table shows the number of educational institutions in the district as per Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 887/134 Middle schools 47/17
High School 53/20 Higher Secondary 01/-
Degree College 04/03 Technical schools 02/-
Commercial Institute 01/- Vocational institutes 04/07
Medical Colleges[5] 01 Engineering Colleges
Universities[6] 02 Cadet Colleges 01
Agricultural Colleges 01

Table 1.10 Larkana Educational Institutes

Additionally, there are schools in the private sector in the district which offer co-education.

 

Figure 1.9 Chandka Medical College

Health

The following table displays brief data on Government Health Care Institutions of Larkana district as per Health Profile Sindh by District, 2017:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Teaching Hospitals 01/1,250 Govt. Hospitals 08/1,695
Rural Health Centers 05/48 Basic Health Units 28/56
Dispensaries 53/12 Mother Child Health Centers -/-
TB Centers 08/- Private Hospitals 23/422
Private Dispensaries 176/- Private MCHC 08/08

Table 1.11 Larkana Health Institute

In addition there are 3 Maternity homes, 01 leprosy center and 01 Unani Shifa Khana[7].

Policing

Sindh’s police department is headed by the Provincial Police Officer who controls 6 Additional Inspector General Police (one each of Sindh, Investigations, Special Branch, Karachi, Hyderabad, and Regional Police Officer—RPO—Sukkur). Additional Inspector General Police (AIGP) Sukkur is in charge of the entire police department of Sukkur and Larkana. The Deputy Inspector General (Operations), Sukkur and Larkana report directly to the AIGP RPO Sukkur. The DIG (Operations) Larkana has 5 DPOs (Deputy Police Officers) who report directly to the DIG. These officers are responsible for policing Larkana.

In all, there are 27 police stations[8] in the district.

Figure 1.10 Mohen-jo-Daro, Larkana

Figure 1.11 District Court, Larkana

Figure 1.12 Hamal Lake, Larkana

[1] Data for Kambar-Shahdadkot District is included

[2] Official website of Pakistan Post

[3] List of reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan.

[4] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2013-14; latest available

[5] Chanka/Chandko Medical College

[6] Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University, Larkana and Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST), Larkana Campus.

[7] Unani medicines uses herbal ingredints

[8] Official Website of Sindh Police

Figure 1.5 Ralli Quilt Work by women from Larkana

[1] 1998 Census Data; 2017 Census Data has not been made public yet.

[2] Table 17: Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock

[3] Kanal is a unit of area mostly used in Punjab; 1 kanal is nearly 4,500 Sq. Feet

Environment and Biodiversity

During the rule of the Talpurs, Larkana was called the City of Gardens as it was home to numerous gardens, but due to water logging and salinity problems, most of the gardens have now dwindled and vanished. Now the district faces severe sanitation problems. The biodiversity is also diminishing.

The district is pollution free as it is relatively free of industry, and the only pollutants are dust particles and vehicular emissions.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The chief natural forest trees of Larkana district are the babul (Acacia arabica), bahan (populuseuphratica), Kandi (prosopopis specigera), siras (mimosa sirissa), and peepal (ficus religiosa). Some of the exotic species include amaltas, gulmohar, kachnar, toot, eucalyptus, poplar, and simal, found in the irrigated plantations of Larkana Forest Division.

The trees grown in the irrigated zones include gum arabica or babul (Acacia nilotica), Indian walnut or white sirin (Albizia procera), ash-leaved bead tree or neem (Azadirachta indica), pudding pipe tree or amaltas (Cassia fistula), Ethiopian teak or kono (Conocarpus lancifolius), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), red gum or sufaida (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), banyan tree or bargad (Ficus benghalensis), jungle jalaibee or Manila tamarind (Pithecellobium dulce), silk cotton tree or simal (Salmalia malabarica), Egyptian pea or jantar (Sesbania aegyptiaca), arjun tree (Terminalia arjuna), and tulip tree or peepal (Thespesia populnea).

Plants growing in the wetlands of the district include reed grass or nar (Arundo donax), banafsha or water velvet (Azolla pinnata), pani jo phog (Bergia suffruticosa), water thyme or pani jo booti (Hydrilla verticillata), rush or kal (Juncus martimus), water willow or aabi bed (Justica heterocarpa), lotus or paboro (Lotus garcinii), water grass or naro gah (Phragmites karka), sedge or delo (Scirpus capitatus), and elephant grass (Typha angustata).

Fauna

Mammals found in the district include Asiatic jackal, Indian or Bengal fox, jungle cat, mongoose, hog deer, wild boar, palm squirrel, porcupine, Indian gerbil, hedgehog, and house shrew.

Avifauna of the wetlands of the district include kites, stilts, pigeons, mynas, shrikes, finches, black drongo or king crow, sandpipers, larks, warblers, egrets, chiffchaff, babblers, desert lark, desert wheateater, herons, hoopoe, common moorhens, kingfishers, bulbul, ring doves, owls, long-legged buzzard, short-toed eagle, sparrows, streaked weavers, and terns.

Reptiles include house geckos, Sindh sand geckos, dhaman or oriental rattle snake, glossy-bellied racer, Eastern diadem snake, Indian cobra, Indian krait, lizards, toads, frogs, bull frogs, and Indian flap shell turtles.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Wildlife

Protected wildlife areas in the district provide sanctuary to most of the mammals found in the forests of the district, especially the hog deer. The wetlands are important wintering and breeding grounds for migrant and other game birds. Following are the important wildlife areas in the district:

  • Dosu Forest (Riverine forest): a Game Reserve near Dosu Dara (Naudero)
  • Pagri Lake: a shallow brackish water lake providing wintering ground for migrant birds. It is situated 10 km Southeast of Dokri and 30 km Southwest of Larkana.