SINDH ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE

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Economic Infrastructure

The economic infrastructure of Sindh consists of an extensive road network, railway lines, ports and shipping, and airways. Sindh’s Communications sector, consisting of print and electronic media (television and cable), as well as radio and information technology, is at the forefront of the Communications sector in Pakistan. Internet service is available in 138 towns and cities of Sindh.

RoadsRailways and AirwaysMediaTelecommunicationsPost Offices and Courier ServicesBanking/ Financial InstitutionsElectricity and GasEducationHealthPolicing

Roads

According to the Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18, there are a total of 21,614 km of Black Topped roads in Sindh.

Details of the Road Network of Sindh[1] are shown in the following table:

National Highways 1,279 km[2]
Provincial Highways 3,620.7 km
Access Roads 9,893.1 km
Secondary Roads 10,589.47 km
Total Road Length 25,383 km

Table 1.16 Sindh Road Network Details

Road statistics, according to Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18[3]:

Total Road Length 21,614.00 km
High Type Roads 21,614.00 km

Table 1.17 Sindh Road Statistics

Figure 1.19 Sindh Highways Network Map

Important National Highways and Motorways of Sindh:

  • National Highway N-5. Karachi-Ubuaro, Ghotki district. (671 km)
  • National Highway N-25 (also known as RCD Highway). Karachi-Bela City, Lasbela district. (23 km)
  • National Highway N-55 (also known as Indus Highway). Karachi-Hyderabad-Nawabshah-Khairpur. (495 km)
  • National Highway N-65. Sukkur-Shikarpur-Jacobabad. (90 km)
  • Motorway M-7 . Dadu-Dureji, Hub district. (132 km)
  • Motorway M-9 . Karachi-Hyderabad. (136 km)
  • Karachi-Northern Bypass M-10. (57 km)

Railways and Airways

Railways

Shortly after the fall of Sindh and Punjab to the British Raj in 1847, Sir Henry Edward Frere (a British Colonial Administrator), the Commissioner of Sindh, sought permission from Lord Dalhousie (Governor General of India)  to begin a survey for a Karachi seaport and railway line connecting Karachi to Lahore. On 13th May 1861, the first railway line was opened for public traffic between Karachi City and Kotri, a distance of 169 km (105 miles). By 1876, the line had been extended to Lahore.

At present, there are 2 vital railway lines in the province, one connecting Sindh to Punjab and the other to Quetta, Balochistan. A branch line from Hyderabad connects the province to the Indian border at Khokrapar (Tharparkar Distict), via Mirpurkhas.

Airways

J.R.D. Tata, also known as the “father of aviation” in British India made the maiden voyage from Juhu Aerodrome in Bombay to Drigh Road airstrip (now Jinnah International Airport), Karachi, via Ahmedabad, on 15 October 1932, carrying mail in a Puss Moth aircraft[4].

During the 1940s there was a large black colored hangar at the current site of Karachi Airport, constructed for the British R101 Airship. However, the R101 Airship did not arrive in Karachi (then part of the British Raj) as the aircraft crashed early in its journey in France. This hangar was big enough, however, to be often used by aircraft as a visual marker while attempting VFR landings at Karachi. It remained a landmark till in the 1960s, when President Ayub khan ordered its demolition.

During the Second World War, Karachi became the military base and port for supplies to the Russian front. Troops were stationed and trained at this base. Military intelligence services also operated from this base and basic telegraph and telecommunication systems were established. After the War, Karachi became the center for supplies to the allied troops in South and South-East Asia.

At the time of partition, Karachi had the only airport in Sindh. Since then, a number of new airports have been constructed as follows:

Airport District Military Airbase District
Hyderabad (now closed) Hyderabad PAF Base; Shahbaz Jacobabad
Jacobabad Airport Jacobabad PAF Base Faisal Karachi
Kandanwari (Private; owned by a consortium of gas cos.) Khairpur District PAF Base Masroor Karachi
Jinnah International Airport Karachi Sindhri Airport Mirpurkhas
Mohen-jo-Daro Airport Larkana PAF Base Bholari Thatta
Nawabshah Airport (Used only as diversion airport) S. Benazirabad
Sawan/Sahiwal (Private & domestic) Khairpur District
Sehwan Sharif Jamshoro
Sukkur Airport Sukkur
Talhar Airport Badin
Dadu Airport Dadu
Sehwan Sharif Airport Jamshoro

Table 1.18 Sindh List of Airports

Media

Radio

Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) is the official Radio Broadcasting Corporation of Pakistan. It owns 5 MW[5] and 9 FM radio stations in Sindh. There are 3 MW stations in Karachi and 2 in Hyderabad. Karachi, Mithi, Hyderabad, Bhitshah, Khairpur, and Larkana are home to FM radio stations. There are a number of privately owned radio channels in various districts of Sindh in addition to those owned by the PBC. These channels broadcast programs in regional languages (Sindhi, among others) as well as the national language (Urdu).

Television

From independence to the year 2000, Pakistan had only one state-owned television broadcaster, called Pakistan Television, which had its headquarters in both Lahore and Karachi. The Karachi station began its broadcasts in 1967, whereas the Lahore station started broadcasting in 1964. PTV can now be viewed on terrestrial networks through boosters and cable networks in all areas of Pakistan. By 2007, PTV had expanded to broadcasting content to 6 channels. The Peoples Television Network was the first private channel, which began broadcasting in 1990 as Shalimar Television Network (STN) from Islamabad and Karachi. This channel was shut down due to administrative reasons in 1999. Another private TV channel, Indus TV, was launched in the year 2000 from Karachi.

Some of the TV stations which have their headquarters in Karachi, Sindh are:

  • BusinessPlus (Closed in 2018)
  • ARY (7 channels)
  • Express TV (2 channels)
  • Hum TV (3 channels)
  • TV One (2 channels)
  • Geo TV (5 channels)
  • Urdu1
  • Madani Channel
  • Health TV
  • KTN (Sindhi language)
  • Kashish TV (Sindhi language)
  • Oxygene TV
  • Aaj TV (2 channels)
  • Dawn News
  • Raah TV
  • Indus TV Network
  • Labbaik TV
  • Jaag TV Renamed as GNN
  • Samaa News

All the TV channels broadcasting Sindhi language programs are based either in Karachi or Hyderabad.

Print Media

Sindh is home to the most influential print media in the country. The largest and most highly circulated English and Urdu language publications are based in Karachi. The province also has a flourishing regional language print media which holds a near monopoly over circulation in interior Sindh.

Telecommunications

Sindh is in the forefront of the telecommunications sector in Pakistan, which includes internet services and cellular networks.

Internet service is available in 138 towns and cities[6]. In all, there are 91 tehsils/ Tehsils in Sindh, of which, 73 tehsils have access to fiber optics and, thus, to modern telephone facilities. Nearly all of Sindh has access to cellular phone service.

The share of telecom sector in total GST (General Sales Tax) of the country has increased from 8% in 2002 to 13.5% in the year 2005. In 2005, 1,516,669 fixed line connections were operating in Sindh[7].

Post Offices and Courier Services

The Pakistan Post Office Department of Sindh has General Post Offices in nearly every district of Sindh. It provides communication links for individuals and businesses. In addition, it also collects payments for utility bills, provides facilities like the Postal Savings Bank and International Money Transfers. The department also provides Express Post Services.

Service providers like TCS, BCS, OCS, DHL, Hyeworth Mail Order Co., IDL World Wide Express and TransInternational provide courier services for letters, and parcels to be delivered provincially, nationally, and internationally.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

Nearly all national and international banks operating in Pakistan have their branches in Sindh. Since Karachi is the commercial hub of the country, nearly every commercial bank operating in Pakistan has its branches in Karachi.

National banks with headquarters and branches in Sindh include:

  • Allied Bank
  • Arif Habib Rupali Bank
  • Askari Commercial Bank
  • Atlas Bank
  • Bank Alfalah
  • Bank AlHabib
  • Bank Islami
  • Crescent Commercial Bank
  • Faysal Bank
  • Dubai Islamic Bank
  • First Women Bank
  • Habib Bank
  • Habib Metropolitan Bank
  • Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan
  • JS Bank
  • Muslim Commercial Bank
  • Meezan Bank
  • Mybank Pvt. Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • Prime Commercial Bank
  • Saudi Pak
  • SME
  • Soneri Bank
  • Standard Chartered
  • Bank of Khyber
  • Bank of Punjab
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

Electricity and Gas

Karachi Electric (KE), formerly known as Karachi Electricity Supply Corporation (KESC), looks after the supply of electricity to Karachi. Hyderabad Electric Supply Corporation (HESCO) looks after electricity supplies to the rest of Sindh.

Electricity Generated and distributed by KE Includes:

  • KE           2,294 MW
  • IPPs[8] connected to KE 366 MW
  • Other sources[9] connected to KE 87 MW
  • KANUPP 137 MW
  • Total 2,884 MW

Gas connections are available in most of the urban areas of Sindh.

Education

The literacy rate of Sindh as per Sindh at a Glance 2018 by Federal Bureau of Statistics is 62.2%. The breakdown is as follows:

Male Literacy rate 72.8%
Female Literacy Rate 49.9%
Urban Literacy Rate 78.4%
Rural literacy rate 44.1%

Table 1.20 Sindh Literacy Rates

Formal schooling in Pakistan has 3 stages: primary, middle and secondary or high school, and runs for a total period of 10 years. Total number of public and private educational institutions in the province[12] is shown in the following table:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary schools 33,830/4,303 Middle schools 1,696/ 545
High Schools 1,473/537 Higher Secondary School 7/9
Colleges 139/99 Post Graduate Colleges 09/05
Technical Institutes 65/8 Commercial Training 40/-
Vocational Training 39/100 Cadet Colleges 05
Agricultural Colleges 01 Universities Public sector 21/1
Universities (Private) 33/1 Medical Schools[13] 22
Engineering Colleges/ Universities 23 Agriculture University 01
Law Colleges 18

Table 1.21 Sindh Educational Institutes

Health

According to the Human Development Index (HDI)[14], the urban areas of Sindh have the highest ranking (0.659) but the rural areas of Sindh have the lowest ranking (0.456) in Pakistan. The province has the highest unemployment ratio. Sindh also has the highest child mortality rate (109 per 1,000 births) compared to the national average of 103 per 1,000 births. The number of health institutions in the province[15] are shown in the following table:

Institution No. Beds Institution No. Beds
Teaching Hospitals 05 7,382 Government Civil, Specialized, Major  & Taluka Hospitals 102 7,016
Departmental Hospitals 31 3073 Government Dispensaries 928 30
Semi Govt. & Local Bodies Dispensaries 942 88 Mother Child Health Centers (MCHC) 96 91
Semi Govt., Local Bodies MCHC 49 38 Rural Health Centers (RHC) 133 1703
Basic Health Units (BHU) 800 1615 Govt. TB Clinics 207 30
Private TB Clinics 16 10 Semi Govt., Local Bodies TB Clinics 5 2
Private Hospitals 502 11,516 Local Bodies Hospitals 8 1139
Private Dispensaries 1,126 597 Private MCHC 82 52

Table 1.22 Sindh Health Institutes Statistics

 

Other health clinics and institutes include:

  • 17 Leprosy Clinics
  • 42 Maternity Homes
  • 4 Homeopathic Dispensaries
  • 8 Trauma Emergency Centers
  • 441 Unani Shifakhanas
  • 5 Urban Health Centers
  • 12 Urban Health Units

Policing

Sindh police is responsible for policing of Sindh and keeping the province peaceful.

Sir Charles Napier, the Governor of Bombay Presidency (also known as Bombay and Sindh from 1843 to 1936) created the Sindh Police in 1843, which was funded by the state and consisted of a distinct chain of command, a mounted section, and was equipped with weapons. This Police Force was supervised by the officers of the British army. This police system was exceptionally successful, and British East India Company suggested that a common system of policing be established on this pattern. A Police Commission was formed in 1860 and a police system under the leadership of Mr. H. M. Court was set up. One of the policy directives to the Police Commission of 1860[16] was that “though the duties of the police should be entirely civil, not military, the organization and discipline of the police should be similar to those of a military body”.

The current police system in Pakistan has been established under this Charter. The system normally comprises the Police, Prosecution, and Judiciary.  Police is the most visible arm of the Law Enforcement Mechanism. After the promulgation of the Police Order 2002 in Pakistan, the Police branch has been divided into 2 branches, namely Operation and Investigation. In every district, there is a District Public Prosecutor assisted by Deputy District Public Prosecutors and Assistant District Public Prosecutors (Section-8(2)).

Currently, the police department in Sindh is headed by the Inspector General Police (IGP) Sindh, who is in charge of providing overall security to the general public. In October 2010, the government announced that Sindh Police would be provided with phone-tracking technology to help them tackle kidnapping cases and corruption on the streets of Karachi.

Sindh Police is divided into the following sections:

  • Capital City Police Office, Karachi, which is headed by Capital City Police Officer (CCPO) Karachi
  • Range Police Offices
  • Special Security Unit (SSU)

The Karachi Capital City Police Office is divided into 3 zones:

  • The West Zone: This includes SITE Town, New Karachi Town, North Nazimabad Town, Gulberg Town, Liaquatabad Town, Orangi Town and Baldia Town
  • The East Zone: This includes Gulshan Town, Shah Faisal Town, Landhi Town, Korangi Town, Bin Qasim Town, Malir Town, and Gadap Town
  • South Zone: This includes  Kemari Town, Clifton, Saddar Town, Jamshed Town, and Lyari Town

The Karachi Traffic Police looks after 5 Traffic Zones in the city.

Following are the Range Police Offices in Sindh:

  • Hyderabad Range headed by Deputy Inspector General Police (DIGP) Hyderabad stationed in Hyderabad. The DIGP is responsible for the Additional Inspector General (AIGP) Crimes & Operations headquartered in Hyderabad and AIGP Establishment, again at Hyderabad. The DIGP is also responsible for the Senior Superintendent of Police (SSPs) of Hyderabad, Tando Allah Yar, Tando Muhammad Khan, Matiari, Badin, Dadu, Jamshoro, Thatta, and Sujawal districts
  • Sukkur Range headed by the DIGP at Sukkur. This DIGP is responsible for Additional Inspector General Police (AIGP) Establishment and Superintendent Police Sukkur, Khairpur, and Ghotki districts
  • Larkana Range headed by DIGP Larkana at Larkana and responsible for AIGP Operations at Larkana and Superintendant Police (SP) Legal (Larkana) as well as SSPs of Larkana, Shikarpur, Jacobabad, Kambar-Shahdadkot, and Kashmore districts
  • Mirpurkhas Range headed by DIGP Mirpurkhas and responsible for AIGP Crimes & Operations, Mirpurkhas, AIGP Establishment, Mirpurkhas, SP Legal Mirpurkhas, SSP Mirpurkhas, as well as SPs of Tharparkar and Umerkot districts

A newly established division of the Sindh Police is the Special Security Unit which is a specialized counterterrorism and security unit of the Sindh Police. It performs the function of counterterrorism operations and provides security to important personalities and institutions. It is based in Karachi and its operational jurisdiction extends to the entire area of Sindh.

Figure 1.21 Quaid-e-Azam Mausoleum

Figure 1.22 KPT Flyover Karachi

 

Figure 1.23 An artifact from Mohen-jo-Dar

 

[1] Road List 2009, issued by Government of Sindh

[2] National Highway Authority Official Website

[3] These Road Lengths are the roads maintained by the Highway Department only. Those not maintained by the Highway Department are the responsibility of local governments or other local bodies, and are not listed here

[4] An Introduction to Travel & Tourism by Pran Nath Seth, Sushma Seth Bhat

[5] Medium Wave

[6] Sindh State of Environment and Development by IUCN

[7] The Daily News August 2005.

[8] Independent Power Producers connected to KE

[9] Other Sources Include various Small Power Producers (SPPs), Certified Power Producers (CPPs) and Licensed Power Producers

[10] Spate irrigation is a type of irrigation system in which rain water is harvested stored and used for irrigation

[11] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[12] Sindh Development Statistics 2017-18

[13] Including Private Sector

[14] HDI is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into 4 tiers of human development.

[15] Health Profile Sindh District 2017

[16] From Official Website of Sindh Police

Sindh Districts

  • Karachi
  • Badin
  • Dadu
  • Ghotki
  • Hyderabad
  • Jacobabad
  • Jamshoro
  • Kashmore
  • Khairpur
  • Larkana
  • Matiari
  • Mirpurkhas
  • Nuashero Feroze
  • Sanghar
  • Shahdadkot
  • Shaheed Benazirabad
  • Shikarpur
  • Sukkhur
  • Tando AllahYar
  • Tando Mohammad Khan
  • Tharparkar
  • Thatta
  • Umerkot