Economic infrastructure consists of roads, highways, rail, air, electricity, and gas. KP consists of mixed terrain of mountainous land, rivers and vast plains which needs an efficient road and rail system to connect these areas to each other. National Highway Authority (NHA) is the main national body that looks after the construction/ maintenance of road infrastructure throughout the country including KP. The Communication & Works Department KP constructs and maintains Provincial roads in the province.
In 1939, the British extended the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR) into the region, which connected the modern KP region to the plains of India in the east. Now Pakistan Railways looks after construction and maintenance of railway lines/ stations in the province.
 GIPR was the predecessor of the Central Railway which constructed and maintained railway lines in India, during British rule
Roads account for over 96% of passenger and 90% of freight transport in KP. There are 2 types of roads in KP: high type roads, which are black topped all-weather roads, and low type roads. Black topped roads consist of National Highways, Motorways, and Provincial roads.
The Silk Road or Shahrah-e-Karakorum or National Highway N 35, is the highest paved international road which links China and Pakistan, crossing the Karakorum Mountain Range through the Khunjerab Pass, at an elevation of 4,693 m.
Other important roads in the province are:
- Grand Trunk Road or National Highway N 5, connecting Karachi and Peshawar
- National Highway N 55 or Indus Highway, connecting Peshawar‒Kohat‒Bannu‒D.I. Khan
- Pakistan Motorway M 1 Peshawar‒Islamabad section
The following table shows the road statistics according to KP Development Statistics 2018-19:
|Total Roads||24,904.6 km|
|High Type Roads||16,146.3 km|
|Low Type Roads||8,758.4 km|
Table 1.13 KP Road Statistics
Figure 1.30 KP A View of N-35
Figure 1.31 KP Shingle Road leaving Lake Saiful Malook
Figure 1.32 River Swat
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Comprehensive Development Strategy 2010-2017 P&D Govt. of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
 Includes National, and Provincial Highways & Motorways
There are 4 major railway stations in the province and many small railway stations. The Khyber Pass train that connected Pakistan with Kabul (Afghanistan) was discontinued in 2006 due to the Monsoon rains which washed away several sections of the tracks.
Figure 1.33 KP Railway Bridge over River Kabul (Replacement of Boat Bridge)
Peshawar Airport is the only international airport in the province; the others are all domestic, and include Dera Ismail Khan, Saidu Sharif, Chitral, Bannu, Parachinar, and Tarbela Dam airports. There are 2 military airbases in the province.
Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) is the state-run radio service of Pakistan. PBC operates 6 medium wave and 6 FM frequency radio stations in KP. In addition, there are 29 privately-owned broadcasting stations in KP.
The Pushto Language TV channels are AVT Khyber, Khyber News, Aruj TV, and Sharang Pushto Channel. These TV channels have their head offices in Islamabad, and regional offices in Peshawar and Quetta.
According to the KP Development Statistics 2018-19, there are 416 telephone exchanges in the province, with 292,610 telephone connections. All the cellular phone agencies provide mobile services in the province.
Pakistan Post is the main enterprise providing a wide range of postal products and public services not only in Pakistan but in KP also. Pakistan Post is providing a variety of services on behalf of many Federal and Provincial government departments.
In addition to the Pakistan Post Urgent Mail Service—which provides courier services—there are a number of courier services in the province.
According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, there are 2,047 post offices in the province, with 16 head offices, 538 sub-post offices and 1,493 branch post offices in various districts of the province.
The Bank of Khyber was established in 1991, through Act No. XIV, passed by the Provincial Legislative Assembly of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. It was awarded the status of a scheduled bank in September 1994.
According to the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Development Statistics 2018-19, there are a total of 1,480 Operational Scheduled bank branches in KP. The banks with their branches in the province include:
- Al Baraka Bank Ltd.
- Alfalah Bank Ltd.
- Bank Al Habib Ltd.
- Allied Bank Ltd.
- Askari Bank Ltd.
- Bank of Punjab
- Bank Islami Pakistan Ltd.
- Dubai Islamic Bank Ltd.
- Faysal Bank Ltd.
- First Women Bank Ltd.
- Habib Bank Ltd.
- Habib Metropolitan Bank Ltd.
- Industrial Development Bank Ltd.
- Bank of Khyber Ltd.
- Meezan Bank Ltd.
- Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
- National Bank of Pakistan
- National Investment Bank Ltd.
- Soneri Bank Ltd.
- Standard Chartered Bank Ltd.
- United Bank Ltd.
- Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.
- JS Bank Ltd.
- KASB Bank Ltd.
- Samba Bank Ltd.
- Silk Bank Ltd.
At present, Pakhtunkhwa Energy Development Organization (PEDO; previously: Sarhad Hydel Development Organization or SHYDO) is responsible for the development of small hydel electricity power generation in the province in association with Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA). The following tables show the existing power generation capacity in the province:
|Pehrur (Swabi)||18 MW|
|Malakand III (Malakand Agency)||81 MW|
|Shishi (Chitral)||1.8 MW|
|Reshun (Chitral)||4.2 MW|
|Ranolia (Kohistan)||17 MW|
|Machai (Mardan)||2.6 MW|
Table 1.14 KP Power Generation: PEDO
|Tarbela (Haripur Hazara)||3,478 MW|
|Warsak Dam (near Peshawar)||240 MW|
|Jaban (Malakand-I)||20 MW|
|Dargai (Malakand-II)||20 MW|
|Kurram Garhi (Bannu)||4 MW|
Table 1.15 KP Power Generation: WAPDA
The total literacy rate of KP as per the Census is 35.4%. Male literacy rate is 51.4%, whereas female literacy is 18.8%. The following table shows the number of educational institutions in the province:
|Primary Schools||15,387/10,532||Mosque Schools||1,114|
|Middle Schools||1,804/1,371||High Schools||1,691/895|
|Higher Secondary||427/237||Degree Colleges||115/102|
|Post Graduate Colleges||21||Universities (Public Sector) ||20|
|Universities (Private Sector) ||13||Agricultural Universities||01|
|Colleges (Management Sc.)||37||Polytechnics||24/14|
|Dental Colleges (Public Sector/Private)||02/05||Vocational Training Inst.||17/31|
|Medical Colleges (Public + Private) ||8+9||Engineering Colleges||04|
|Cadet Colleges||03||Homeopathic Institutes||08|
|Law Colleges||20||Teacher’s Training||40|
Table 1.18 KP Government Educational Institutions
The following table shows the number of private educational institutions in KP as per Pakistan Education Statistics 2016-17, Ministry of Education, Pakistan:
Table 1.19 KP Privately-owned Educational Institutions
Table 1.20 New Plant Science Building, Agriculture University, Peshawar
Table 1.21 Ghulam Ishaq Khan University KP
 KP Development Statistics 2018-19
 Includes Medical and Engineering Universities
 Includes Medical and Engineering Universities
 Agriculture University Peshawar
 Colleges associated with a University
 Colleges associated with a University
 Of these, 13 are privately-owned
The Department of Health of KP is headed by the Secretary Health, who is, in turn, assisted by one Special Secretary, 2 Additional Secretaries, and a Chief Planning Officer. The Additional Secretaries—who are assisted by 4 Deputy Secretaries, 13 Section Officers, 1 Deputy Director (IT), and one Computer Programmer—deals with all health matters related to establishment, administration, and current budget. The Chief Planning Officer—who is assisted by 3 Senior Planning Officers, 5 Planning Officers, and 1 Economist—deals with new developments in the health sector. A small department called Health Sector Reforms Unit (HSRU) was established in 2002, within the Department of Health, to carry out research activities and implement reforms being introduced in the Health Department. The Chief of HSRU heads the unit, and is assisted by 1 Deputy Chief and 4 Coordinators.
The following table shows the government health care institutions in KP as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:
|Rural Health Centers||102/1,476||T B Clinics||74/52|
|Mother Child Health Centers||131/-||Sub-Health Centers||23/|
|Basic Health Units||940/-||Leprosy Clinics||26/-|
|Private Hospitals||72/1,380||Private Medical Practitioners||3,121|
Table 1.22 KP Health Care Institutions
Figure 1.34 A Government Hospital, Peshawar
Figure 1.35 KP Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar
 Official webportal of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Government
During the British Raj, the frontier territory was constituted as a province called North-West Frontier Province. The British territory was divided into 5 Civil Districts and 5 Political Agencies. Each Political Agency was under a Political Agent. The districts were under the Inspector General Police (IGP) of Punjab. Criminal courts were established under the Code of Criminal Procedures in 1889. There were different levies, like Samana Rifles, Border Military Post, Chitral Scouts, and Kurram Militia for Political Agencies. In addition, the indigenous systems of Khassadari and the Maliki System were also allowed to continue. Samana Rifles and Border Military Posts were merged in 1913, and a new force of Frontier Constabulary was constituted. From 1901 to 1947 all IGP were British nationals; in 1947, Khan Gul Muhammad Khan became the first local IG Police in KP.
The headquarters of KP police is called Central Police Office (CPO) and is situated in Peshawar. The IGP is assisted by 3 Additional Inspector General (AIG), 2 Deputy Inspector General (DIG), and 2 Assistant Inspector General (AIG). KP is divided into 6 regions, and each is headed by a Regional Police Officer (RPO). Similarly, each district is headed by a District Police Officer (DPO).
According to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, there are a total of 298 police stations in the Province.
 Official Web portal KP Police
- Dera Ghazi Khan
- Mandi Bahauddin
- Nankana Sahib
- Rahimyar Khan
- Toba Tek Singh