Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Buner

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Introduction

Buner district is located between 34° 11Ꞌ to 34° 43Ꞌ north latitudes, and 72° 13Ꞌ to 72° 45Ꞌ east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by Swat and Shangla districts, on the west by Malakand Agency and Mardan district, on the south by Swabi district, and on the east by Indus River, across which are located Haripur and Mansehra districts. Buner is a Sanskriti word meaning “forest.”

Figure 0.3 View of Shadam, a small Village in Buner District

District at a Glance

Name of District Buner District
District Headquarter Daggar Town
Population[1]        897,319 persons
Area[2] 1,865 km2
Population Density[3] 517.2 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 3.0%
Male Population[5] 49.8%
Female Population[6] 50.2%
Urban Population[7] Nil
Tehsils/Talukas 04 Tehsils:

1.    Daggar/ Buner Tehsil

2.    Gagra Tehsil

3.    Khadokhel Tehsil

4.    Mandanr Tehsil

Main Towns/Villages Daggar, Sawarai, Ambela, Buner, Gagra, and Pir Baba
Literacy Rate[8] 38%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 61%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 18%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding 73.1%
Manufacture 1.3%
Construction 5.8%
Wholesale/Retail, Hotel/Restaurant 6.9%
Transport, Storage, & Communication 2.8%
Community, Social & Personal Services 9.5%
Others 0.6%
Main Crops Maize, rice, sugarcane, wheat, barley, rapeseed & mustard, tobacco, maash, moong, groundnut, safflower, soya bean, millet, sunflower, and sugar beet
Major Fruits Apricot, mulberry, figs, plums, walnuts, pear, peach, wild persimmon, apples, citrus, melons, watermelons, and ber
Major Vegetables Onions, potatoes, okra, pumpkins, beans, tomatoes, turnip, radish, carrots, chilies, cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, garlic, mint, coriander, and peas
Forests (Area)[12] 110,789 HA[13]
Total Metalled Roads[14] 376.0 km
Shingle Roads[15] 38.0 km
No. of Grid Stations NA
No. of Tel. Exchanges[16] 16 telephone exchanges with 5,821 connections
Industrial Zones[17] There is no industrial estate, but there are 180 small, medium, and large industrial units working in the District.
Major Industry[18] Marble & Chips[19] 176 Units
Flour Mill 02 Unit
Household Size[20] 9 persons per house
Houses (Piped Water Inside)[21] 27.7%
Houses with Electricity[22] 51.1%

Table ‎1.1 Buner District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); latest available

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics report 31705 HA under forests.

[14] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] For a full list please check the article on “Industry”

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been released yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsTourism (Picnic Spots)

Brief History

The Imperial Gazetteer of India, states that the “Histories of Dir, Swat,[1] Bajaur, and Utman Khel are so inextricably intermingled that it has been found impossible to treat them separately” (v. 23, p. 183). The first historical mention[2] of these countries is made by Arrian, who records that, in 326 BC, Alexander the Great led his army through Kunar, Bajaur, Swat, and Buner, but his successor Seleucus Nicator, 20 years later, ceded these territories to Chandragupta Maurya. The inhabitants in those days were of Indian origin; during Mauryan rule, Buddhism became the prevailing religion. The indigenous people of the area[3] were the ancestors of the non-pathan tribes, like the Gujjars, Torwals, and Garhwis. The areas thus remained almost undisturbed by external conquests, ruled by their own kings until the 15th century AD.

The Pathan/ Yousafzai (also spelled as Yusufzai) tribe migrated to the Peshawar area from Kandahar (Afghanistan) in 1446 AD, when Mirza Ulugh Beg (grandson of Amir Timur or Tamerlane) was the governor. At that time, Peshawar and its surrounding areas were inhabited by the Swatis and Dilazak tribes who gave the Yousafzais lands to settle. Over time, the tribes began fighting among themselves, and the Yousafzais succeeded in expelling the Swatis from Swat. The Swatis went east and settled in the Mansehra and Battagram areas. By the 16th century, the Yousafzais were in possession of Buner, Lower Swat, and the Panjkora valleys. The advent of the Yousafzais introduced Islam throughout these countries.

At this time, the Mughal Emperor Babar, by a diplomatic marriage with the daughter of Malik Shah Mansur (the head of the Yousafzai clans) and also by force of arms, established his sovereignty throughout Bajaur (except Jandol), the Panjkora Valley, and Lower Swat.

Mughal Emperor Humayun (Babar’s successor) however, could not subdue this area. In 1587 AD, Emperor Akbar’s armies invaded Karakar, Torwarsak, and Daggar (all in Buner district) and were ultimately defeated at Malandrai (Buner district). Emperor Akbar lost 8,000 men and one of his most beloved generals, Birbal, in this campaign.

The Sikhs ruled over the North-West Frontier Province (1818-1849; now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) but they could not enter the Buner area. This area became a sanctuary and a strong citadel for the Muslim fighters of Syed Ahmad Barelvi (who later came to be known as Syed Ahmad Shaheed). Syed Ahmad’s followers fought loyally and bravely against the Sikh and the British onslaughts. Even after the martyrdom of Syed Ahmad, his followers continued the fight for 130 years.

The people of Swat and Buner united to form a State, and the freedom fighter Syed Akbar Shah of Sitana became the first ruler of Swat and Buner, ruling the areas from 1849-1857. After his death in 1857, the area had no ruler till 1915. This period is known[4] as the “Era of the Pukhtoo” when every tribe was ruled by its own elder.

In 1863, the British organized an expedition under the leadership of Brigadier General Neville Bowles Chamberlain out of Peshawar to try and subdue the Pakhtun Mujahedeen of Buner Valley, via the Ambela Pass. The expedition is known as the Ambela Expedition. The Ambela Pass was the territory of the Bunerwals. The British troops gained the crest of the Ambela Pass leading to the Chamla Valley, and thence advanced to Malka, where they encountered unexpected opposition from the Bunerwals, whose country lies immediately north of Chamla.  For more than a month, the British Force, though reinforced by successive additions, could not do more than hold its ground. With the passage of time (by December of 1863) however, the Mujahedeen’s force began to fall asunder, and the object of the expedition was achieved. A treaty was established between the British Government and the Swatis,[5] in which the British agreed to not annex Swat, in return for which the tribesmen were to abstain from molesting British subjects or committing raids in British territory.[6]

During the great Pathan uprising of 1897, the Bunerwals, under the leadership of Saad Ullah Khan (also known as Sar Tor Faqir, “Bear Headed Faqir” or Mad Mullah by the British) defeated the British at Malakand. Later, the Sikhs joined the British, but they were again defeated by the Mujahedeen. When the battle ended, a large number of British and Sikhs had been killed or captured, and a large quantity of arms and ammunition had been seized. 19 Mujahedeen were killed, including Sar Tor Faqir. His tomb stands at the bottom of Elephant Pass (Hathi Darrah) to the south of the village of Zulamkot in Dehri Alladand in Malakand.

The British then organized a Field Force under the command of Sir Bindon Blood in 1897 and stormed Buner from three sides: from the directions of the Ambela Pass, Pirsai Pass, and the Tangi Pass. The capture of the Tangi and Pirsai Passes led to the surrender of the Bunerwals, but still the British were unable to establish the writ of British Government in the area.

Between 1888 and 1947 the history of Buner is the history of warfare among warring tribes and against the British Raj. In 1947 a huge majority opted for Pakistan and Buner became part of the new country. At the time of Partition, Buner was a subdivision of Swat district and remained so till 1991, when it was upgraded to the level of district.

It is believed that Buner is a Sanskrit word meaning “forest” since it was extremely rich in forests.

Figure ‎1.4 British Lookout Pickets, Ambela Expedition, 1863

Government Structure

At the Federal level, Buner district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 1
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 3

Under the Local Government Act District Buner has 1 District Council constituted by general seats, seats reserved for women, peasants/workers, youth, and non-Muslims as prescribed under the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act 2013. Buner District Council is composed of 29 general members, 9 women members, 2 peasants/ worker members, 2 minority members, and 2 youth members.

Administrative Divisions

The district has a total area of 1,865 km2 and is divided into 04 tehsils and 27 Union Councils with 105 Villages as follows:

Daggar/Buner Tehsil 40 Villages
Gagra 32 villages
Mandanr Tehsil 17 Villages
Totalai Tehsil (Khadokhel Tehsil) 16 Villages

Table ‎1.2 Buner Administrative Divisions

[1] Buner was a tehsil of Swat district till 1991

[2] The following part of the district’s history has been extracted from North-West Frontier Province Gazetteer 1908 and the 1998 Buner District Profie by GoPakistan.

[3] The indigenous people were the Swatis and Dilazak tribes.

[4] District Profile Buner 1998 by GoPakistan.

[5] Swat was a Princely State of the British Indian Empire, whose rulers, the Akhwandis, acceded to Pakistan in 1947. The area it covered is now divided between the present-day districts of Swat, Buner, and Shangla.

[6] A Frontier Campaign: A Narrative of the Malakand and Buner Forces (1897-1898) by Alexander Edward Murray Dunmore

Tourism (Picnic Spots)

Buner district is one of the most beautiful places in the country. Surrounded by hills on all four sides, it is a picturesque valley, and provides a great location for tourists. Some of the more beautiful areas are:

  • Karakar: It is at an elevation of 1,336 m above mean sea level, 33 km from Saidu Sharif in Swat. It boasts a rest house situated on top of a hill, providing an excellent view of the valley on both sides
  • Daggar: A fishing resort
  • Ambela Pass
  • Elum Ghar Mountains: These are on the west side of Pir Baba Village (named after the sufi saint Ali Shah Termizi or Pir Baba, whose mausoleum is located in Pir Baba)
  • Peryano Dhand: This is a natural lake located in a bowl like depression among mountains

Historic Places

There is one historical site being protected under the Government of Pakistan Laws, called Ranighat, located in Nogram Killi, Totalai (or Khadokhel) sub-tehsil.

Other historical sites that are not protected are:

  • Shrine of Pir Baba
  • Shrine of Dewana Baba Saad Ullah Khan, also known as Sar Tor Faqir, nicknamed Mad Mullah by the British.

Both Pir Baba and Dewana Saheb were leaders of the Bunerwals, who defended Buner against the British.

Figure 1.13 Shrine of Pir Baba

Figure 1.14 Daggar, Buner

Figure 1.15 Ranighat Archaeological Site of Buner

Figure 1.16 Shrine of Dewana Baba, Buner

Topography

Buner district is situated in the Buner Valley which is encircled by hills. The surface terrain of Buner district is mostly rugged and uneven.

The Elum Ghar Mountains (also spelled Ilam Ghar) and Mora Range separate the district from Swat district. The Pajja Hills, Guru Mountains, and Ambela Range separate the district from the Mardan Valley; the Sinawar and Mahaban Ranges from Swabi; the Amazai Range separates the district from the Yousafzai area (Torghar district); and the Chagharzi and the Duma Mountains separate it from Puran Valley. These hills are mostly covered with pine trees. The hilly tracts are enriched with minerals.

The highest peak of Elum Ghar in the district is Dosara Peak in the north of the district at a height of 2,911 m.[1]

Plain valleys of Buner start from Elum and Mora hills in the north to the plain tracts of Totalai in the south, and from Pajja Hills in the west to the Amazai Hills and Barandu Valley in the east.

Figure ‎1.5 Buner, Pakistan

Figure ‎1.6 Elum Ghar Mountains in Summer

Figure 1.7 A Picturesque Valley Buner

 

Mountain Passes

Some of the important passes in the district are Ambela Pass, Tangi Pass, and the Pirsai Pass.

Famous Valleys

Famous valleys of the district are Elum, Gokand, Salarzai, Chagharzai, Karakar, and Amazai.

Figure 1.8 View of Karakar Valley

Rivers, Lakes, and Streams

No river passes through the district, however, a number of springs and streams flow throughout the district providing clean water for drinking and irrigation. One major stream originating from the Dosara Mountains called Barandu flows through the district and, after draining it, joins River Indus in the east. The Barandu has 2 tributaries: the Jowar River and the Kohqand River. Other famous streams are Chamla Khwar, Khadokhel Khwar, Nagrai Khwar, and Bar Borai Khwar. Smaller streams include Wuch Khwar, Ugad Khwar, Sandas Khwar, Saidu Khwar, and Loe Khwar.

Some springs of the valley include Faqir Baba China, Patai Obo, Pat Smats Obo, Dagai, and Shaheed China.

There are a large number of lakes; the most famous of these is Peryano Dhand (also called Ghost Lake) in the Elum Ghar Mountains. Other smaller but intermittent ponds include Pitao Obo Dhand, Kuz Dhand, Gotai Dhand, Dabarzai Dhand, and Din Baba Dhand.

Figure 1.9 A Water Fall Gokund, Buner District

Forests

The main forest types in the district are scrubs at the lower elevations and chir pines at higher elevations. The main flora of scrub forests is varieties of thorny trees like kikar (Acacia Spp.), karir (Capparis deciduas), sanatha (Dodonaea viscose), and wild olives (Olea oleaster). The forests of higher altitude comprise of chir pines, and phulai.

The following table shows the area and type of forests in the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 273,765 A Resumed Land – A
Reserved Forests – A Communal Forests[2] 13,412 A
Protected Forests 101,272 A Guzara Forests[3] – A
Unclassed Forests[4] – A Private Plantation 159,081 A
Miscellaneous 159,081 A Linear Plantation – km

Table ‎1.3 Buner Forests

Some of the Protected Forests of the district include Kalapahar Reserved Forest, Totalai Game Reserve, Kingar Gali Game Reserve, and Nanser Kuhay Community Game Reserve.

Soils

The soil has developed from old loess plains. It is very deep, silty clay that is used for dry farming or irrigated agriculture.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

Climate

The climate of the district varies with the elevation, and may be classified as Dry Sub-Tropical. The weather during most parts of the year stays pleasant. Winter lasts for 4 to 5 months, while the summers last for 7 to 8 months. The highest temperature recorded during summer is 44 °C and the minimum winter temperature is 2 °C.

The Buner climate is marked by two distinct rainy seasons: winter rains from November to May during which time the mountains receive snow, and the summer Monsoon from July to October. Cyclones during Monsoon season bring torrential rains constituting 43% of the total rain in the valley. Hailstorms are also a frequent occurrence. Mean annual rainfall of the district is 1,650 mm.

 

[1] District Profile Buner by GoPakistan (1998)

[2] Sub-category of Guzara Forests which are forests owned by villagers

[3] Owned by villagers

[4] Government Owned

Population

The following table shows the population of the district as per 2017 Census:

District Area

km2

Population Male % Female % Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Buner District 1,865 897,319 49.8 50.2 3.05
Dagar/Buner Tehsil 1,865 355,692
Gagra Tehsil [1] Part of Buner Tehsil 270,467
Khado Khel Tehsil[2] –do– 118,185
Mandanr Tehsil[3] –do– 152,975

Table ‎1.4 Buner Population Statistics

Religions[4]

Muslims 99.5%
Christians Negligible %
Hindus 0.1%
Ahmadis 0.3%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others 0.2%

Table ‎1.5 Buner Religions

Languages[5]

Urdu 0.2%
Punjabi Negligible %
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 96.6%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki Negligible %
Others 3.1%

Table ‎1.6 Buner Languages

[1] Upgraded as Tehsil in 2009.

[2] Created as tehsil in 2010.

[3] Upgraded as Tehsil in 2010.

[4] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been released yet

[5] 1998 Census; 2017 Census Data has not been made Public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The economy of Buner district relies on agriculture. The largest manufacturing industry in the district is that of marble. Equally important is the remittances from abroad sent by ex-pats.

The main economic activities of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding (73.1%)
  • Manufacture (1.3%)
  • Construction (5.8%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant (6.9%)
  • Transport, Storage, Communication (2.8%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (9.5%)
  • Others (1.6%)

Land Use

The total reported area of the district is 172,431 HA, of which 23.8% is designated as forest[1]. The following table shows the land use statistics of the district (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Area 186,500 HA Reported Area 172,431 HA
Total Cultivated Area 55,450 HA Net Sown 53,292 HA
Current Fallow 2,158 HA Uncultivated Area 116,981 HA
Culturable Waste 5,512 HA Forest Area 40,983 HA

Table ‎1.7 Buner Land Use Statistics

 

[1] Calculated from Land use Statistics.

Irrigation

Agriculture in Buner district depends on streams and rivers through lift irrigation schemes, flow irrigation schemes, tube wells, and canals. The following table shows the irrigation mode and area irrigated by it (KP Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Irrigated Area 14,029 HA Canal Irrigated (Private) 670 HA
Tube Wells 5,122 HA Wells 2,627 HA
Lift Pumps 3,432 HA Canal Irrigated (Government) 2,011 HA
Others 119 HA Tanks 48 HA

Table ‎1.11 Buner Irrigation Statistics

The major irrigation schemes include the Budal Irrigation Scheme and Korya Irrigation Scheme. Flow irrigation schemes include Charosi Flow Irrigation, Kar Shalizai Flow Irrigation, Gagra Flow Irrigation, Ghazi Flow Irrigation, Elai Flow Irrigation, Bajkata Flow Irrigation, Singarai Flow Irrigation, and Sowari Flow Irrigation schemes. Lift irrigation schemes include Nawagai Lift Irrigation, Ghurghushto Lift Irrigation, and Cheena Chinar Lift Irrigation Schemes.

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Dry Mountains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. About 72.7% of the population depends upon agriculture for their sustenance. The major crops grown are maize, rice, sugarcane, wheat, barley, rapeseed & mustard, tobacco, maash, moong, groundnut, safflower, soya bean, millet, sunflower, and sugarbeet.

Apricot, mulberry, figs, plums, walnuts, pear, peach, wild persimmon, apples, citrus, melons, watermelons, and ber are the fruits grown in the district.

Onions, potatoes, okra, pumpkins, beans, tomatoes, turnip, radish, carrots, chilies, cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, garlic, mint, coriander, and peas are some of the vegetables grown in the district.

Nearly 94 varieties of medicinal plants and herbs are found and grown[1] in the district.

Figure 1.10 Wheat Crop being Harvested

Figure 1.11 Wild Tobacco Flowers, Buner

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the livestock statistics as per Livestock Census 2006, extracted from KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Cattle 131,985 Heads Buffaloes 79,644 Heads Sheep 31,909 Heads
Goats 130,948 Heads Camels 2,094 Heads Horses 1,257 Heads
Mules 1,153 Heads Asses 13,868 Heads

Table ‎1.8 Buner Livestock Statistics

Kaghani goats are an indigenous breed in Buner district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock), there are 60 Poultry farms in the district.

Fishing

Fish are being raised in the Barandu River and in Daggar River. Fishing is carried out only in spring. Cold water fish such as trout are found in the district, but a license is needed for commercial fishing.

Mining

A large number of minerals are found in the mountains of the district. At present barite, dolomite, granite and marble are being mined.

Oil and gas deposits are not being explored at present.

Industry and Manufacturing

There is no industrial estate in the district, but according to KP Development Statistics 2018-19, there are 180 small and medium industrial units working in the district. The following table shows the number and type of industrial units in the district:

Industry Number Industry Number
Flour Mills 02 Ice Factory 01
Marble & Chips 176 Rice Mills 01

Table ‎1.9 Buner Industries

Trade (Import/ Export)

The main trading item of the district is marble. Fine quality of marble from the Bampoha Mountain and surrounding area is cut/ excavated, and exported to other parts of the country as well as international destinations.

Handicrafts

Hand embroidery, hand-knitted woolen shawls, and sweaters, as well as hand-knotted carpets are the main handicrafts of the district.

[1] For details please refer to the section on Flora and Fauna

Economic Infrastructure

The district is better[1] in road network mileage when compared to its neighboring districts of Mardan, Shangla, Swabi, and Swat. Most of the main roads leading from Mardan to Buner and Swabi to Buner are black topped and in comparatively better condition. The district is not linked via air or rail to other parts of Pakistan.

Roads

According to the KP Development Statistics 2018-19 the road statistics of the district are as follows:

Total Roads 414.0 km
High Type Roads 376.0 km
Low Type Roads 38.0 km

Table ‎1.10 Buner Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district include:

  • Karakar-Jowar-Daggar Road
  • Jowar-Pir Baba Road
  • Ambela-Daggar Pir Baba Road
  • Sowari-Budal Road
  • Ambela-Amazai Road
  • Ambela-Chingali Totalai Road
  • Daggar-Gagra Link Road
  • Pir Baba-Kadarnagar Road
  • Daggar-Gokand Road
  • Krapa-Nawakalay Road
  • Nagrai-Batai Lango Road

 

Figure 1.17 Ambela Road

Figure 1.18 Mountain Road in Buner (Gokhund)

Rails and Airways

The district is not linked by Pakistan Railway and as such, there is no railway station in the district. The nearest railway station is at Havelian. There is no commercial or military airport in the district. Closest airport is the Mansehra Airport.

Radio and Television

Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation does not broadcast from Buner district. There is no private radio channel in the district either; however, the district has a modern Cable TV network.

Telecommunications

Buner district is connected to other parts of Pakistan and the world via modern digital telephone exchanges. There are 16 automatic telephone exchanges in the district. These exchanges provide 5,821 connections.[2] Cellular phone services, with considerable coverage in all major towns are also available.

Post Offices

There are 32 offices[3] of Pakistan Post in the district. There is no head office, but there are 06 Sub-Post Offices and 26 Branch Offices.

Electricity and Gas

There is no power generation in the district, but electricity is provided through the national grid supplied and transmitted by Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO). The district depends on wood for fuel.

[1] A Socio-Economic Baseline and Displacement Impact by Center for Public Policy Research

Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar

[2] KP Development Statistics 2018-19.

[3] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

Banking/Financial Services

There are 28 branches[1] of various banks in the district.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have branches in the district, with some providing ATM facilities:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al-Falah
  • Bank of Khyber

In all there are 23 branches of various conventional banks and 05 branches of various Islamic banks in the District.

Education

The literacy rate in Buner district, according to PSLM 2014-15, is 38%. The following table shows the number of Government Educational Institutions in the district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 430/189 Middle Schools 55/35
High Schools 36/08 Higher Secondary Schools 24/14
Mosque Schools 09 Degree Colleges 04/01
Polytechnic Institutes 01 Commerce Colleges/ Institutes -/-
Vocational Centers Private Primary Schools 24
Private Schools (Middle + Secondary) 58 Post Graduate College
University[2] 01 Medical/ Engineering Colleges

Table ‎1.12 Buner Educational Institutes

Figure 1.19 Abdul Wali Khan University, Buner Campus

Figure 1.20 Government Girls Degree College, Buner

Health

The following table shows the Government Health Care Institutions in Buner district as per KP Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Hospitals 04/303 Dispensaries 08/-
Rural Health Centers 04/40 Basic Health Units 18/-
Mother Child Health Centers -/- Sub-Health Centers -/-
Leprosy Clinic 03/- TB Clinics 01/-
Private Hospitals Private Medical Practitioners 23

Table ‎1.13 Buner Health Care Institutes

Policing

The District Police Officer (DPO) is directly responsible to the Zila Nazim for public safety. The Police Department is headed by the Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP). The SSP supervises and controls the police force in maintaining law and order, and conducting investigations of cases of criminal nature. The Police Department operates under the Police Rules. There are 10 police stations[3] in Buner district.

[1] KP Development Statistics 2018-19

[2] Campus of Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan

[3] Table no. 19.7 (a) Number of Police Stations by Division/District

Environment and Biodiversity

Water bodies and aquifers are polluted by the untreated marble factory effluents, while the air is filled with nicotine moisture contents from tobacco barns as well as dust from blasting for marble, among other commercial activities. Deforestation is another major environmental problem faced by the district.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

A large variety of plants are found in the district. Some of the trees are partal or silver fir (Abies pindrow Royle), beetal nut palm (Acacia catechu L.), paloosa or phulai (Acacia modesta Wall), kikar (Acacia nilotica), maple variety (Acer cappadocicum), ban khor or horse chestnut (Aesculus indica), asmani or tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), sharol or alder (Alnus nitida), kachnar (Bauhinia variegate), bhoj or birch (Betula utilis), hill toon, dravi or meem (Cedrela serrate), nettle tree (Celtis caucasica), hawthorn or tampasa (Crataegus oxyacantha), baans or bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus), wild persimmon or amlok (Diospyus lotus), fig (Ficus carica), gulhar  (Ficus racemosa),  pipal (Ficus religiosa), dhamman, pharawa or gum tree (Grewia optiva), akhrot or walnut (Juglans regia), bakain or Persian lily (Melia azedarach), mulberry or shahtoot (Morus alba), kahu or Indian olives (Olea ferruginea), beerunj  (Parratiopsis  jacquemontiana), kachal or Himalayan spruce (Picea smithiana), chir pine or nekhtar  (Pinus roxburghii), kail or blue pine (Pinus wallichiana), shnai or kakar singhi (Pistacia integrrima), chinar pine (Platanus orientalis), sufaida (Populus caspica), alucha or plum/prunes (Prunus domestica), and khobani or apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

A large variety of shrubs and grasses is also found. Some of the common shrubs are giant milkweed or rubber bush (Calotropis procera), bhang (Cannabis sativa), kharawa (Cotoneaster nummularia), and spurge olive or kutilal (Daphne oleoides).

There is a large variety of medicinal plants in the district. There are 138 species of plants being used as medical herbs just in Chagharzai Valley of the district;[1] some of these are phulai (Acacia modesta), waj or sweet flag (Acorus calamus), maiden hair fern or sumbal (Adiantum incisum), blue bugle or khwaja booti (Ajuga bractiosa), toothpick weed or khelia (Ammi visnaga), barberry or amber baris (Berberis lycium), milkweed or aak (Calotropis procera), coriander or dhanya (Coriandrum sativum), kalkunday or cucumber (Cucimus prophetarum), papra or Indian fumitory (Fumaria indica), mint or podina (Mentha longifolia), spearmint (Mentha spicata), spin toot or white mulberry (Morus alba), toor toot or mulberry (Morus indica), tarookay or creeping woodsorrel (Oxalis corniculata), mamekh or Himalayan peony (Paeonia emodi), ispaghol or plantail (Plantago lanceolata), pomegranate or anaar (Punica granatum), mushk-i-bala or muskroot (Valeriana jatamansi), khardhag or Indian ragweed (Verbascum Thapsus), pansy or yellow wood violet (Viola biflora), violet (Viola serpens), jujubes (Zizyphus oxyphylla), and goojai or yellow morel (Morchella esculenta).

Fauna

Some of the mammals of the district include grey goral, markhor, monkeys, rabbits, wolf, jackals, urial, black and brown bear, marco polo sheep, wild boar, bats, and porcupines.

Avifauna include black and grey partridges, see-see partridge, chakor, doves, pigeons, khalij pheasants, koklas pheasants, Kashmir roller, quails, pigmy owlets, Himalayan pied woodpecker, black-winged or black-shouldered kite, batoor or booted eagle, common hawk cuckoo, night heron, snow partridge, Eurasian scoops owl, large Indian parakeet, bee-eater, rose-ringed parakeet, oriental turtle dove, tawny owl, Himalayan snow cock, hoopoe, demoiselle crane or koonj, and black and grey partridges.

Reptiles include various types of snakes, especially cobras, and a variety of lizards.

Amphibians include frogs and toads.

Figure 1.12 Grey Goral, Buner District

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Fauna

There are a number of protected game reserves in the district. They are:

  • Totalai Game Reserve
  • Kingargali Game Reserve
  • Nanser Kuhay Community Game Reserve

These game reserves provide sanctuary to urial, monkeys, grey goral, markhor, wolves, marco polo sheep, black and brown bears, and jackals, as well as to grey and black partridges, koklas pheasant, khalij pheasant, chakor, and demoiselle cranes or koonj.

[1] Ethnobotanical Studies of Some Plants of Chagharzai Valley, District Buner, Pakistan by Zaman Sher (Swabi), Zaheer ud Din Khan (Lahore) and Farrukh Hussain (Peshawar)