Punjab-Hafizabad

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Introduction

District Hafizabad is located between 73° 12′ and 73° 46′ east longitudes and 31° 45′ and 32° 20′ north latitudes. It is bounded by district Gujranwala to its east, district Jhang and Sargodha (separated by River Chenab) to the west, district Faisalabad to the south, district Mandi Bahauddin (separated by River Chenab) to the northwest, and by district Sheikhupura to the southeast.

District at a Glance

Name of District Hafizabad District
District Headquarter Hafizabad City
Population[1] 1,156,957 persons
Area[2] 2,367 km2
Population Density[3] 508.9 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 1.7%
Male Population[5] 50.5%
Female Population[6] 49.5%
Urban Population[7] 34.8%
Tehsils 02 Tehsils:

1.    Hafizabad Tehsil

2.    Pindi Bhattian Tehsil

Main Towns Hafizabad, Jalalpur Bhattian, Pindi Bhattian, Thatta Shamsa, Vanike Tarar, Rasulpur, Bahuman, Kot Hassan Khan, Kalike, Kot Naka, Kot Sarwar, and Sukheke
Literacy Rate[8] 60%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 67%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 53%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing etc. 36.2%
Manufacturing 6.6%
Construction 31.1%
Wholesale/Retail Trade, Hotel/Restaurant 8.5%
Community, Social & Personal Services 10.7%
Transport, Storage & Communication 2.8%
Others 4.1%
Main Crops Wheat, sugarcane, rice, bajra, tobacco, maize, jowar, gram, maash, masoor, moong, oil seeds such as rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, barley, sesanum, guar seed, linseed, sunn hemp, and castor seed
Major Fruits Guavas, citrus, mango, banana, peaches, jaamun, and pomegranate
Major Vegetables Onions, potatoes, green peas, carrot, turnip, cauliflower, chilies, tomatoes, garlic, okra, coriander, bitter gourd, tinda, cucumber, cabbage, radish, mint, brinjal, mongray, turnip, yams, aniseed, and sweet potatoes
Forests (Area)[12] 1,000 HA[13]
Total Black Topped Road[14] 1,688.5 km
National Highways[15] – km
Motorways[16] – km
Provincial Roads[17] 1677.4 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] 11.1 km
No of Grid Stations[19] 05 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[20] 32 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 6,430 lines
Industrial Estates[21] No industrial estate, but 185 small, medium, and large enterprises in the district.
Major Industry[22] Rice Mills 133 Units
Agricultural Implements 28 Units
Sizing of Yarn 10 Units
Industrial Machinery 2 Units
Flour Mills 5 Units
Cold Storage 4 Units
Power Generation 1 Unit
Jute Textile 1 Unit
Textile Composite 1 Unit
Household Size[23] 7.1 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[24] 9%
Houses with Electricity[25] 80.3%

Table 1.1 Hafizabad District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics does not record any forests in the district.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-194

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-Investment Study, Hafizabad District 2012; Latest available.

[20] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-Investment Study, Hafizabad District 2012; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-Investment Study, Hafizabad District 2012; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-Investment Study, Hafizabad District 2012; Latest available.

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief History

Hafizabad district is located in the Sandal Bar[1] area of the Rechna Doab.[2] In 327 BC Alexander the Great, after having defeated Raja Poras, crossed the River Chenab and reached the Sandal Bar Area at Amultas (Ludhiana, India); he then passed through the area of the Sandal Bar, which now forms part of Hafizabad district, in order to reach Sindh and Balochistan. In 630 AD, the famous Chinese explorer Hiuen-Tsang, on his quest for Buddhist sites, spent a night in a town called Jaypura[3] at the time. From here he moved to Sagal (Sangla Hills). From this time until the time of the Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great, little is known of the history of this region, except that Sher Shah Suri ruled this area and constructed many roads, established mail posts, and constructed wells for drinking water as well as serais (small rest areas where people could stop, eat and rest for a couple of nights) along the road running parallel to River Chenab. He also established military camping grounds at Sherkot near Hafizabad, Vanike Tarar, and other places. This area is mentioned in Ain-e-Akbari[4] as the headquarters of a Mahal (Sarkar or district); Hafiz, the founder of the city, was a favorite saint of Emperor Akbar. [5]

The Official Website of the Government of Punjab (GoPunjab) describes the story of how Hafizabad was constructed and shows that while hunting, Emperor Akbar got lost, and was separated from his entourage. He began to look for somebody who could guide him. He chanced upon an old dervaish (hermit) living alone and asked him for a glass of water and directions. The old man did not have any water so instead, he called a deer and milked her, serving Akbar with a glass of her milk. He then gave him directions to help the Emperor find his way to his entourage. The Emperor was very happy and asked the man his wish. The man asked for a town/ village to be constructed where people could live and study with him. The Emperor, on reaching his courts, ordered one of his advisors, Hafiz Meerak, to start developing the area. The area was thus developed into a town between 1556 and 1570 and named Hafizabad after Akbar’s advisor.

Hafizabad held a very important military position because it was en route to Lahore via Jandiala Sher Khan. Maharaja Ranjit Singh and the British Forces passed through the district, in fact, to attack each other at Rasulnagar.

The present Garhi Awan Mohallah of Hafizabad is the old Hafizabad city constructed on the ruins of Jaypura. The present town of Hafizabad is known to have been inhabited on the western side by Hindus till Maharaja Ranjit Singh captured the area. A main bazaar and 2 grain markets¾one called Joti Ram and the other Balaqi Ram¾were established.

This area was annexed into the British Raj in 1849. A railway line was laid and Hafizabad Railway Station was added. During the British colonial period Hafizabad was a tehsil of Gujranwala district.

It remained a tehsil of Gujranwala district until July 1993, when, for administrative reasons, it was converted to a district, with 2 tehsils.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Hafizabad district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 2
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 2

Under the Local Government and Community Development Hafizabad District, it has 1 District Council and 4 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Hafizabad
  • Pindi Bhattian
  • Jalalpur Bhattian
  • Sukheke

Administrative Divisions

Hafizabad district covers an area of 2,367 km2 and is subdivided into 2 tehsils as follows:

Hafizabad Tehsil 25 Union Councils
Pindi Bhattian Tehsil 17 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Hafizabad Administrative Divisions

Historical/ Heritage Sites

There are no protected/ heritage sites in the district.

Some of the non-protected but important heritage buildings/ sites in the district[1] include:

  • Small Fort: This is a small fort situated in Hafizabad cit Now major parts of this fort are being used as a tehsil office and other parts as the Police Station Saddar, Hafizabad
  • Akbari Gate: This gate is situated at the main entrance of the old city of Hafizabad; this gate now serves as the gate to the main shopping area (main Bazaar) of the district
  • Eid Gah Mosque: This is an open air mosque situated on Jalalpur road, Hafizabad. It was built during Mughal Emperor Akbar’s reign. The originally built main walls of the Mosque still exist
  • Gurdwara Chhatti Sikh Badshahi: The building of this Gurdwara is situated on Darbar road, Hafizabad. It was adorned with precious stones and marble. These days, the Gurdwara houses the police staff line
  • Qadeem Jalali Mosque: This mosque was constructed during the reign of Sultan Jalal ud Din Khilji and hence is called Jalali Masjid. It was constructed using small bricks and comprises of a big hall, a courtyard and 3 arched doors with 5 ft thick walls. There are 3 sloping domes on the roof of the mosque. The District Government has tendered an application to the Archaeological Department, to add this building to the list of Protected Heritage Buildings

[1] District Profile by GO Pakistan 1998 Census

[1] Bar, in the local language, means a forested area where there are no resources for cultivation, like water. This Bar is named after “Saandal”, thought to be the grandfather of the legendary Punjabi hero, Dulla Bhatti.

[2] Rechna Doab is the area between River Chenab and River Ravi

[3] The town “Jaypura” was located near the village Karriala (Hafizabad Tehsil), Jaypura was a populated area but due to a shortage of water and the plunder of the area by invading armies, it became deserted (Official Website GoPunjab)

[4] Translated as the “Constitution of Akbar” Ain-e-Akbari is a 15th century document recording the administration of the Mughal empire under Emperor Akbar. It was written by his court historian, Abu’l Fazl.

[5] Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. 13, page 5

Topography

The entire district is a flat alluvial plain. It can be divided into 2 parts: the low lying alluvial lands, fringing the River Chenab called Uthar, and the upland area lying at a distance from the low lying areas of the River Chenab called Hithar.

There are no hilly areas in the district. River Chenab passes through the district and forms its northwestern boundary. The Uthar areas are subject to river floods which are extensive due to the loose texture of the soil on its banks. The deposits of River Chenab are sandy.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

River Chenab, which flows along the north and northwestern boundaries of the district, is the district’s only river. It leaves a lot of fine silt on riverine areas after floods.

The nullahs and streams of the district include Nullah Wagh and Buddhi Nullah (both of which are tributaries of River Chenab). Other nullahs include Sukhnain Nullah, Vugh Nullah, Rohi Nullah, and Halki Nullah.

There is a marshy area along River Chenab which provides sanctuary to many migratory birds. one part of Qadirabad headworks/ barrage reservoir falls under the jurisdiction of Hafizabad district while another part is in that of Gujrat district.

Forests

Even though the Land Use Statistics of the district has not included any forested areas, a total of 872 HA area is recorded by the Forest Department as farm forestry/ riverine forests. The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Hafizabad district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 2,154 A Protected Forests under Provincial Govt. – A
Reserved Forests 1,624 A Un-classed Forests 530 A
Linear Plantation – km

Table 1.3 Hafizabad Forests

Trees cultivated in these forests include shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), kikar (Acacia Arabica), sirin (Albizzia lebbeck), ber (Ziziphus jujube), poplar (Populas alba), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus cineraria), and sambal (Bombax cieba).

Soils

Generally the soils of the district are alluvial and fertile, with the soils of the upland areas less fertile than those in the lowlands.

Climate

The climate is typical of the central Punjab region. It is hot and dry during the summer and moderately cold in the winter. Owing to the proximity of the hills, there is more rainfall in the eastern part than in the western part of the district. The summer season starts in April and continues till October. May, June, and July are the hottest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures in summer are 40 °C and 27 °C respectively, but the temperature can go up to 48 °C. The winter season starts in November and continues till March. December, January, and February are the coldest months. In winter, the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 19 °C and 5 °C respectively.

The rainy season starts in July and ends in September. Average annual rainfall during the period 1961-98 was about 629-980 mm. More rains occur in July and August than in any other month. Most of the winter rains are received in the months of March and April.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to no damage due to earthquakes.

Population

Population figures for Hafizabad district as per the 2017 Census are as follows (with Projected Population):

 District/Tehsil Area km2 Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate
Hafizabad District 2,367 1,156,957 50.5 49.5 34.8 1.74
Hafizabad Tehsil 1,189 663,735
Pindi Bhattian Tehsil 1,178 493,222

Table 1.4 Hafizabad Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 98.5%
Christians 1.2%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.3%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Hafizabad Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 0.9%
Punjabi 98.7%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 0.3%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.06%
Others Negligible %

Table 1.6 Hafizabad Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Agriculture and its allied livestock breeding, fishing, and hunting are the main economic activities of the district, especially in the rural areas, with 36.5% of the district’s total population and 43.5% of its rural population engaged in the activity. The main industrial occupations of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding, fishing etc. (36.2%)
  • Manufacturing (6.6%)
  • Construction (31.1%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail Trade, Hotel/ Restaurant (8.5%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (10.7%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (2.8%)
  • Others (4.1%)

Land Use

The land use statistics of Hafizabad as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 are shown in the following table:

Total Area 236,700 HA Reported Area 236,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 190,000 HA Net Sown 152,000 HA
Current Fallow 38,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 46,000 HA
Culturable Waste 27,000 HA Forest Area – HA

Table 1.7 Hafizabad Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan, and thus, agriculture, and its allied livestock breeding is the main occupation of the rural areas with 36.5% of the population engaged in agricultural activities. Hafizabad is famous for its rice production, and the Hafizabad City Grain Market and Jalalpur Bhattian Grain Market are considered the biggest rice export centers of the country. Wheat, sugarcane, rice, bajra, tobacco, maize, jowar, gram, maash, masoor, moong, oil seeds such as rapeseed & mustard, sun flower, barley, sesanum, guar seed, linseed, sun hemp, and castor seed are the other main crops of the district.

Major fruits of the district include guavas, citrus, mango, banana, peaches, jaamun, and pomegranate.

Major vegetables are onions, potatoes, green peas, carrot, turnip, cauliflower, chilies, tomatoes, garlic, okra, coriander, bitter gourd, tinda, cucumber, cabbage, radish, mint, brinjal, mongray, turnip, yams, aniseed, and sweet potatoes.

Figure 1.3 Rice Fields Hafizabad

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is an important economic activity of the district. The following table shows the livestock population as of the 2010 Census of Livestock (quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 135,000 Heads Buffaloes 290,000 Heads Sheep 11,000 Heads
Goats 65,000 Heads Camels 22 Heads Horses 2,635 Heads
Mules 2,509 Heads Asses 33,071 Heads

Table 1.8 Hafizabad Livestock Statistics

Lohi sheep, beetal goats, and beetal spotted goats are indigenous breeds of the district.

Figure 1.5 Lohi Sheep Hafizabad

Figure 1.6 Beetal Goat Hafizabad

Poultry

Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) states that, in total, there are 288 poultry farms in the district.

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in the Lower Chenab Canal, Qadirabad-Balloki Link Canal, Ahmadpur Wagh Drain, and Jhang Branch Canal.[1] This fish is consumed locally.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

In Pakistan, honeybee colonies were introduced in the 1980s, and since then, more than 300,000 honey bee colonies have been established in Pakistan, some of which are located in Hafizabad.

Irrigation

The district is included in the agricultural area of central Punjab. The Lower Chenab Canal off-taking from Khanki Barrage is the main canal irrigating Hafizabad district. This canal has a network of 35 minors/ distributaries[1] that irrigate the district. Some of these distributaries/ minors include Upper Gugera Branch, Hafizabad Distributary, Jurian Distributary, Chak Chatha Minor, Kuriala Minor, Lakhia Minor, Shori Branch, Muradian Minor, and Kilaske Distributary. In addition, tube wells are also used for irrigation.

Irrigation statistics as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 are shown in the following table:

Total Irrigated Area 351,000 HA Un-Irrigated Area – HA
Canal Irrigated 7,000 HA Dug Wells Irrigated 8,000 HA
Tube Well Irrigated Area 72,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 248,000 HA
Canal Wells 16,000 HA Others – HA

Table 1.11 Hafizabad Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.13 Rice Field of Hafizabad with a view of Irrigation Canals

Figure 1.14 River Chenab, Hafizabad

Figure 1.15 Sunset at Headworks Sagar, Hafizabad

Minerals and Mining

Minerals are not being mined in the district.

Industry

The Hafizabad and Jalalpur Bhattian areas are famous for their high quality rice. About 10% of the country’s rice exports are from Hafizabad which is also known as the Land of Rice.

Even though, at present, there is no industrial estate in the district, there are 185 small, medium, and large industrial units[1] operating in the district. The following table shows the type and number of industries in the district.

Type of Industry Number of Units Type of Industry Number of Units
Agricultural Implements 28 Cold Storage 04
Flour Mills 05 Industrial Machinery 02
Jute Textile 01 Power Generation 01
Rice Mills 133 Sizing of Yarn 10
Textile Composite 01

Table 1.9 Hafizabad Industry

Trade

The major trade item of the district is rice.

Handicrafts

Cotton power-looms, embroidery (both on cloth and leather), hand-knotted carpets, shoes, and goods made from leather are the major handicrafts of the district.

 

Economic Infrastructure

The district is linked to Gujranwala, Jhelum, and Mandi Bahauddin districts through black topped roads, and to Jhelum, Mandi Bahauddin, Sargodha, and Gujranwala districts through the Pakistan Railway Network. The main Peshawar-Karachi railway line passes through the city and is one of the important railway stations on this route.

Roads

The following table shows the Road Statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road Length 1,688.5 km
National Highways – km
Motorways – km
Provincial Highways 1677.4 km
Sugar Cess Roads 11.1 km

Table 1.10 Hafizabad Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district are

  • Gujranwala-Hafizabad Road
  • Hafizabad-Pindi Bhattian Road
  • Hafizabad-Sheikhupura Road
  • Alipur-Hafizabad Road
  • Hafizabad-Sargodha Road
  • Gujranwala-Hafizabad-Pindi Bhattian Road

Figure 1.11 Bridges on Sagar Headworks, Hafizabad

Figure 1.12 Jinnah Chowk, Hafizabad City

Rail and Airways

The district is linked with Gujranwala and Faisalabad districts through Pakistan Railway Network. There are 07 Railway Stations in the district.[1]

There is no commercial or military airport/ airbase in the district. The nearest airport is the Lahore International Airport.

Radio and Television

There is no private or government-owned Radio Station in Hafizabad district. Even though there is no TV Station, broadcasts can be viewed through boosters and cable.

Telecommunications

Pakistan Telecommunications Ltd. has established a network of telephone lines.[2] In all there are 32 telephone exchanges operating in the district, ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 6,430 lines. In addition, a number of cellular companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 08 offices of Pakistan Post[3] in the district, with 5 offices in Hafizabad Tehsil and 3 in Pindi Bhattian Tehsil.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are 17 branches of various banks[4] in the district, with 9 branches in Hafizabad Tehsil and 8 branches in Pindi Bhattian Tehsil.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan the following banks all have their branches in the district:

  • Al Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Falah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 48 branches of various conventional banks and 05 branches of different Islamic banks in the District

Electricity and Gas

There are 5 grid stations[5] ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV in the district.

Gas connections for residential purposes are available in both tehsils of the district.

Education

The following table shows the number of educational institutes in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility Boy/Girl Facility boys/girl
Primary Schools 301/308 Middle Schools 44/67
Secondary Schools 39/28 Higher Secondary 07/07
Degree Colleges 04/03 Other Higher Secondary[1] 01/01
Other Degree Colleges[2] 02/01 Technical Training Institutes[3] 02/-
Vocational Institutes[4] -/02 Commercial Training[5] 01/-
University Government Mosque Schools -/-
Medical College Agriculture College (Campus)
Engineering Colleges Law Colleges

Table 1.12 Hafizabad Educational Institutions

There are private schools and colleges which are affiliated to the University of Gujrat in the district.

Figure 1.16 A Primary School in Hafizabad

Figure 1.17 Government Muslim High School, Hafizabad

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. The DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table provides the number of health institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility No./Beds Facility No./Beds
Government Hospitals 02/185 Dispensaries 15/-
Rural Health Centers 06/140 Basic Health Units 31/62
T.B. Clinics 01/- Sub-Health Centers 111/-
Mother Child Health Centers 04/08 Private Hospitals -/-
Private Healthcare Providers[6] 28/383

Table 1.13 Hafizabad Health Institutions

Policing

Deputy Inspector General Police looks after the Gujranwala region which comprises of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Narowal, Mandi Bahauddin, and Hafizabad districts. Hafizabad district is further subdivided into 2 subdivisions, with 10 police stations.[7] The police force in each region is headed by a District Police Officer who is assisted by a varying number of Superintendents and Deputy Superintendents of Police.

[1] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[2] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[3] Pre-Investment Study 2012 Hafizabad District, Directorate of Industries; Punjab; Latest available

[4] Pre-Investment Study 2012 Hafizabad District, Directorate of Industries; Punjab; Latest available

[5] Pre-Investment Study 2012 Hafizabad District, Directorate of Industries; Punjab. ; Latest available

[6] Three Years Rolling Plan, 2010-13, District Hafizabad; Latest available

[7] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[1] Pre-Investment Study Hafizabad District 2012, Directorate of Industries, Punjab; Latest available

[2] Pre-Investment Study Hafizabad District 2012, Directorate of Industries, Punjab; Latest available

[3] Pre-Investment Study Hafizabad District 2012, Directorate of Industries, Punjab; Latest available

[4] Pre-Investment Study Hafizabad District 2012, Directorate of Industries, Punjab; Latest available

[5] Pre-Investment Study Hafizabad District 2012, Directorate of Industries, Punjab; Latest available

[1] Directorate of Industries Punjab, Pre-investment Study, Hafizabad District 2012; Latest available.

[1] District Profile by GO Pakistan; 1998 Census

[1] Fisheries Manual, Fisheries Department Punjab

Environment and Biodiversity

Hafizabad district is mostly rural, with only 27.6% of its population living in urban areas. There is very little industrialization, due to which air quality is good. The only source of air pollution in the district is dust and emissions from vehicular traffic.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Trees commonly found in the district are shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), kikar (Acacia Arabica), sirin (Albizza lebbeck), ber (Ziziphus jujuba), guava, and citrus. In the recent past, some farmers have started cultivating mini forests of poplar (Populas alba), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus cineraria), and sumbal (Bombax cieba). There are some marshy areas along the River Chenab, where water stagnates. These areas are popularly known as Baila, and are also covered with tall grasses, reeds, and spices. Some of the medicinal plants of the district include ispaghol (psyllium), alsi (flax seeds), amaltas (Cassia fistula), babuna (Chamomilla recutita), metheray (fenugreek), harmal (Peganum harmala), kasni (Chickory), til (sesame; white and black), tumah (colocynth), and kamarkus (salvia plebeian).

The Qadirabad Headworks Game Reserve falls under the jurisdiction of Gujrat as well as Hafizabad districts. The aquatic vegetation of this wetland complex includes Carex fedia, Hydrilla verticillata, Nelumbo nucifera, Nymphaea lotus, Phragmites karka, Potamogeton crispus, P. pectinatus, Typha angustata, Vallisneria spiralis, Zannichellia palustris, and Chara sp. The natural vegetation of the surrounding plains is tropical thorn forests, with species such as kikar (Acacia nilotica), karir (Capparis deciduas), jand (Prosopis cineraria), farash (Tamarix aphylla), jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana), jharbar (Z. nummularia), milkweed (Calotropis procera), Eleusine compressa (grass), Erianthus sp., Panicum antidotale, and Saccharum spontaneurn. Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) and kikar (Acacia nilotica) have been extensively planted along nearby roadsides and around agricultural land.

Fauna

Animals like jackals, wild rabbits, foxes, jungle cats, and wild boars are commonly found in the district. Birds like doves, quail, pigeon, crows, parrots, nightingales, and barn owls are common. Various species of ducks, like mallards, and other migratory birds are found in the Qadirabad Game Reserve as well as other water ponds in which fish like mohri, roho, and thalia are also found.

Protected Areas and Endangered Species

At present, there are no protected wildlife areas in the district. Part of the Qadirabad Barrage Reservoir belongs to Hafizabad and provides sanctuary to migratory birds such as common teal, Eurasian teal, mallard, Eurasian coot, purple swamp hen, and the pheasant tailed jacana (both critically endangered) among others.

Picnic/ Recreational Spots and Tourist Attractions

Following are some of the important locations in Hafizabad district:

  • Tomb of Hazrat Shah Sarmast Jalal ud Din Bokhari
  • Tomb of Hazrat Marwan Shah
  • Tomb of Hazrat Khawaja Khizar Sultan Qadri
  • Tomb of Syed Niamat Ali Shah
  • Tomb of Sakhi Sabat Shah
  • St Francis of Assisi Catholic Church, Hafizabad
  • Gurdwara Chhevin Patshahi, also known as Rori Sahib or Killa Sahib
  • Head Sagar: This is a beautiful picnic spot where an irrigation canal passes over a link canal
  • The banks of River Chenab
  • Moon Park

Figure 1.7 Interior of St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Church, Hafizabad

Figure 1.8 Akbari Darwaza (Gate), Hafizabad

Figure 1.9 Gurudwara Chhevin Patshahi, Hafizabad City

Figure 1.10 A Farm near Head Sagar